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SERIAL 37E.E1B K51 v. 5 
The Kindergarten magazine 



SERIAL 372. ElB K51 v. 5 
The Kindergarten magazine 


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Vol. v.— SHPTl^MHHk. i8q2.-N(). i. 


TIME rolls on the Columbus story loses 
lone of its interest, but rather increases 
ind becomes more significant. Not since 
he great deed was done have there l>een 
^uch eyes to .see nor ears to hear, nor 
has the heart of man been so able to 
conceive of its depths as now. 

We have t)nly reached that vantage- 
ground from which we may be able 
to rcali/c the immortality of its humanity, perhaps it is tK'tter 
to say the humanity of its imm«)rtality . We have in the .stilted 
past been too much accustomed to a point of view from which 
we belield the man Columbus as a sort of i»miH)US. .stiff- 
legged, unnatural fellow waving a banner in the presence 
of some frightened Indians in a most wooden fashion. 
This Ct>luml)us has been like .some great Colossus astride 
the ocean, one foot on either continent, which has, in a way, 
isolated him from real human interest and affection. 

His wonderful contribution to human development has 
estranged him from us. The world has stood .so much in awe 
of him that it has enshrined him as some got! : or has gone to 
the other extreme, and, through that envy which Is •'rotten- 
ness to the boms." has haled him and found his deed to have 

2 Coluvibus and the Child. 

been due to "foolhardy seamanship," "good luck." or sim- 
ply the result of a " gold-seeking ambition." 

But in these days of just via7i, when man is more and 
more finding there is "little else worth study" and that 
nothint; but Man is man ; when character, frank and true, is 
the only nobility ; when the clap-trap of titles and robes and 
names amounts to ver>- little ; this is the day when we may 
best search for and find the real Columbus. During a time 
of slavish bondage to rules and rank, regulations and institu- 
tions, he is found to be true to himself and his God. And 
with Browning we may say : 

" The greatest miracle among ye is. 
Here stands a man." 

Mentally, morally, even physically, a most manly man, he is 
de.scribed as commanding of presence, yet affable in manner, 
with humor in the twinkle of his large blue eyes. This man, 
six feet tall, gray with intense inner life at the age of thirty, 
amidst pompous affectation, stands out like a pillar of fire by 
night asserting only self-hood, and exercising that wisdom 
which goes beyond knowledge, and the truth^eeking reader 
finds that his greatness lies where all greatness must, in child- 
like simplicity which amounts to genius, since it is only dis- 
crimination asserting itself and making its own way through 
and often right against information. 

Columbus was a man led by the Spirit of Truth ; as simple 
as a child, so honest and confiding in God and man, so confi- 
dent in himself that his is a figure most typical of that which 
we to-day, more than ever, appreciate, and are striving to 
reach and to teach. And we are better placed in the march of 
the ages to estimate him and know him, than any who have 
gone before us. 

It is strange that, great and simple as he was, we have 
never used his story with the children as it deserves, and as 
those of other hi.storic characters have been. It is probably 
Ixrcause he has become so far removed from anything child- 
like, while, in fact, there never was a truer illustration of 
child-likeness triumphing in the strength that is beyond, or a 

Columbus and the Child. 3 

character better adapted to interest and inspire children. We 
have had too little of the man's own individuality. Colum- 
bus' everyday life has had no place in the world. We know 
nothing al)out //////. It is true we have little record of his 
early days, but we have plenty of what was going on around 
him and abundant material from which a picture of his later 
years may be drawn. It seems as if the dee<l had so com- 
pletely dazzled human eyes that we have nothing left of him 
but it. which in itself argues its immortality. But have we 
not lost somewhat of its humanity in so losing him ? 

It seems then that the time is only ripe when we may with 
real profit to ourselves and to our children, and with only 
justice to a most simple and great man, gather together the 
many points of Columlnis' life, and make them serve for the 
next generation, as have those of Washington's life. 

It is well known how the patriotUm of very young Ameri 
cans is developed in the Kindergarten, through the material 
wliich the life of Washington affords. The plays of " the 
hatchet " and the "feeding of the pony " up to the making 
of the American flag, arouses enthusiasm most joyful and 
lasting. There is something so real about it all. George 
Washington himself stands for Country to the child, who for- 
ever after bears the impress of such teaching. 

What more complete character than Columbus could 
stand {ox' history ^\\iX geoi^raphy to the " intermediate" child? 
What better way to make these two "studies" living than 
by clothing them with such a personality as his ? Columbus, 
the lonely man, linking the two continents together ; he, with 
the piercing eyes, who literally saw n light shining from out 
the Dark Ages ; this scientific, imaginative man whose faith 
was born of God, from whom motlern liistory is dateil : this 
man alone (yet nt>t alone, for God was with him\ makes a 
most commanding figure for the purjwse. 

He was, also, a typical American before America was. in 
becoming a tnan of many countries. An Italian under French 
rule, he became a Portuguese ; also a Spatiinrd : he stood ready 
to be a Frenchman or an ICnglishman,— anything in order to 
find himself and his world ami his work. His jKTSonality 

4 Columbus and the Child. 

can stand for all this, and the child may be taught through 
his life that universalism which is true Americanism. Xot that 
hcro-vvorshii), unrestrained and unnatural, is the motive, but 
that something human may quicken young hearts to affection- 
ately study the times and the places of peoples, of which our 
times, our country and its people are the result. Then history 
and geography are to the children living links, leading to 
their own lives and times. Time does not then seem to be 
history, and place does not seem to be geography. But how 
cruelly hard they are, history and geography, as abstractions. 
They are than arithmetic, for they have not the beau- 
tiful rhythm of numbers. As "studies" only, nothing real 
fits together, nothing human nor inhuman builds itself up in 
the mind. 

This Columbus experiment has latelj- been on trial. An 
"intermediate " boy of moderate powers, who had been list- 
lessly drawing maps — he enjoyed the drawing — and learning 
about the "productions," and cities and towns and countries, 
as though they grew in the book, awoke as from a sleep when 
it was all made living to him by a few " talks on Columbus." 
The Dark Ages were dark ages, and were most fascinating. 
All Eoirope, even Asia, became a place where human feet had 
trod, and the Mediterranean Sea was alive with real people. 
The hi.story of it all could hardly be told fast enough. The 
Portuguese with their peerings down the African coast and 
about, and finally around the Cape of Good Hope (while Col- 
umbus was at last out in the midst of the great ocean sea), all 
made geography a living thing. 

Questions as to what kind of boats Columbus had and 
everybody had ; the kind of things he did not have and that 
nobody had ; whether there were found whirling places of 
boiling water down there or the good hope of getting on 
around Africa ; the length of time it took to go a few hundred 
miles through the mud to bury Queen Isabella, anything in 
the world in any way connected with some person, and that 
per.son one who could be loved and respected, commanded 
complete attention. This young boy has since walked 
straight into his dry work. 

Columbus and the Child. 5 

Though we have so few accounts of the early life of 
Columbus and much of his history is involved in bitter dis- 
cussion, wc yet have cnouj^h solid fact at hand to make a 
thread on which to string the interesting and the uninterest- 
ing things of history and geography. If only they have Ix-en 
something to somebotly we find human hearts and human 
minds warm towards them. Mental powers perform but poor 
work when the heart is not enlisted. Columbus' own terse 
observation covers the ground when he says " where there is 
no affection all the rest is as nothing." 

There are, then, two reasons why Columbus is exactly the 
character on whom and around whom we may bestow much 
study. The first, as we have already tried to see, because he 
occupies such relaticjiiship to history and geography, and 
second, because, his is, in .spite of much effort to make it 
otherwise, a most worthy personality.* He is certainly good 
enough to be canoni/ed in the minds of American children as 
a figure impersonating history and geography, as well as the 
Finder of our Country. He, more than any one person, was 
the bringer of light into the Dark Ages. (The little b. c. may 
well stand for " before Columbus" since the Crusades, the Fall 
of the Roman Empire and every event in all history 
and geography may be dated before or after Columbus.) His 

*U iH yet very prul>al>le that the ({rratnt »taiu uiiuii hi» character wilt be wboUy 
removcU ; that is, his su-cnllcil illicit cuiineciiuti with lieatrii Hiiritjue* The Ule«t 
Bchulars iu Cohiiuliiun literature and in oriKinnI documents arc much morvd by tbc 
facts ns they tiiivcil themselves under the inlenvc present research There u nudooM 
but tlial evidence shall yet be uncoverctt, if it doe* nut already rxi»T ' - lh« 

fact that Itealri/. wa> his lawful wife It is true, nt lea»t. that tberr I* \ «i- 

dence to llie contrary except that ■Columbu* in hU will iuentu>u* He_..-. — ; .,ae« 
by name withuut ndding the title of wife " Tbi<> i« very weak eviilence indeed, w^all 
know. That she wns not his wife i» only an implication ou the part of men wbu baw 
nut iinderstouil this, or how to uccuunt for his wifele«» U«t day* That «he w«» liviaf. 
but was absent from his side during his \ii\ra\ honor*, and tbiuuicb bis (tthiacqucal 
soriows nnd degrmlution in very sadly tnie, t>til there are a tbottaand mure conaiatmt 
reasons why this uiiKht be ao, than the one invented by an uHsoirr lawyer " To 
ipiote further from n late writer. DulWiis. on the subject, will »u%«er the )/miy Bm k 
for the present brief p.'i|)er. " .MthoiiKh Columbus wtu li>a«lol wilh calumny dariac 
his life-time, nu one dreninctl of <len>iin: *ii .i>«mrt/t- '. ^ ■.,,.■. «,?•■ (h« aofalc 
house of Arniin, or of liuesiioiiinic the le|{i(iniacy of hi " TW 

ufKument of common sense may l>e appliett in ll«airu ^ -wn tlwl 

her two brothers suiletl with Colnmbita upon two uf bl* raynKes in a dwtmcitiahcd 
position of trust under the .\ilniiral Would the suns of a uutde house Ibus c owd t w it 
for their sister's dishonor > • • s • The alander U of modem origin ♦ • ♦ • 

6 Columbus and the Child. 

place in histor>' make it possible ; his practical, conscientious, 
scientific, clean and many-sided character makes it possible ; 
his j^reat deed makes it possible, and to one who has given it 
much thought and reading, it seems, not only practicable, but 
most fitting and just, that Columbus be made a center-point, 
marking the close of one era and the beginning of a new, at 
least to the child student. 

The warm-hearted childlike man who so desired to be of 
service, who so loved to be loved, who was always so gentle 
and dignified, were he living, would ask for no greater place 
in the world than to be enshrined in the hearts of thinking 
American Ijoys and girls. His patient heroism far removed 
from mere adventure is so different in its influence upon 
young minds from much of the exciting reading they find 
nowadays, that the stimulus of heroism such as his is more 
like that of the Greeks, and stamps it with immortal interest. 

Mary H. Hull. 


The uu>-crupuloii.s attorney lost his case and the affair remained forgotten until in iSoS 
Napione, followed by sportono and Navarette revived the unwarranted assumption 
with eagerness." We all know how Irving and others have followed these writers. 
So much for this writer who then in a charming story " Columbus and Bealriz" pro- 
ceeds to advance the theory that Columbus' lonely last days may be accounted for on 
the ground that, under the desperate influence of awful peril to all records of what 
he liad been led of God to discover, during the storm on the return trip of his fiist voy- 
age, when, during this peril lots fell thrice to him as the Jonah, he must vow to 
heaven some great sacrifice. It is also well known, that he was pKJwerfully under the 
influence of the Franci.scans. and that he was already a Tertiary, so the theory is that 
he then and there secretly vowed a sacrifice of" all earthly happiness, the tender ties 
of conjugal affection, wife and children, home and kindred" for the .safety of all at 
stake and on board. This is theory only, but is it not more consistent with his well 
known thrislian character than the one which so degrades him— though the world 
has been too willing to condone it in him— and the degradation of the beautiful young 
woman of Cordova and the son who was alwa\s a most honorable man ? But there is 
more than theory at hand at present, for manuscripts are found where Columbus calls 
her" wife." Columbus' other deficiencies such as "deceit" and his slave-trading 
proclivities, may all well be relegated to the tendencies and cu.stoms of the times, for 
while Columbus was harmless he yet had the wi.sdom that was essential in a great 



X JULY, 1889, but a decade ago, a 
handful of progressive KinderKartners 
led by a few proiniiient educators in 
])nblic school lines, united in forming 
a Kindergarten department, tributary 
to the general National Teachers' As- 
sociation, which was at that time in 
its twenty-fourth annual session at 
Saratoga. N. Y. 

Ten years ago Kindergarten was far from being a popular 
movement. The new department was forced to work its way 
in the midst of great discouragements, outside as well as in- 
side the educational profession. It was brought, like all 
similar reform movements, face to face with prejudice, skepti- 
cism, ignorance and ridicule. 

It helil its own, however, from year to year. j>reseme<l an 
annual progratn to its members, gaining here a little more re- 
spect, there a trifle more encouragement and vantage-ground. 
As its representatives proved the system higher, year by year. 
stronger papers and more worthy discu.ssions were brought out 
at the N. E. A., and one by one progressive educators paused 
in ]>assing by the Kindergarten door to hear what was being 
.said inside. 

The growth of the work at large was steady and quiet, 
and success followed the effort* of those whose one involuntar>' 
motive was staunch conviction. Schoolmen have not been 
blind to these marks of progress, sonie have iK'gun to investi- 
gate, others, imiwlled by its force, have undertaken the 

8 The Momeyitum of the Nezv Ediuation. 

experiment, or enthusiastically supported its furtherance. The 
very fact that this new sense of the true purpose of education, 
as embodied in the Kindergarten, has dawned so gradually 
and persistently, is proof that it is the action of progress, and 
not the result of accident or personal propelling. 

The Kindergarten department in time presented remark- 
able exhibits of its work at the convention. It held the atten- 
tion of all such as believe in fruits as arguments in favor of a 
cause. Casual visitors and parents examined these exhibits of 
work, amazed at the possibilities of child effort and execution. 
Teachers of high grades walking through aisle after aisle of 
Kindergarten product, seeing the skillful, beautiful, edu- 
cational handwork, looked at each other and .said, " This 
means .something." College and Academy men looked it all 
over carefully, and calculated the invaluable mental discipline 
and development as well as the psychological weight of 
thought objectified, and confessed "There are some good 
points here." 

To-day manual, technological training is universally ac- 
ceptable, is in fact the consummation most greatly desired by 
all progressive schoolmen. The so-called theo?y of the Kin- 
dergarten system, iiad hitherto been considered by pedagogues 
merely from the standpoint of historic incident. They are 
being and have been convinced of its practical expediency by 
the demonstrations made in faith, by true Kindergartners all 
over this and other countries. A decade of quiet, steady, 
growing proof, is in itself a fulfillment of what the system 
has in Tracing this natural evolution of the work- 
ings of the Kindergarten, we come to-day where we stand in 
the midst of an educational renaissance, the reformatory light 
of which is already enveloping every phase of school work. 

The Kindergarten as one of the messengers of this revival, 
is everywhere knocking at educational doors, from academy 
to road-.side .schoolhouse. The alphabet of this miscalled 
"theory," is being learned by university dean and college 
fellow, and is being found to spell out meanings of higher, 

Tlu- Momentum of the New Education. 9 

purer and sounder education. These signs were all visible to 
those present at the recent N. E. A, convention. There was 
but one keynote apparent in all the leading addresses and 
papers, — an earnest appeal for the living truth in education. 

The addresses of welcome made in the 0{H:n air of Con- 
gress Park, and responded to in the most cordial and candid 
manner by President Harrison, was a happy opening to the 
program. There were several spirited sessions of the general 
assembly which deserve a place of mention in this editorial 
review. The program devoted to the discussion of " Ethical 
Culture" attracted great general interest. The very fact that 
an entire forenoon was given to this subject, and presided over 
by some of the most brilliant members of the Association, is 
in it.self noteworthy. 

President Irwin Shcpard, of the Winona Normal School, 
opened the symposium with " Ethics in the Kindergarten." 
He spoke from the facts of his own experiments and proofs of 
the possibilities and opportunities of early child training. 
Mr. Shepard has been one of the pioneer friends of the Kin- 
dergarten movement, and has satisfied himself on the debat- 
able points, by testing them in his schools, with children 
under ordinary conditions. Therefore his word on this sul>- 
ject is ami always has been eagerly receive<l. 

Mrs. Delia Lathrop Williams, of Delaware. O.. discussed 
"ICthics in Elementary and Secontlary Schools." uncovering 
many but partially acknowledged errors in present methods. 
The moral management of departments in general she 
found to be in neeil of great reform, and recommended as a 
remedy more heart work and sympathetic communion l)etwe«n 
teachers and children, — sentiment and more honest pur- 

Chancellor James H. Canfield. of Lincoln. Neb., in his 
own spirited western way. jiresentcd 'Ethics in the College and 
University." His expose of the unrighteousness tolerateil in 
and by the heads of faculties was so forceful and candid, that 

lo The Momentuvi of the New Education. 

the entire audience was stirred to a hearty support of his 

The tendency in all these discussions was most emphatic- 
ally in the direction of the accountability of the teacher, his 
or her honesty, sincerity and humanity, and less in discussion 
of external means of bringing out these qualities in pupils. 
In short, ethical culture must begin at home, before it can 
reach out to its next door neighbor, though the latter be only 
a child in the primary grade. 

An interesting morning discussion was held on the sub- 
ject of " Literature, Its Influence On all Grades, Classes and 
People." Hamilton W. Mabie, editor of the Christian Union, 
New York, took up the discussion of "Books for Teachers." 
In clear argument he set forth the culture advantages to be de- 
rived from "the habit of reading" and deplored the apathy 
sure to follow the narrower life of a teacher or any one, who 
did not take advantage of this highway out into the great 
universe of thought. 

Superintendent A. G. Lane, of the Chicago schools, gave 
a most comprehensive description of the " Educational Repre- 
sentation at the Columbian Exhibition." Mr. Lane was made 
president of the Association for 1892-93. 

Among other papers of peculiar interest was that of A. S. 
Draper, formerly of Albany, N. Y., on the "Duty of the 
State to the Kindergarten," also that of Mr. James L. Hughes 
of Toronto, " The Relationship between Spontaneity and Con- 
trol." The latter paper handled the hitherto vexed question 
of how much spontaneity should infringe on law and order. 
The .schoolmaster has been given to between the two, 
but finds they must go hand in hand. 

Mr. James McAllister, of the Philadelphia Drexel Insti- 
tute, was warmly greeted and most closely followed as he gave 
a .series of a.spects of the New in Education. He touched on 
the renai.ssance as emblematic of modern reform, placing the 
clas.sics, manual training and practical experience as the emi- 

The Momentum of the New Education. \ i 

iiciit factors of the new education, as a means and not an end. 
He made an eloquent appeal that the hand and the spirit Ix: 
remarried, and intellectual and executive ability l>e united. 
and that education, which is as broad as man himself, should 
seek to bring the individual into relation with his whole 

Many equally tellinj? papers were presented to the differ- 
ent special departments, on specific phases of their work. We 
have reviewed those of general representative workers, to 
illustrate our claim to an educational renaissance. Each 
department of the organized teachers' a.s.sociation, as well as 
of the work at large, should keep closely in touch with the 
growing sentiments of every other, and so keep in true rela- 
tionship to all others. 

Kindergartners, as educators, cannot afford to overlook the 
slightest movement on the face of the waters. 


OT yet has the day quite run to its 
close in which the popular supersti- 
tion obtained that, with almost no 
qualifying circumstances, love is 
synonymous wdth ability to train 
children. Not a few of us, I fancy, 
are familiar with the stereotyped 
answer to questions put to a can- 
didate who contemplates adopting the Kindergarten as a 
profession . 

" Oh, I know I shall succeed, for I love children ? " And 
most of us recognize, in that same confident candidate the 
girl who, finding herself incapable in other directions, has 
turned her face to the Kindergarten, because " one does n't 
have to know anything, especially, to teach such little 
children ! " 

The day for this has not gone by. But fortunately for the 
children, its sands have run low in the glass. The truth has 
begun at the top and is working downward. The continued, 
forcefully uttered convictions of educational thinkers, in con- 
junction with the practical and undeniable good wrought by 
our hundreds of Kindergartens, the country over, are compell- 
ing a general recognition of the fact that the Kindergarten is, 
of all training grounds, the most difficult and delicate that 
a teacher can elect. Yet in spite of the unquestionable 
results of the work of the Kindergarten, there still remains an 
infinite deal for us to do, before it .shall be impressed upon the 
universal mind that our motto is a double one. Not love 

• Read before the Kiudergartcii Department of the N. E. A., at Saratoga, July 15 

Practical Psychology. 13 

alone, but love and intelligence is the standard of the Kinder- 
gartner of the twentieth century. 

A mistaken estimate of the province of the Kindergarten is 
what lies behind us, too often due, in a measure, to a narrow 
view of the question, even within our own ranks. Hut except 
to keep our mi.stakes in mind as warnings, looking back is, as 
a rule, unprofitable. What concerns us now is, not the past, 
but the immediate work of the present and the glowing en- 
couragement and high hope of the future. 

Let us then ask ourselves these questions ; What is the 
urgent need of our coming Kindergartners ? And how shall 
we best meet it ? 

In Harper's iox May, 1892, Miss Anna C. Brackett gives 
this definition of a teacher: "A teacher," she says, "might 
be defined as one to whom everything that children do or say 
has become a sign. She therefore loses much careless amuse- 
ment which other people find in their sayings and doings, and 
she shrinks with a protest which she has often no right to ex- 
press, from many an account of the subjects which are being 
taught to them, or the ways in which they have responded to 
some way of managing." 

There is here a hint of answer to both our questions: "One 
to whom everything that children do or say has become a 
sign." That simply means that a teacher recognizes the 
necessity of studying children, soul, mind and body, and to do 
this to good purpose she must l^e endowed with abundant love, 
with ([uick, accurate judgment, with infinite patience and 
tact, and she must have attained to scientific exactness in 
as.sociatiiig effects with causes. This, in a word, refutes the 
popular notion that love is enough, were we (juite without 
evidence of the injury done to children by loving but unwise 
parents and teachers who, with all the good-will in the world. 
lack other most essential qualifications. 

My plea is not for psychology. There is no need nowa- 
days to urge that. fi)r the demand for higher standards for 
Kindergartners has resulted already in the introiluction of the 
study of psychology in every training school that wishes to 
keep abreast with the times. 

r^ Practical Psychology. 

"What is to be expected," asks Herbert Spencer, in a 
wonderfully clear-cut, searching page or two of his book on 
Educatiou, " what is to be expected when one of the most in- 
tricate of problems is undertaken by those who have given 
scarcely a thought to the principles on which its solution de- 
pends ? For shoe-making or house-building, for the manage- 
ment of a ship or a locomotive engine, a long apprenticeship 
is needed. Is it, then, that the unfolding of a human being 
in body and mind is so comparatively simple a process that 
any one may superintend and regulate it with no preparation 
at all ? If not — if the process is with one exception more 
complex than any in nature, and the task of administering it 
one of surpassing difficulty, is it not madness to make no pro- 
vision for such a task ? ' ' 

In the introduction of psychology we do recognize the 
vital need of such preparation. But what we have is not 
enough, or rather it is not adequate, and it can never hold its 
true place of importance until " everything that children do 
or say shall have become a sign," with psychology as partial 

How many pupils of our training classes go out from their 
graduating exercises with the book, psychology, at their 
tongue's end, but with the thing, psychology, as yet a closed 
volume to them ! And what profits it that the words are 
theirs, that book statements of principles of development are 
theirs, while all those things are to be of no living value in 
the Kindergarten with the little children? It is "as if one 
should be ignorant of nothing concerning the scent of violets," 
says George Eliot, " except the scent itself, for which one has 
no nostril." 

There are three ways of studying psychology. One is, as 
I have said, from the book. Another is from the child him- 
self. But the third way — the method which we seek — com- 
bines the other two, and gives us a Kindergartner who turns 
instinctively to the child for a knowledge of his little being, 
and who has her way thereto smoothed and shortened by the 
combined observation of all thoughtful child-observers before 
her. .She thus becomes not only a student of psychology, but 

Practical Psychology. 15 

a discoverer as well. And l^ecause she has the individual as 
well as the general nature with which to deal, it is especially 
necessary that she shall thus apply her studied psychology, 
and formulate an experimental psychology of her own. 

Let me go back a paragraph to illustrate what I mean 
when I say that jjsychology to the ordinary pupil is only a 
book, and unfortunately a closed book, after her training. I 
beg you to bear in mind that my illustrations are from life. 

Examine the average Kindergarten candidate upon the 
order in which faculties develop, let us say. Ask her to go 
.somewhat into detail. She will no doubt tell you, among 
other things, that as an understanding of the concrete ante- 
dates an understanding of the abstract, children can do what 
they .see done earlier than they can do what they are asked to 
do in language. I have heard such answers glibly given. 
Later. I have seen the same girls in their Kindergartens, 
dictating work to children who were utterly confused by it. be- 
cause they had not yet reached the point of being able to fol- 
low language una.ssisted by the thing for which the language 
stood. I remember distinctly one such case. The Kinder- 
gartner was a bright girl, who required only suggestion to .set 
her thinking intelligently. I took her class without explain- 
ing to her her mistake. I built as I dictated, and ever>- little 
child, listening to me almost unconsciously, and watching and 
completing every move I made, finished the fonn in delight 
over his successes. Afterwards, when the children were deep 
in the joys of invention. I said to the Kindergartner. who had 
exclaimed at their aptitude : 

" Do you remember anything in your study of psychology 
about the necessity of i)ulling things before words with the 
smallest children ? " 

Yes, certainly she did. She rememl>ered even the heading 
of the paragraphs. 

"Well, that is it," I answered, pointing to my finished 
form. " Vou need to translate ytnir book into everyday life." 

She looked at me as if a light hail ilawned upon her. 
Yet she must have had that toUl her in her training over 
and over again. There lay part of the trouble. Hatl she 

i6 Practical Psychology. 

also been sent into a class of children, and had she been 
directed to observe in their presence the close friendship with 
which theory and practice clasp hands, she would have looked 
at one principle of her psychology as a thing to be taken out 
of a page and woven into a life. 

I recall the case of another Kindergartner who was much 
in earnest in her work. She was in despair at her failure in 
the management of one child. 

" I have tried to study that boy," she said, " but all my 
appeals to him seem futile." 

As I sat and watched the little fellow, who was certainly 
full of the liveliest and most misdirected of spirits, I heard 
her say, 

" Now, Paul, you want to be a good man, don't you, 

" No, I don't," responded the small mortal, with startli^^ 
promptness. " ' 

And in despair she sent him back to his seat, utterly at a 
loss what else to do. 

Afterward I said, " Your trouble is that you do not study 
that child in the light of your psychology, and you are not 
yet experienced enough to use your judgment with effect. If 
you had done the former you would have appealed to Paul's 
desire for activity instead of to an impossible desire to attain 
a certain good, many years in the future. Children live in 
the present, and they must have exercise." 

The truth was that Paul had finished his work before the 
rest of the class, and having nothing further to make for him- 
self he was attempting to unmake the work of the other chil- 
dren. This young Kindergartner knew it all as well as I did. 
But she had left it all behind her in her book at the training 

Every school girl knows that repetition is one of the ordi- 
nary conditions of memory', and can tell you so when she is 
aware that you are asking her a psychological question. She 
also knows that a thing done once is the beginning of a habit, 
and that the oftener the action is repeated, the stronger grows 
the forming habit, right or wrong. Yet with both those bits 

Practical Psychology. 17 

of knowledge in her store, ready for use if only she knew how 
to use them, over and over again does she do something like 
the following : 

The clay was warm and the children were restless. One 
touched his companion lightly on the back of the neck, in 
playful good humor. The other, of course, with a little 
laugh, responded. The play grew fiercer. Both hands were 
used. The second child began to dislike what was fast turn- 
ing into unpleasant teasing. Finally there came .slaps, pro- 
tests, a call to the Kindcrgartner, two unhappy, 
children removed from the table, and a disturbed class. 

fte. . • children had gone home, I recalled this little 
inc. dent to the Kindergartner's mind. 

" You could have anticipated the outcome of that with the 
first touch," I said. " It could have ended in no other way. 
Whose fault was it ? If your little children are taught to 
respect one another's persons, and to touch no child without 
that child's permission, that never would have hap|Kned." 

"I do try to break them of the habit of touching one 
another," she said. But as she herself told me. on further 
thought, she had forgotten two things, both tending to one 
result. First, that to help a child to rememl)er he must in the 
beginning be reminded constantly and continually ; the repeti- 
tion must follow every violation of the rule. And secondly, 
she forgot that a habit strengthens every time it is given a 
chance to a.ssert itself. Therefore we both concluded that the 
children had been j)unished for the indirect fault of the Kin- 

I might multiply instances, were two or three not sufficient 
to make my meaning evident. I might tell you of the Kin- 
dergartner who said she had been " through the Ixxik " six 
ti,pies and who literally expressed the truth. When it came 
to practical work there was nothing to show for it. Another 
Kimlergarlner said, if one learned the printed words exactly 
as they were given, that was enough to insure a good exam- 
ination mark. This was of course true, if an examination be 
the ol)ject in view of any study. But if the end to l)c attamed 
be an understanding of mental and moral science— and we 

VOL.— v.— NO. 1. 2 

1 8 Practical Psychology. 

presume that teachers who are in earnest look beyond the 
examination to the children for whose training they will be 
responsible — then we must protest against so flagrant a viola- 
tion of one of psychology's own principles, in placing words, 
the symbols, before ideas, the things. 

There are some points which the average Kindergartner, 
as a rule, need only to have suggested in order to put them 
into practice. Among these are such evident truths as the 
necessity for constant use of the senses ; the need of variety 
and change in attitude and work ; the importance of interest, 
if attention is to be held. One does n't often hear a Kinder- 
gartner say to a child, " I think you ought to have remem- 
bered " that story or this song. She usually remembers 
herself the conditions attendant upon memory, and recog- 
nizes when hers is the fault for forgetfulness in the child. 
But there are some matters which are less directly evident, and 
these are apt to prove the Hills Difficult to beginners. What 
methods of correction, for example, shall one best employ, in 
hundreds of varying circumstances, with hundreds of different 
children ? That is not always an easy question to answer. 
But one is at least helped toward its solution if one acts on the 
general principle that the correction should be a logical result 
of the action. 

In one Kindergarten the teacher had certainly grasped 
that principle firmly, and acted upon it with clear, sure judg- 
ment, deliberation and impressiveness. 

The occupation was painting. One child was disin- 
clined to work and did not try. The result was a .spoiled, 
smeared paper. When all had finished, the Kindergartner 
herself collected the papers. Without comment she passed 
the spoiled piece by, leaving it on the table. After examin- 
ing and talking with the children about the collected work, 
she walked to the table, took up the ruined piece of paper, 
and saying quietly, " This is n't fit to use. Mary did n't try," 
she crumbled it in her hand and threw it into the waste- 
basket. There was a dead pause. Mary turned .scarlet, then 
burst into tears. Very gravely the Kindergartner turned. 

Practical Psychology. 19 

"Was that my fault? Next time, I think, Mary will have 
as well clone a piece to take home as any one else." 

It was a most impressive lesson. The i)erfect quiet of the 
KiiulL-rgartner's manner throu^ihout, her j;rave. grieved face, 
her few words, each powerful with meaning, awed the entire 
class. Every child felt the justice of that tiuiel, " was that 
my fault?" And the encoura>;ement given in the last woi'ds, 
the hope for better work in future, quite took away the bitter- 
ness of Mary's tears. The correction had followed in the 
direct line of the fault. It was absolutely impersonal on the 
Kindergartner's part. She was applying her general princi- 
ple, and using her good judj^ment to fit it to an indiHdual 

Another fact that a beginner may forget is that a little 
child is absorbed only in such {)resentations of gift, occupation, 
talk, as are not abstract to him, as hold an element of famil- 
iarity, and possess a living daily interest. One who remem- 
bers this will see, for instance, that almost all the forms the 
children make, whether of knowledge, life or beauty, are forms 
of life. They may still be forms of knowledge or beauty, 
as, "Let us make the cake Alice had for her birthday, and 
see how tnany forms we can turn t)ut of the moultl." •' Let 
us lay some of the flower-beds, or borders, in Alice's garden. 
We want them just as beautiful as possible." And behold, 
we have squares, oblongs, trian).;les. what not : or tasteful 
designs worked in opposites from a center, or from side to 
side, in border patterns. All these life forms are associated 
in the child's niintl with things he knows and loves. And 
these other new things, which he is just learning to know 
are thus .so closely coiniectetl with familiar objt-cts that he 
finds it no task to remember them. What languor, what 
tepid interest would attend a frecpient request for squares, 
oblongs, triangles, as geometric forms only. Then, if as a 
novelty, there comes an intentionally excx'plional exercise. 
which, by the mystery and brceziness of the Kindergartner's 
manner, carries with it an element of exj^ctaucy. is thai not 
an inspiration to the wailing, womlering class ? 

20 Practical Psychology. 

"Now. to-day, who would like to do something very 

Childhood is valiant, and dares even the impossible. So 
all are eager to try. 

"Then out of these tablets which I give you, see who can 
fit together pieces to make a square, an oblong, and a triangle. 
If any one finishes, and thinks of something else, he may 
make it, if he tells me how many tablets he wants, and of 
what kind." 

There are the elements of familiaritj' and of novelty, of 
expectancy, of .something to be overcome, and the delightful 
prospect of an own idea beyond, to be worked out later — a 
most important consideration, by the by, and worth all the 
dictated work in the world, if one had to between 

One might enlarge indefinitely upon the subject of my 
paper, for, turn as we may, as soon as one enters a school or a 
Kindergarten, the problem of practical psychology confronts 

So we turn to our second question — how shall the urgent 
need of applied psychology in the Kindergarten be met ? 

Manifestly, it lies primarily with the trainer. It is for her 
to start the coming teachers, and to point the way they are to 
take. For a few .steps only can she tread it with them. But 
the direction in which she sets their faces is the doing or the 
undoing of hundreds of little children yet unborn. 

To make psychology a living study while the student is 
yet in the training class, requires, above all, a constant appli- 
cation of each of its tenets as each is learned. The place to 
accomplish this is in the ob.serving class. It seems to me a 
feasible plan for the trainer to require from her pupils illus- 
trations along every line of p.sychological principles, which 
they shall themselves think out in the Kindergarten in which 
they observe. If a class have been studying the value of 
.sense-training, let that be the text for their reports and the 
direction for their observation. Let them intelligently watch 
the children, with their class lesson in mind. Let them note 
the eagerness with which they stretch out their hands to 

Practical Psychology. 21 

grasp ; the desire to touch, to examine for themselves, the 
lack of interest with wliich they receive an object at second- 
hand, through verbal description ; the exceptions to thu*. 
And from all they have seen, let them be shown how to make 
their conclusions. 

The average pupil will not think thus of applying her 
psychology unless her interest and attention are enlisted by 
the suggestive help and the requirements of her trainer. 
Have no fear that mean while the observation of methods will 
be overlooked, in the endeavor to find out by original inquiry 
the reasons why methods are either g()cj<l or bad. Those will, 
assuredly, not escape the student, and in her practical appli- 
cation of principle, she is preparing herself not only to note 
well good methods, but to do an hundredfold l)etter. She is 
developing the power to modify and adapt, and to make her 
own good methods, fitting them to different conditions and 
children. In a word, if one trains a young girl to make her 
theory practical, one has made her an independent thinker 
and an invaluable teacher. 

That is where it begins, — right in the Kindergarten 
training school. Yet, there are hundreds among us out of 
the training school, still inexperienced, still wondering how 
psychology ma> be made practical. 

I, by no njeans intend to indicate that one must be coi:- 
tinually actively conscious of one's psychology. It soon be- 
comes by constant use a habit of thought, an incor|>orated 
part of one's way of dealing with children. Hut I would 
earnestly urge that when a Kindergartner finds she has made 
a mistake, she look for its cause and its remedy in a violation 
and in an application of a principle of education, as well as 
in her own manner and attitude, and in the special child's 
special peculiarity. The Kindergartner. the individual child, 
and children as a class — these form the important triple alli- 
ance of the Kindergarten. And in searching for causes of 
success or failure, not one of these allies can with safely be 

If. in addition to all else she shall have gainc<I in her 
training cla»^s, the Kindergartner, going out of one door as a 

22 September. 

pupil to enter in at another as a teacher, bears with her a 
clear understanding of the ways in which psychology can be 
an everyday help to her; if she patiently examines all her 
results in the light of herself, the children and the science of 
mind and morals ; if in a word, she be both loving and intelli- 
gent, it must be a question of months only, before every 
Kindergartner, in spite of paradox, shall be an exceptional 
teacher, " one to whom everything that children do or say has 
become a sign." 

Constance Mackenzie, 
'Director of Public Kindergartens, Philadelphia, Pa. 


Asters as blue as can be, golden-rod tasseled and tall. 

Red 'mid the green of the tree — is not this the coming of Fall ? 

Apples in piles on the ground, birds in a flock on the wall, 
Barley in yellow sheaves bound — are not these tokens of Fall ? 

Chipmunk with nuts in his cheek, Brook going past with a 

drawl ; 
All things abroad gently speak of the coming footsteps of 

Lavinia S. Goodwin. 
— From Our Little Men and Women. 


OMENIUS, the great Bohemian educator (1592-1670) 
(lid not cf)iifiiic his proposals of reform to the school. 
He considered the home and the family essential fac- 
tors in education, and included them in his proposals 
of reform. He may be said to have laid the foundatiiMi for 
what is at present called the system of object-lessons. His 
great work, entitled "The World in Pictures." went through 
a number of re-issues, was translated into many languages, 
and was remodeled many times by subsequent teachers. His 
most remarkable ideas found expression in his proposals for 
a "mother school," by which name he sij^nified home edu- 
cation. He insisted that education should l>egin from the 
cradle and be continued in the nursery and the home. The 
head educator in these places was to Ix; the mother, for 
which reason he called it the "mother school." The pro- 
posal failed to produce practical results until Frobel rendered 
all women able to act up to it, by the publication of his 
" Mothers' Hook." 

Xone of the successors of Comenius was more read and had 
a greater innuence upon educators than Rousseau (1712- 
1778). This erratic genius s;iiil more poinletlly and much 
more emphatically than all his predecessors that education 
must be in agreement with the talents, the |M)wers, the needs 
and the rights of the learner, that is to say, that it 
must be natural ; and that teachers make a mistake in look- 
ing for the ailult man in the child instead of treating the lat- 
ter accoriling to his child nature. ideas were adopted 
by Pestalozzi and Froebel as most essential principles of edu- 
cation. But it is a mistake to credit Rousseau with the 
invention of the Kindergarten, as was done by educators of 
note. He merely insisteil upon an education according to 

24 Kmdergartcn and Public School. 

nature as many had done before him, and in trying to point 
out the way for practically carrying out his suggestions, he 
enunciated some \^xy good general ideas but failed to show 
with success how they could be employed in real education. 
Now, to give expression to good ideas, is not the same as the 
practical application of them. The former may be a good 
system which is, however, useless unless carried out by a good 
method. Rou.sseau's ideas did good work in arousing the 
activity of methodical teachers, as the suggestions of Mon- 
taigne had done. But it was reserved to practical educators 
like Comenius and Froebel to transform the ideas into meth- 
ods which professional teachers are able to use in the educa- 
tion of childhood like that of the Kindergarten. 

The first to avail himself of the ideas of Rousseau was 
Pestalozzi (1746-1827). Pestalozzi says of "Emile," the 
great educational work of Rousseau: "My impractical 
dreamy mind was seized with enthusiasm on perusing this 
book which is also impractical and dreamy in the highest de- 
gree. I compared \\\y own education, received in the corner 
of the parlor of my mother, and at school, with the educa- 
tion of Emile as described by Rousseau. The home educa- 
tion and the public school education of the whole world 
appeared to me like a cripple by the side of the grand ideas 
enunciated by Rousseau." And he tried to carry out these 
ideas and did not even perceive himself that he started from 
an entirely different basis. Rousseau demanded his pupils to 
be isolated from the world, Pestalozzi wanted a thoroughly 
social education. In fact Pestalozzi's agreement with Rous- 
seau may be said to have been limited to the principle, that 
education should follow the natural development of the senses 
instead of the deductive plan pursued by the majority of edu- 
cators. Pestalozzi, following Rousseau, demands further, that 
"the education of mankind should be determined by man's 
own essential nature," and, independent of Rousseau, he says 
" that the education of the people (including tuition, or school 
studies) should be managed by the mothers." Pleasant as 
the sound of such impracticable principles may fall upon the 
ear of the enthusiast in the educational field, they are utterly 

Kindergarten and Public School. 25 

useless unless accompanied by an instruction in the method by 
which they can be rendered serviceable in real education. 

But of method Pestaloz/i had no more idea than Rousseau. 

The (lifTereiice between the meanings of the words " sys- 
tem " and "method " must not be overlooked. A sy.stem is 
a theory, or a science founded up<in a i)rinciple. A method is 
a manner or mode of practically carrying out a system. An 
educational sy.stem, to be practically available, requires a cor- 
responding method which is a co<le of rules applying the 
principles of the system to the events occurring in the daily 
course of living up to, that is of educating by, the system. A 
system may be good but yield bad results, if there is not a 
method suited to the system. 

We need not go far out of our way to find schools where 
splendid systems are proclaimed and the practical results of 
the curriculum are unsatisfactory. Those who take notice of 
such a school, will arrive at estimates of its value frequently 
directly contradictory. Listening to the head master's clear 
and enthusiastic commendation of his superior mo<lern system, 
some are touched with his enthusiasm and convinced that the 
school is in an excellent condition. Other people, walking past 
the head master and looking at the results obtained by the 
actual teaching, that is, at what the pupils really leant and 
can do, will find the results unsatisfactory and will pronounce 
an opinion altogether comlemning the school. In such a case 
it is very likely that both these opinions are only partially 
correct. The good system cannot fail to produce some go<Kl 
results which it may be diflicult to find out. The bad results 
are probably confined to those subjects more or less seriously 
affected by the deficient method. It retpjires a well-trained 
and experienced eilucator to decide the case without doing 
injustice. It is always diflicult to find a teacher equally 
strong in his methoil and in his system. In many ca.scs it 
woultl be advisable to have two heads to a school, one to in- 
fuse his enthusiasm Into the members of the faculty and to 
keeji them steady to his systematic principles, and the other 
to supervise ami ilirect the practical course of tuition, that is. 
to manage the method in accordance with the system. 

26 Kindergarten and Public School. 

This is what Diesterweg did in respect of the system of 
Pestalozzi. who had no method whatever. His principle of 
arousing the activity of the senses and of stengthening the 
perceptive faculties of the mind by natural means, were re- 
ceived as correct and were made the ruling principle of the 
German elementary schools ( Volks-schule ) by Diesterweg. 
This famous educator reduced the Pestalozzian system to a 
good practical method. In this form it has since been adopted 
not only in Germany but, more or less completely, in all the 
countries that can at present be numbered as having advanced 
beyond the old landmarks of the old synthetic sj'stem of edu- 

But even the .system Pestalozzi — Diesterweg has no con- 
ception of what Comenius meant by his mother school. Con- 
fining itself to methodize school-education, it commences work 
at a point where the most effective part of education ought to 
be — and in most cases is — alreadj' finished. 

Friedrich Froebel felt this defect. His experience in 
school-keeping had taught him that children, even on enter- 
ing the elementary school, had already had their intellect 
stunted by the want of previous education. It was an error, 
then, to begin education with the school only ; it should 
begin with the first breath of life. 

How could that be done ? It would be impossible to 
teach babies on their mothers' breasts "such things as they 
would need in their after lives." But what could they be 
taught ? 

When he had arrived at squarely propounding this ques- 
tion, Froebel had reached the turning point of his genius. So 
far he had moved along in the ruts cut out by his predeces- 
sors. Thenceforward, in answering the above question, he 
struck out in a new direction and became a creative genius. 
He soon arrived at the conviction that a child who knows how 
to conduct himself within his childish circle, will surely grow 
of himself into the correct conduct of adult life ; and that the 
only proper way of teaching children is, to direct them how 
to manage their present interests. 

It has been said that the proper way to prepare for a life 

Kindergarlen and Public School. 27 

beyond the grave, is to live well this earthly life. Just so 
Froebel says that the proper way to prepare children for adult 
life, is to teach them how to live well their childish life. 

This principle must lend to a system of education radically 
difTerent from the old systems. The old education wants 
children to imitate the life of manhootl, to copy the actions of 
adult life as far as their abilities would enable them. The 
Froebel principle wants to enable the child to live his own 
life as completely as possible, tf) follow his own ends and pur- 
poses within rea.sonable limitations, to make whatever pleas- 
urable exertions he is prompted to go through in developing 
his faculties. 

The educational method of this system must consist in 
helping the child to be always active according to the laws or 
nature of childhood. Not according to interests prevalent in 
adult life must the child be occupied, but only with matters 
lying within the sphere of interests of the child's own mind. 
Or, in other words, the matters or subjects of instruction, or 
of occupation, must not be selected in reference to Ihings in 
which the child is not, or cannot yet be interested, however 
important they may be in after life. Or, " the interests of the 
child must never be sacrificed to those of the man." 

And Froebel proceeded to construct a series of matters of 
instructioij entirely new and calculated to satisfy the needs 
and engage the interests of the mind as it develops in the 
child from year to year. 

These matters, or means of education invented by Froebel, 
are the gifts and occupations used in the Kindergarten and, 
partly, at times, in the nursery. They are intended to ser\'e 
the object of education during the successive periods of the 
development of the child until his sixth or seventh year. 
At that age Froebel considered it advisable to introduce 
some more purely intellectual jiursuits, such as the three R's, 
which is done at present in the so-calleil intermediate class. 
The public schools of Germany, as in this country, receiving 
jnipils at the age of six years or upwards, children that had 
passed through the Kindergarten, rarely stopjK'd a year in intermediate classes. Froel)el could not object to this. 

28 Kindergarten and Public School. 

because it was customary that children must enter the public 
school about that age. But he was not pleased with it 
at all. 

His opinion was that the children should stop in the inter- 
mediate class to their ninth or tenth year. The class should 
devote time enough to the rudiments of the three R's to give 
its pupils some proficiency in these necessary foundations for 
all studies. Neither should such parts of natural science, 
geometry, geography, and other elementary subjects as are 
teachable at that age, be neglected. In this class, as in the 
Kindergarten, all knowledge should be obtained through the 
creative activity of the learner. Froebel thought that pupils 
leaving such a class ought to be able not only to join the 
grade of grammar school corresponding to their age b)- the 
regulation schedule, but to get along with a grade a year or 
two above them in average age. 

This hopeful view has, as far as I know, never yet been 
verified by fact, intermediate classes have not been 
carried on long enough. There may be a difficulty in the 
way of finding competent teachers for the class. There is not 
a normal .school preparing them, and Froebel did not leave 
special instructions in the method applicable to this class. 
We have only his general principles, or his system, to guide 
us, and it requires a teacher of genius to elaborate the princi- 
ples into a code of rules, z. <?., into a method to be followed out 
in every subject of tuition in the daily work of the class. 

Such geniuses being rare, it would seem advisable to facil- 
itate the task by dividing up the work among a number of 
competent teachers. Let each of them take up one subject. 
Every subject with the sole exception of foreign languages, 
has already been approached in the Kindergarten and ought 
to be continued on the .same lines. All it needs is amplifica- 
tion. A good teacher with a thorough knowledge of the sub- 
ject in hand and a theoretical insight and practical skill in the 
Kindergarten method, is fully capable of working out a .single 
branch of tuition so far as needed, that is to the point where 
the grammar school takes it up. If such a combination of 
teachers could be formed, and the results of their labors be 

Kindergarten and Public School. 29 

published, a sufficient method of the intermediate class up to 
the age of ten or eleven, could be perfected. 

But that is not enough to make the intermediate class an 
organic nieml>er of the i)ublic school system. The public 
school, more particularly the grammar school, ought to be 
fully prepared to continue the education on the same principle 
on which it was commenced in the I'roebel sch{K)l. The ques- 
tion is, how this can be secured. School authorities appear 
generally favorably dispo.sed toward the idea of a<lmitting the 
Kindergarten as an institution preparing children for the pul> 
lie .school. Hut an external combination would not accom- 
plish much. There ought to Ix- a real union of the public 
schools and the Kindergarten, if the higher end of educati<»n 
shall be successfully served. 

There is only one way of accomplishing this end which is 
this, that every teacher of the grammar .school should make 
the Kindergarten system of education a special study, or that 
no certificate of teacher be granted to anybody who has not 
taken a regular course at a Kindergarten normal school. In 
order to rentier this practicable, it may be necessary to intro- 
duce changes in the curriculum of these nornial schools, which 
could be done without great difticulty. After having pas.sed 
through such a course, grammar school teachers would be 
able to conduct their as Froebel would have done. 
With a staff of teachers .so prepared, it would be easy to 
bring about an organic union between Kindergarten and pub- 
lic school and thus establish a uniform education of youth 
from the cradle to the entrance into active life, which is. no 
doubt, the great need of the period. 

Then the great ideal aim, not only of I'VoelK.-! but of all 
the reformers and teachers of mankind, might l>e finally real- 
ized, that every man should l)e perfect as Nature intended 
\\\\\\ to be, and that all ])eople unite to constitute the one and 
universal brotherhood of man. 

A. H. Hkinemank. 


*^a™^^^^^|^ AINLY with the missionary 
"-':-i4* II spirit and as a charitj' has 
the Kindergarten work in 
California been developed. 
Until within the last two 
years little attention has been 
given to the development of 
the educational side either 
in the Kindergartens or in 
the training of Kindergartners. About two years ago Prof. 
C. H. McGrew, a teacher of broad scientific and professional 
training, and of varied experience, also a specialist in Psychol- 
ogy and Pedagogy, organized the California School of Meth- 
ods for Teachers and Kindergartners, at San Jose, with the 
express purpose of bringing teachers and Kindergartners 
together, to stimulate, and to undertake the professional 
training of both classes of teachers. He drew into the board 
of directors the best educational talent in the State, and at 
the close of the first .session they incorporated the school 
under the laws of California as an Institution of Pedagogical 
Instruction and Training. At the first summer session but 
three Kindergartners were enrolled, at the second there 
were five, and at the third, just closed, over forty. At the 
close of the second session a Professional Training Depart- 
ment was organized at the special request of several of the 
Kindergartners, for a thorough Professional Training Course 
for Kindergartning and Primary teaching. The class w^as 
soon found and given a broad scientific course of training by 
Prof. C. H. McGrew and Mrs. E. G. Greene, including Psy- 
chology of Childhood, History of Education, the Science and 
Art of Kindergarten and Primary Education. As a result of 

Educational Movement in California. 31 

this class twelve young women recently graduated as trained 

About tlic same time this class was organized Mrs. Sarah 
H. Cooper, president of the Golden Gate Kindergarten Asso- 
ciation, organized the Golden Gate Training School with 
Miss Anna M. Stovall as ])rincipal. The course of training 
in this class is much hroader than any heretofore given in 
California, and while fitting only for Kindergartning includes 
the branches of Psychology of ChildluMKl, History of Etluca- 
tion and the vScience and Art of Kindergarten. These two 
new training .schools are working hand in hand to put the 
training of Kindergartners on a professional and educational 

In attendance at the second summer session of the Cali- 
fornia School of Methods were two Kindergartners ( Misses 
Haltie H. Griswold and 'Charlotte F. Williams) who re- 
turned to their work in San Francisco, enthused and deter- 
mined to continue tlieir profe.ssional studies and growth. In 
a few weeks they had organized a society for study, including 
some .sixteen bright Kindergartners, and invited Prof. C. H. 
McGrew to meet them once a month in San I'ranci.sco to direct 
and lead them in their work. Me accepted the invitation and 
at the first meeting the society was named " The Child-Study 
Circle," which continued its work throughout the year in the 
study of the child mind. 

Every nioiiih a session was held, a new printed outline of 
work presented, and a conference held between the leader and 
members for several hours. 

This scientific study under Professor McGrew proved so 
beneficial to the teachers in tlieir daily work that they 
unanimously requested him to j^lan and i;i\e them a |x>si- 
graduate course the coming year. 

The Child-.Study Circle thus re.solveil it.selt into a post- 
graduate of the California ScIuh^I of Metho<ls, with Pro- 
fessor McGrew director and Misses Hattie H. Griswold and 
Charlotte F. Williams as secretaries. This branch of the 
work will be conducted in San Franci.sco and the meml>ers 

32 Educational Movement in California. 

will receive the diploma of the California School of Methods 
on the completion of their course. 

Some thirty of San Francisco's experienced Kindergart- 
ners have enrolled for this work, and congratulate themselves 
at having the privilege of studying under Professor McGrew. 

The third summer session of the California School of 
Methods just closed, has fully demonstrated the fact that this 
is a firmly established institution, and meets a long-felt want 
on this coast. 

This session has been in all respects the most successful 
and pleasing of the institution, and perhaps the most success- 
ful session ever held in the State. There were enrolled 
sixty-five teachers and Kindergartners — more than twice the 
number of last 3'ear, more than five times the number of the 
first session two years ago, and greater than the combined 
enrollment of all the other summer schools in the State — some 
six in number. 

The register shows that fiftj^-three of the sixty-five teachers 
were graduates of colleges, training and normal schools — a 
very significant fact ; and that forty of them were trained 
Kindergartners. The following was the course of instruction 
given : Free Hand Drawing, by Professor C. B. Brown and 
Miss E. L. Ames ; Historj- of Education, Miss Ora Boring ; 
Kindergarten Songs and Games, Mrs. E. G. Greene ; Psy- 
chology of Childhood, Nature Lessons and Special Methods, 
Prof. C. H. McGrew ; Natures Lessons, Prof. Volney Rattan ; 
School Management, Prof. C. N. Childs ; Lectures on Modern 
Science and Evolution, Dr. David S. Jordan ; Class of Kin- 
dergarten Children for Practical Observation, Miss Lizzie 
Mackenzie and Miss Emma Kerser. 

Throughout the whole session the enthusiasm was marked, 
interest deep and sustained, and the spirit most helpful. 

It may be interesting to the readers of the Kindergarten 
M.\G.\zixE to hear of the work in Los Angeles in connection 
with the public schools. Last year, or rather year before 
last, three Kindergartens were made a part of the public 

Educational Movement in California. 33 

schools of our city on trial — one of them conducted by Mrs. 
Mayhew. They were located in rooms rented for that purpose 
— not in the main buildiiiKS. Last year eijjht Kindergartens 
were located in eight respective sc1kx>1 buildings and she was 
made supervisor of the same. All worked hard and conscien- 
tiously, meeting with the directors of the eight Kindergartens 
twice a weftk, once for the interpretation of the songs and games 
and once for the weekly program which was systematically 
carried out in all the schools. Realizing that " United we 
stand, divided we fall," as a result they reajnrd the reward of 
success and the schools are considered the liest in the State. 
The training class consisted last year of ten students who 
were privileged in being permitted to get their practice knowl- 
edge in the Kindergartens as volunteer assistants, the same 
plan being carried out as in the St. Louis .schools, where Mrs. 
Mayhew had taught for ten yeahs under Susan IC. Blow, 
and it has been her aim to interpret Froebel in his purity 
as Miss Blow has ever done. At the beginning of this school 
year five more Kindergartens were oi)ened. making thirteen 
in all. In addition was organized this year the " Los Angeles 
Kroebel vSociety." These .schools have now thirteen trained 
directors, eight i)aid assistants and eighteen volunteers or 
students of the Los Angeles Training School. 

The August meeting of the California Froebel Union was 
devoted to " Music in the Kindergarten." Professor White, 
who was to have deli\ered a lecture, was ill. but the time was 
earnestly spent in considering the many of this work. 
Miss Smith gave the keynote by an exposition of Froelx-l's 
claim for music as fouml in the Mother-Play. 

A paper was read urging better method, purer tone, a true 
harmony between words and music. A general discussion 
followed in which the usual faults were freely confessed and 
practical suggestions were made for correcting them. An 
incident in Kindergarten exi^erience was read, showing that 
the music expresses the general atmosphere of the school. 

All were hapi)y in having with iheuj ag.iin the Inrloved .Miss 
Sanford, now of Worcester, Mass. Her plea for more of the 

vol,, v.— NO. I. 3 


Contcuimcnt in Nature. 

music of Nature touched all. To fed the music of birds and 
bees, the calm of the ocean, the wind through the trees, to be 
ourselves in harmony with God's great world and so help our 
little ones to find this music everywhere, in addition to perfect 
technique is what we all need to make the music in the Kin- 
dergarten what we long to have it. 

— Selected. 


I would not change -axy joys for those 

Of Emperors and Kings. 
What has my geutle friend the rose 
Told them, if aught, do you suppose — 

The rose that tells me things ? 

What secrets have they had with trees? 

What romps with grassy spears? 
What know they of the mysteries 
Of butterflies and honey-bees, 

Who whisper in my ears ? 

What says the sunbeam unto them ? 

What tales have brooklets told ? 
Is there within their diadem 
A single riyal to the gem 

The dewy daisies hold'' 

What sympathy have they with birds. 

Whose songs are songs of mine? 
Do they e'er hear, as though in words 
'Twas lisped, the message of the herds 

Of grazing, lowing kiue? 

Ah no ! Give me no lofty throne. 

But just what Nature yields. 
Let me but wander on alone 
If need be, so that all my own 

Are woods and dales and fields. 

John Kendrick Bangs. 


The Kindergartiiers in attendance at the X. E. A. conven- 
tion. 1892, will look back upon this meeting as an epoch in 
the history of their profession. The two afternoon session.s, 
the programs of which have already been published in an 
earlier number of the M.VGAZiNi:, were thoroughly alive in 
point of good papers, free discu-ssion and the .social inter- 
course of prominent and representative workers. The action 
of this dejiartment which the previous year made Mrs. Ada 
M. Hughes of Toronto, its president, indicated a tendency 
toward international organi/ation, which has since l>een fol- 
lowed out. Mrs. Hughes served the department most accepta- 
bly and has made many friends among the States workers. As 
a fervent disciple of Susan K. Hlow, who established the 
first Kindergarten work at St. Louis, she most gladly resigned 
the chair in the latter's favor. Since the remarkable impetus 
given the work in the early years by Miss Blow, there have 
sprung up many strong branch schools, as it were, which 
more or less directly reflect her work. Her strong purpose 
and scholarly intelligence combine to \n\\. the Kintlergarten 
upon a broader basis than it had ever been before, and gained 
the respect of all for its claims. While there are those among 
Kindergartners, who feel that Miss Hlow has l^een held in 
hero-worship by many of her ardent students, all present at 
the convention were glad to see her placed at the head of the 
department for this all-imiK)rtant year. She having Inren a 
pioneer will be in a position to add great force to the histori- 
cal development of the Kindergarten work to be presented at 
the Columbian Exposition. 

A.side from the regular program the Ivindergartners met at 
a P.outul Table discussion, taking the topic. " Fairy Stories 
and Their Influence. " This subject called forth some spirited 

36 The Kindergart7iers at Saratoga. 

and valuable comments, and much of interest hy waj- of per- 
sonal opinion and experiences on the part of the leaders. 
Amon.s^ those who earnestlj' participated, in the discussion 
were, Mrs. Hailmann, La Porte ; Mrs. Hughes, Toronto ; Miss 
Mackenzie, Philadelphia ; Miss Wheelock, Boston ; Mrs. 
Hicks, Boston ; Prof. Barnes, San Francisco ; Miss Hofer, 
Chicago ; Miss Weston, Bo.ston ; Miss Poulsson, Boston. 

The most important action of the department, however, 
was the forming of the International Kindergarten Union. 
In this connection great credit is due Miss Sarah Stewart, of 
Philadelphia, who so ably proposed and outlined such action, 
who as temporary chairman, carried the proceedings of organi- 
zation in the most creditabl)^ parliamentary manner. Mr. W. 
E. Sheldon, of Boston, was also largely instrumental to .secur- 
ing so strong a plan of organization, having offered man)' 
valuable and practical suggestions. It is due to his foresight 
and knowledge of the minor details of the A.ssociation at 
large that the Union placed itself in the proper relation to 
the N. E. A., as well as to the World's Auxiliary Congress, 
to both of which it must needs be subject in its effort to 
the educational exhibit of 1893. The unanimous desire of all 
present was that the Union should be and remain catholic in 
its scope, that it might call forth sympathetic and progressive 
co-operation between public and private workers, between the 
individual and the institution. 

The following is the official report of the proceedings of 
organization and a list of the charter members. 


At the time of the thirty-.second annual meeting of the 
National Educational Association held at Saratoga Springs, 
in July. iSg2, a meeting of Kindergarten training teachers, 
presidents of Kindergarten Associations, and others actively 
interested in the Kindergarten movement was held in the 
Baptist Church on the morning of July 15, to consider a prop- 
osition made by Miss Sarah A. Stewart, of Philadelphia, to 

The k'indergarlners at Saraloj^a. 37 

make some formal organization of the Kindergarten interests 
throughout I lie country, and also lo prepare the way for a 
fitlinji representation of this department of work at the Col- 
uinl)ian I'<xposition in 1893. 

It was unanimously resolved at this meeting that such an 
organization was desirable, and that a committee of seven l>e 
elected by ballot to take the matter under further consideration 
to prepare plans for organization, and to report at the after- 
noon session of the Kindergarten department of the N. E. A. 

The committee consisted of the following mendnrrs : Mrs. 
Ada Marean Hughes, Toronto, Can.; Miss Angeline Brooks, 
New York, N. Y.; Miss vSarah A. Stewart, Philadelphia, Pa.; 
Miss McCulloch, St. Louis, Mo.; .Miss Annie Laws, Cincin- 
nati, Ohio. The remaining two memlxrrs who were elected, 
Mrs. Sarah H. Cooper, of San Francisco, and Miss Wheelock, 
of Boston, unfortunately not being present. 

At the afternoon session of the Kindergarten department of 
the N. Iv. A., the report of the committee was read by the 
chairman. Miss vStewart, recommending the organization of a 
National Kindergarten Union which would in no way antago- 
nize tlie Kindergarten department of the N. K. A., but would 
act in sympathy and iiarmony with it, only extending the 
field of work more widely than the department of the 
N. E. A. had as yet been able to do. 

The report was accepted, and it was decided to form a 
temporary organization to further consider the matter. Miss 
vStewart was made chairman, and Miss Laws, secretar>" of the 
temporary organization. 

After some discussion it was decitled that an association 
be formed under tlie name of the " International Kindergarten 

The aims of the union to be as follows : 

1. To gather and disseminate knowletlge of the Kinder- 
garten movement throughout the world. 

2. To bring into active cooperation all Kindergarten in- 

3. To promote the establishiiu-nts of Kiiidrrvnrtens 

38 The Kindergaiinos at Saratoga. 

4. To elevate the standard of professional training of the 

The officers to consist of president, two vice-presidents, 
recording and corresponding secretaries and treasurer, with 
the usual duties pertaining to these offices. 

The officers to be elected at the first meeting for organiza- 
tion, a majority vote of those present constituting an election, 
and to hold office for one year or until their successors are 

It was decided there should be an executive committee of 
seventeen, of which number the six officers should constitute 
part, the remaining eleven to be appointed by the aforesaid 
officers. That all persons and societies actively interested in 
the Kindergarten cause, whether public or private, be eligible 
for membership. The dues to be as nearly nominal as possi- 
ble at first, the exact amount to be determined later by the 
executive committee. It was decided that the duties of the 
executive committee for the coming year be : 

1. To arrange for a fitting representation of the Kinder- 
garten idea and work at the Columbian Exposition of 1893, 
and to co-operate with the various committees already formed 
for the purpose. 

2. To take such steps as might be considered necessarj^ to 
fully complete the organization of the International Kinder- 
garten Union. 

It was then moved and carried that all present who desired 
to join the union should at once register their names and 
addresses, which was accordingly done. 

A committee of five was then nominated from the floor to 
prepare a of names for officers of the union. The commit- 
tee consisted of Miss Angeline Brooks, of New York ; Mrs. 
Mary Boomer Page, of Chicago; Mrs. Ada Marean Hughes, of 
Toronto; Mrs. Leontine T. Newcomb, of Hamilton, Ontario ; 
Miss Caroline T. Haven, of New York. The following officers 
were nominated : 

President, Mrs. Sarah B. Cooper, San Francisco, Cal. 

First Vice-president, Miss Sarah A. Stewart, Philadelphia. 

Second Vice-president, Miss Laliah Pingree, Boston, Mass. 

The Kindergarlners at Saratoga. 


Corresponding Secretar>', Miss C. T. Haven, New York. 

Recording Secretary, Miss McCulkxrh, St. Louis, Mo. 

Treasurer, Miss Eva H. Whitniore, Chicago, 111. 

It was moved a>id carried that the election Ik: made unani- 
mous and the .secretary be authorized to cast the ballot, which 
was accordingly done. 

While the nominating committee was in session, Mr. Wm. 
E. Sheldon, of Boston, explained in a very clear and .sati.sfac- 
tory manner the plans of arrangement of the Kindergarten 
E.xhibits in the Columbian ICxj)osition. 

It was recommended by Mr. Sheldon that a constitution 
be printed for distribution at the cost of the union, the 
amount to lie taken from the dues to be fixed later by the 
executive committee. Also that a printed slip inviting mem- 
bership be also i)reparcd for circulation. 

A resolution to this effect was afterwards carried. After 
some further discussion the meeting adjourned. 

Respectfully submitted, Annik Laws, Sec, pro tcm. 

Mrs. James L. Hughes. 
Mrs. A. H. Scott. 
William E. Sheldon. 
Mrs. M. E. vStill. 
Miss Marv L. Van Wagenen. 
Mrs. Amy H. Fisk. 
Mrs. Fannie A. Smith. 
Mrs. .Mvrta E. Kemp. 
Mrs. Ella C. !• Idcr. 
Mrs. Matilda L. Gibbs. 
Mrs. Alice J. C. Alcott. 
Miss Angeline Krooks. 
Mrs. L. S. Welsh. 
MissS. E. Hodges. 
Mrs. Louisa Pollock. 
Miss Susan Pollock. 
Miss Mary S. Clarke. 
Miss Auilrca HofL-r. 
Mr. Louis H. Allen. 
Mr. J. C. Moss. Ida Hond. 

Mivs M. 


Miss Amalie Hofer. Bertha Hofer. 
Miss Mary E. Littell. 
Sheredan Co.x. 
.Miss Anna E. Fredrickson. 
Mrs. E. L. Hailm.iun. 
Miss Jessica \i. Beers. 
Miss .Mari Rnef Hofer. 
Miss I-'annie L. Johnson. 
.Miss I'jnilie Poul.s.son. 
Mr. Geo. L. Oslxirne. 
Mrs. Leontine T. Newcomb. 
.Mrs. .Mary J. B. Wvlie. 
.Mrs. Allele E. Brcx/ks. 
Miss Anna H. Littell. 
Mrs. Bryant B. (tlenny. 
Miss Caroline T. Haven. 
Miss Lucy H. Dana. 
Mrs. .M.iry Boomer Page. 
.Miss Annie Laws. 
.Miss Sarah A. Stewart. 
L. Madden. 



kHE world of Art," says Froebel, "is the visible 
J_ revelation and expression of the invisible spirit of 

It is toward this conception of Art and of its implied place 
in the training of children that the educational thought of our 
time has been slowly but steadily growing. 

As long ago as 1837, so the published reports of the 
British Committee on Arts and Manufactures show% England 
began to realize her disadvantages in industri'al competition 
with nations more highly gifted and more carefully trained in 
aesthetic sensibility. As a result of the investigations and 
recommendations of this committee, government schools of 
design were established in London and other commercial 
centers of Great Britain, for the explicit purpose of training 
designers for English manufactures. As late as 185 1 the 
central .school was under the immediate control and manage- 
ment of a Board of Trade ; but soon afterward the Depart- 
ment of Science and Art was formally created, and the new- 
schools passed under its jurisdiction. 

It has become evident, partially through the wider outlook 
and deeper self-knowledge gained through the International 
Exposition of 1851, that it was not enough for the Kingdom's 
prosperity to train a few good designers for special fields of 
work, but that some appreciative knowledge of art principles 
must be diffused among the people at large if these ver}^ de- 
signers were to work to the best purpose ; and this necessarily 
led to a broadening of the field of the new Art instruction, 
though its aims were still chiefly of a commercial character. 

From the time of the first World's Fair in 1851 to the 
present day, there is no doubt that the great Expositions of 

.If/ in Public Education. 41 

successive years have y>een powerful agencies to strengthen 
and develop in various ways this new movement UiX Art ICdu- 
cation. Each Kxpositioii in turn has naturally afforded 
special opportunity for studying the contemporary' industrial 
conditions and the comparative industrial advance of the dif- 
ferent countries represented ; and, given this cumulative and 
easily a[)prehended emphasis on the commercial Inrarings of 
Art instruction for the people, it was but natural that, when 
in 1S70 fjust after the Paris Ivxhibition) Massachusetts took 
the first definite stej) officially made in America t(jward the 
recognition of Art in public education, this step should have 
been taken, as it was, in a frankly avowed commercial spirit. 
Neither ICngland nor America had then learned to read the 
deeper significance of Art in the life of a people; — only the 
wage-earning value of Art training was then intelligible to 
the general public on whose indorsement the new movement 
had to depend, so it was strictly from the wage-earning 
standpoint that Art Kducation was first advocated and intro- 
duced into our American public schools. 

But the times were changing, and public thought was 
growing during those early years of public school experiment 
with " intlustrial " drawing. It did not take long to prove 
through the very labors of those who toiled most earnestly in 
its service, that Art ICducation on a purely industrial or com- 
merciul basis was destined to find no permanent place in the 
educational system of our country. The experience of a de- 
cade in Massachusetts went to prove that drill in technique, 
as such, could be no vital part of the education of young 
children. If ever Art was to take root and grow, as a live 
part of a live course of training for children, it had evidently 
to be planted deeper than mere considerations of the market 
value of technical skill. 

The inspiration which ilid keej) .\merican .\r\. I-Mncation 
alive at this critical juncture came largely from two Si)urces — 
from the Kindergarten, whose message had a dozen years ago 
become clear and convincing, and from the pioneers in what 
was tlien called the " New ICducation," — ardent advocates of 
the self- activity of the child and free expres.sion all along the 

42 Art hi Public Education. 

line of public school instruction, as contrasted with the old- 
time repression and mechanical drill. 

It was at this stage of affairs, some twelve years ago, that 
a number of earnest workers in the cause of public education, 
taking counsel with each other in the light of past experience, 
in the inspiration of the Kindergarten idea and in the confi- 
dent faith that Art was meant to be a power for good in every 
man's life, cut quite loose from the traditions of British Art 
vSchools and set their faces toward a new ideal. This ideal 
was nothing less than the evolution of a course of Art In- 
struction that should be essentially educational in its prin- 
ciples and methods ; that should at its every stage take 
account of the constitution of the child's mind and spirit, and 
of the way in which mind and spirit naturally unfold and 
grow; — a course of study which should on the one hand gave 
the child the key to a better understanding and enjoyment of 
his surroundings, — both in Nature and in Art, — and on the 
other hand awaken in him the slumbering consciousness that 
he himself may learn to create things of use and beauty for 
the help and happiness of his fellows. 

Here was the origin of the Prang Course of Art Instruc- 
tion. It is along these lines that this course has grown to its 
present stage of development, under the guidance of educators 
alive to every opportunity for wise advance, and with the 
direct inspiration of the large-hearted man whose name has 
come in the course of years to stand in popular speech for the 
whole broad undertaking. Mr. Louis Prang's modest spirit 
would shrink from an}' ostentatious blazoning of his personal 
share in the educational work that bears his name, but those 
with whom he has faithfully worked for years are glad to 
acknowledge how, above and beyond his unfailing, practical 
support of the undertaking and his special researches and 
experiments in Color, much of the finest spirit and truest 
purpose of the whole work is owing to his own high ideals 
and his steadfast faith that the most dull and careless souls 
can be led by slow, sure degrees to feel the spiritual beaut}' 
of good Art and to find strength and delight in such recog- 

Art hi Public Ediuation. 43 

The most ardent apostles of the Prang Course never claim 
that it is a finality in Art Kducation ; quite the contrar>-. 
Were all other impetus lacking, the wise and energetic su|)cr- 
visors of drawing in difTcrenl parts of the country whose grow- 
ing experience constantly helps to inspire and shape it. have 
no idea of closing their eyes and folding their hands in easy 
content with what they have already seen accomplished. One 
of the most encouraging things about the whole work is the 
fact that for its sake many of the strongest and most thor- 
oughly successful Drawing SufK-rvisors in the country will, 
as they have done this past summer, sjjend weeks of their 
well-earned midsummer holiday time in direct jx-rsonal con- 
ference with each other and with the associated authors of the 
Course, comparing ideas and experience, discussing i>oints of 
detail, and making the way plainer and brighter for good 
work in everybody's schools another year. Details will nat- 
urally differ here and there as .school conditions var>'. Details 
must necessarily change from time to time as growing famil- 
iarity with elementary princij)les makes it jKjssible to advance 
the working standard or as the character of other departments 
of school work chatiges ; (for Art Education, touching all 
branches of .school work, must promptly recogni/e each new 
relationship); — but the underlying principles and general 
methods of the work seem destined to still broader and more 
heart >• recognition in the scho«)ls as time goes on. 

And to who have entered into the profound thought 
and the sunny philo.sojihy of Froebel. this is but natural. 
The primary schot)l work of the Prang Ct)urse leads the little 
child (in most cities and towns, under present conditions, he 
is fresh from home and street with no previous helps in mas- 
tering himself or the world) through the study of type forms 
into direct and happy familiarity with things having form, 
and .so into the possession of clear and correct concepts of 
form. This study of type forms is carried t>n in connec- 
litm with the study of kindred forms in Nature and in Art ; 
atul, developed jirogre.ssively in accordance with the well- 
known law of opjiosites ami their meiliation, which is the law 
of harmony in Art as well as in the Kindergarten, gives the 

44 -^'V in Public Education. 

child during his first two or three years of school life such 
mental grasp of his environment as serves him well in all later 
work. Here, too, in the earliest primary grades, is begun 
that free expression of individual thought and feeling which 
characterizes the educational use of art processes, language, 
building, clay modeling, tablet and stick laying, paper fold- 
ing and cutting, free drawing, the use of color-materials — all 
these are utilized as simple and practicable means for the out- 
ward expression of inward activity. And it is not found diffi- 
cult, in even this most elementary work, to awaken in the 
children the beginning of a true Art feeling, and to lead them 
to put such feeling, crudely but truly, into their own modeling, 
drawing and making. 

It is easy to see how this department of primary school 
work touches every other department with its wholesome and 
happy .spirit. Language, Number, Elementary Science, 
Nature Study, simple cali.stlienics and motion-songs, all find 
themselves related to this primary work in Form Drawing and 
Color, and helped by it to an extent which only the wise 
Kindergartner could have fully predicted. 

The work of the Prang Course, in grades above the primary 
schools, is logically based on that of these earlier years. 
Dividing naturally into the three inter-related subjects of Con- 
structive Drawing (Drawing as related to construction and 
the industrial arts). Representative Drawing (Drawing as 
related to pictorial art), and Decorative Drawing (Drawing 
as related to Ornament), it develops consistently and natur- 
ally along these three parallel lines, being closely related, all 
the way through the Grammar school, to the contemporary 
work in Arithmetic, Geography, Natural Science, History and 
Literature. Children are led, as early as may be, to confirm 
their previously gained concepts of form, b)'^ working, in certain 
exercises, from these mental concepts alone, rather than from 
tangible, material things ; letting the imagination recreate the 
thing and express its own creation by modeling, making or 
drawing. And, again, as the course of study develops, more 
attention has necessaril)^ to be given to technique. Ideas of 
beauty should have beautiful expression, and the ability to 

Art in Public Educalion. 45 

express beautifully must be acquired through patient practice 
under wise direction. From the fourth and fifth grades 
upward, provision has therefore to be made for excellence of 
rendering as well as freedom of expression, much free draw- 
ing being naturally and helpfully done in connection with 
other school studies. The aim throughout the Course is the 
cultivation of the jjower to think J'orm, clearly and correctly, 
either with or without the sight of objects possessing form, 
and lo express, with truth, simplicity and Ijeauty, Ixjth 
ideas of Form which are directly gained from the observation 
of Nature and Art. and those which are the flower of the 
creative imagination. 

The practical results of this course of study necessarily 
vary widely according to the conditi<jns under which it has 
been pursued, the length of time in which it has been enabled 
to develop in a new field and the quality of its direction and 
supervision. Abundant evidence, however, already shows 
that its foundation of Form vStudy, its systematic primary 
school practice in the elements of hand training, followed up 
as this is in the higher grades by exercises in reading and 
makinj^ working drawings and the actual construction of 
objects with constant regard to the Art principles involved, 
gives school children .sound and .satisfactory preparation for 
the special instruction of the best manual training schools, or 
for intelligent entrance on industrial pursuits. The .study of 
the api)earance of Form, as distinguished from its actual facts. 
begun in the ".seeing lessons" of the lowest primary grade 
and continued progressively from year to year, leads children 
to appreciate beauty of outline, of light and shade and of 
color ; to understand something of the laws of pictorial com- 
position and the significance of really artistic rendering ; to 
gain .some personal power of execution and yet more |Hiwer of 
enjoying all that is best in works of art around them. This 
is naturally good preparation for work in Fine Art on the part 
of those who are especially gifted for the artist's vocation. 
Better than that, when We consider the nee<ls and the tlestiin 
of the great botly of the people, it is a sort of training, which, 
rightly directed, necessarily adds to life a refining spiritual 

^6 'If'^ i>i Public Education. 

element, whose growth and elevating power in the humblest 
man or woman cannot be lightly estimated. 

The training afforded by the Prang Course along the lines 
of Decorative Art, leads immediately and helpfully up to both 
spiritual and so-called "practical " service in daily life. Inti- 
mately connected as it is with all the industrial arts, its 
utilitarian value hardly needs exposition. It is only when 
one considers the significance of a crude or a cultivated taste 
in the choice of things of daily use that one begins to realize 
the import of educating the taste of a whole generation of 
children. It is only when one sees how. through the right 
study of Historic Ornament our children are actually learning 
to enter into the life of other nations and other centuries, and 
to recognize in the architect and the sculptor flesh and blood 
men who lived and loved and worked for others, that one 
realizes how much of culture in the best sense of that word, is 
to come through this channel into commonplace, everyday 
lives. " Culture," says Miss Blow, " is the process by which 
the experience of the race is reproduced in the individual." 

I have referred to the .successive great International Exposi- 
tions of the world as furnishing standpoint and impetus for an 
educational undertaking like this, the movement for Art Edu- 
cation. The real significance of such exhibitions lies in truth 
much deeper than that of mere industrial competition, as men 
have, of late years, come to realize. Vicomte de Vogiie, in 
his admirable reviews of the World's Fair of 1889, touched 
the truth of the matter when he said : — 

" In visiting the Exposition we are starting on a voyage of discovery 
around the world. What, step by step, we shall really discover, are the 
general features that go to make up our own epoch, — the various 'life- 
springs whence our own life has sprung. The discovery we have under- 
taken in nothing less than the discovery of ourselves. This Centenary 
of successive material facts would be a mere childish diversion if it were 
not as it is in truth a profound examination of conscience. So far from 
having a retrospective character, the Exhibition is the starting point of 
the world-to-be. It is the embryo of the world's future. In this lies the 
riddle of its irresistible charm. In this monumental chaos, in these 
images of men's abodes, in this machinery kept iu motion by dynamical 
laws, we are constrained to recognize a civilization yet unborn. We are 
facing what will most surely be." 

.trt in Public Education. 47 

And Art as a living part of the education of our people has 

its history lyin^ before rather than behind us. We are just 
on the tlireshold of that newer s<KMal life wherein Art shall l>c 
given its rightful place in daily life, and l>ecorae the free and 
beautiful ex])ression of true and beautiful spirit. 

It is to help forward this movement in its l)est significance, 
through public education, that the Prang Course stands. 

Wliile its work in the schools is necessarily done on a busi- 
ness basis, — no pul)Iic organization or endowed private institu- 
tion being ])repared for the special labor involved in collating 
educational experience, preparing text-books and materials 
and introducing them into the schools, the purpose of its pro- 
moters has always been to first .ser\'e the highest educational 
interests of the people, and let commercial returns follow. It 
is the recognition of this fact that has given the Prang under- 
taking its wholly exceptional character as an educational 
enterprise, and has won for it the support of our leading 
educators, as being in itself the practical embodiment of one 
of the most important educational movements of the century. 

M.\RV Dan.v Hicks. 
Director Prang's A'ornml Art Classes, Boston. 


The grapes have sucked an hundred suns, 

The rivers overflow with sky, 
The clouds drop down for golden-rod, 

In purple hills the asters lie. 

Birds flood their music through the air ; 

And farewell flower odors flow 
Up through the foliate drifts of gold 

That drape the altared hills below. 

The sky dips down most lovingly 

To press a parting summer-kiss ; 

The mellow earth's uplifted face 

Is radiant with the season's bliss. 

Andrea Hofer. 


In the sunny days of the 
< ".reeks, when man paid raost 
royal tribute to art, the ImkIv was 
the chosen theme for interpreta- 
tion. Standing as lie did. in that 
rarly time, with his feet yet 
lieep-rooted in Nature's soil, he 
seemed tt) draw into unity with 
himself all its primal freshness. 
He abstracted an alchemy of 
until and beauty from all things. 
IMie spirit of all things was his — 
I he life of the sea and the air. the 
l)eaut>' of the earth, the melody 
t»f the birds and the hue of the 

Out of the abundance of this 
nature life — a life in serene har- 
mony with itself- he produced 
sweetness and light " with which 
jaded humanity may forever refresh itself. 

What we feel to 1k« at once the secret of our own delight 
and the essence of the l)eauty. grace, freedom, strength of 
these creations is the power of "soul and l>ody undivided.** 
vor.. v.— NO. I. 4 

those wondrous forms of 

,^o Art Studies in Life 

When we stand in the radiant presence of the ]'cnus dc Milo, 
the power in action of the Farnese Hercules, the greatness of 
the Apollo lielvcdcre, we know that they are the results not of 
art but life actually lived, and their works attest the sincerity 
of their lives. 

This period of Greek history — so our deepest searchers 
into life and art tell us — was one of those rare ones, where what 
wc call nature, or what man essentially is, was one with his 
ideal and spiritual power: A beautiful proportion— ^;/dv/r55 
of body and spirit, — power and sentiment speaking eloquently 
and reposefully through a mind and body in serene harmony 
with each other. 

The mind of man, it seems, had not yet so completely 
articulated itself into faculties and factions. Humanity had 
not then accentuated itself into so many different species of 
national traits and characteristics, nor did it yet .so pride itself 
upon its intellectualities and peculiarities. 

Mankind had not yet entered upon the cruel analysis, 
which separates soul from body and the body into an 
anatomical nightmare with which to frighten us away from 
ourselves. Txien the mental and moral were physical — 
made Jlesh — and the whole was Spiritual Man. 

The Greek was content to remain himself and from this 
center of self to reflect all things divinely. In his aspirations 
Godward he rounded out life naturally and gloriously in what 
he was. In this unity of life he perfected himself and in turn 
expressed Perfection. Not metaphysically but bodily. 

The Greek understood the verb to be in its fullest sense. 
Not in a striving or agony of attainment, but in being still 
and realizini^ himself. 

A late writer has defined for us art as '' self-realizatio7i " 
and the highest degree of "self-realization" a work of art. 
Is it not this same ".self-realization," "eternally longing" 
that drives us to art ? Is it not the great problem of the 
young " self-realizations " going on all around us in the Kin- 
dergartens and schools, that is bringing art more personally 
into our lives and work ? 

The time has come to us as a people when our conscious- 

Art Si ltd Us in /.//>. 51 

ness of art must no longer be confined to the pictures and 
bric-a-brac on our drawinK-ro<jni walls. Well regulated 
courses of art study, descriptive catalogues and critical works 
have amply filkii our minds with their lore. Our libraries and 
travels have made us familiar with the treasuresof the studi<>> 
and galleries abroad. There is no doubt but that we knou- a 
great deal more than we Jtcl in art. What we now need is 
the Arl sense, or feeling lor the spiritual in ourselves and the 
world around us. 

As teachers in the New Ivlucation we are continual work- 
ers for art through the direct self-realization of the child. 
As such workers, our itleas of art must n«» longer be abstrac- 
tion but living; ideas, even to their manifestation in the body. 
We must no longer study art as a thing apart from us, but 
take it into our hearts, as one has .said— a life to be lived. 

It is the lack of bodily adaptation to the ideal .side of the 
work in the Kindergarten that has led us into a wide study of 
Physical Culture and Delsartean systems for lx>dily improxT- 
meiit : to outwardly cultivate the suppleness and grace with 
which to honor our calling. 

Hut have we not begun with formulated art rather than in 
the more natural ortler. with the elements which tmtkc for arlf 

It is in our child-study of sincere and ar/ grace that we 
are led back to find our own resources in the Nature of the 

Let us look f«)r a moment at our Venus, this lieautifully 
poised woman, through whose sincere white l>ody shines a 
soul of equal sincerity and whiteness. 

Truly what comparison can there l)e between myself and 
this tyjK- of types, to produce which, even the Greeks rvtiuired 
to combine the excellencies of man\ .* 

It was a cruel deficiency revealetl to us in the late attempted 
revival of the Greek dress, — a deficienc> not so much of 
physii|ue as the absence of soul and thought s)H.*aking 
thrt)ugh it. 

We found that it took more than shajK-lv shimlders to 
carry the dress of a Greek. That we indeeii ttelong to 
another race of which we are but a pigmy species, having 

52 --^''^ Studies in Life. 

head and trunk and limbs alike, but lacking the full sdf-rcali- 
zaiion which stamps divinity upon his brow. In pursuit of 
many things we have turned ourselves out of doors while our 
house is let to strangers at continual variance with each other. 

Our art sense is yet in its infancy — indeed it has hardly 
entered upon the instinctive period. Our first step toward its 
right development in our bodies must be the right stud}^ of 

And what have we studied more or worse for art purposes 
than this very Nature ? In our over-scientific age we have 
sadly cheapened her virtues. Indeed it seems almost as if her 
entire aspect had changed through our misinterpretations. 
Instead of a feeling of cheerful brotherhood with her, our 
morbid imaginations look upon her with suspicion and fear. 
She is no longer the beautiful mother beneficent to her foster 
child. We are no longer attuned to her inner harmonies, 
nor is it any wonder, when, as students, we have so abused 
her confidence, and reduced her kindly offerings to the greed 
of our manipulations. 

We understand nature anatomically, scientifically, hygien- 
ically, sentimentally — yea, poetically. We have dissected 
frogs ; we have our windows open for fresh air ; we cla.ssify 
plants and minerals ; we look at life critically through a 
microscope ; with a telescope we gaze at the stars, we even 
sit in our studies with our feet over the register and criticise 
nature for being at all. 

And yet she is the one friend who in our feverish frenzy 
of self-condemnation, lays her cool hand upon us. Let us 
study nature and ourselves more as entities and less as a series 
of detached facts which somehow were made to fit together. 
Let us know as we observe her great wonder workings that in 
a higher sense we should live and move in her rhythmic laws. 

To " try to realize the quiet power of all natural growth 
and movement, from a blade of grass, through a tree, forest of 
trees, the entire vegetable growth of the earth, the movement 
of the planets, "-'"^ would indeed give us a bodily preparation 

♦ '• Power Thr6ngh Repose.'' Annie Payson Call. 

Art Si lid its in Life. 53 

for natural expression, which wouhl need no artificial 

Once more let us turn to our \'enus, who speaks so elo- 
quently to us thn^uj^li the sincerity of the flesh. It is not for 
a merely physical body we must train for the uses of art. 
We need a quickened body, for art speaks not through the 
dead but the living. In the wholesome seeking and living of 
higher ideals, by the renewal of the spirit into a fresh con- 
sciousness of JK-auty and truth, a .sense of the love of the 
Great Artist made supremely manifest in his Works — Nature 
and Man — it would not be a marvel if we found ourselves as 
beautifully as we are wonderfully made and withal "divinely 
natural." M.\ki Ri'ej Hofer. 


The Kindergarten as a new inspiration in educational 
methods, has found its staunch advocates and its bitter oppos- 
ers everywhere. It has survived and overcome opposition, 
and strengthened its hold upon its friends, because it embodies 
a great universal principle which cannot be gainsaid or 
denied. There are still the few faithless ones who see in the 
Kindergarten only the //aj'-school where children can be kept 
happy and out of mischief, a luxury to the rich and a boon to 
the sad childhood of poverty ; with such .short-sighted wis- 
dom we have only to be patient until the greater light of the 
true ideal shall illuminate their darkness, and their instinct- 
ive sympathy for childhood become true insight. But among 
those who have grasped the true spirit of Froebel's thought, 
there is a diversity of expression in the attempt to realize it in 
actual effort, which is bewildering to the young student and 
to those who look on from without. The resulting lack of 
harmony seems wholly inconsistent with the avowed creed of 
the Kindergarten faith. This diversity' is chiefly in externals 
and not in the spirit which animates the work. It is becom- 
ing more and more the earnest desire of those whose insight 
is growing deeper with years of practice, that the reproach of 
even the appearance of lack of unity shall be lifted. 

There is now among Kindergartners a movement toward 
an organized effort to unify thought and purpose and to define 
our principle broadly enough to include all true workers in 
one real fellowship. This, if it can be accomplished, will also 
le.s.sen the danger which constantly threatens the work, from 

♦OlKiiiiiK address of Mrs. ,\da Mareaii Hughes, of Toronto, President of the Kiu 
dcrgarten Dcpartiticiit of the N. K. .\., at the Saratoga convention, July 12. 

Mrs. Uu^hts' Address to Kindtrgartiurs. 55 

the sending out of inadequately prepared students from train- 
ing classes which have no educati<jnal standing. 

It is a hard task to convince many that to deal with early 
childhood wisely and successfully re«iuires all the intelligence 
of the best teacher and a gjxxl deal more. It is not the ability 
to teach especial subjects in an especially happy way that 
constitutes a good Kindergartner. All that training and 
natural ability can give of teaching power is a boon to a Kin- 
dergartner, as to a teacher ; but we must reraeralier thai the 
little outs whose life atmosphere we make, while they are in 
the period of infancy and Kindergarten training, have not 
specialized their interests or faculties and therefore are not 
natumlly interested in an especial line of facts. We have to 
wait and watch for the moving of the waters of their thought, 
and when nature signals, be ready to go with the impulse, to 
guide and stimulate by our interest and sympathy. 

It is child-nature, .soul growth, that we need to .study if we 
would stand on the holy ground of unconscious childho^xl. 
and hope to tlo good. We must know the genesis and process 
of growth of special virtues and have skill to multiply the 
experietices which will devchip the same and so check the 
possible vice. 

If we have a true consciou.sness of our own needs in the 
face of .such a sacred work, we shall have no room for unkind 
criticism of other's work and methoils but gladly strengthen 
our own narrow insight of great truths, by seeing the same 
expre-ised in the form of others' individuality. Our attitude 
should l)e one of receptivity, hoUling present insights with 
suflicient tenacity to make us strong in our efforts to realize 
thciu in actual dem«)nstratiou, but not with the assurance that 
we hold the single torch which is to give light to the whole 

Tt) discuss the educational methods of Froel>el wc must 
take his standpoint, that education is primarily character 
building and that each child bom into the world, has within 
his unconsciotis soul the j^trms of his complete character ; 
that as the .seed w.iits for warmth atid li)ihl. no the germs of 
his complete being await the influences of sympathy and in- 

56 Mrs. Hughes ' Address to Kindcrgartncrs. 

sight to make it germinate and grow. This being is divinely 
organized in Ood's thought, and imbodied in a human form, 
through and by means of which it is to reach a conscious 
being. God's life within him realizing itself through his own 
activity. God sets the child going and sustains his activity ; 
if external will attempts to force that sacred life, it can only 
mar the perfection of a divine creation and dwarf its growth 
to a finite measurement. 

Froebel insists that a natural education must be passive 
and following, never arbitrary or compelling, save through 
the implanting and defining of ideals. This does not imi)ly 
that there be no control, but that control be exercised through 
environment and by means of organized experiences in which 
the child may feel the recoil of his own acts, and so learn 
their nature by the impressions upon his own being. Natural 
education implies a soul growing naturally through its in- 
herent power, not the filling of the mind with facts about 
inanimate nature, etc. If we take any other basis for Kinder- 
garten work and methods we soon find a limit to our enthu- 
siasm, our work becomes mechanical, our sympathetic nature 
dulled. The material of the Kindergarten without the 
thought that organized it, is lifeless and profitless. 

Accepting Froebel's thought as the foundation truth of 
early education, we have at the same time a solution of our 
own lives in the manifoldness and diversity of our individual 
expression. We .see our need of discipline in self-control, 
courage and strength, and that only the patience which is 
born of insight in tlie growth and nature of humanity and 
faith in the all good, can keep us in the quietness of hope 
and cf)ntinued effort. 

A knowledge of the i)ractical work of the Kindergarten is 
necessary, but not in itself enough to give sustained inspira- 
tion to the work. There is a growing demand for a deeper 
insight into the real nature of Froebel's philosophy of child- 
hood and .soul growth. In the satisfaction of this want will 
come tliL- unifying influence which shall make our various 
gatherings of Kindergartners, our "Congress" of 1893, not 
a babel of tongues which shall and separate us, l)ut a 

Mrs. Hughes ' Address to Kindergarlners. 57 

season like Pentecost of old, where we shall hear every one in 
her own tongue though we l)e Parthenians, Medes, Elamites, 
or the dwellers beyoiul the sea. The spirit of' truth universal 
shall enlii^htcn and unite, making our diverse individual ex- 
pression a rich harmony of complete thought. 

Ada Makean Hl'Ghes. 

Toronto, Con. 


What treasures the old tree drops 
Ivach year from its bronzing boughs I 

What a casket of waiting life 

What a budget of whys and hows ! 


With this September issue, the Kindergarten Maga- 
zine opens its fifth volume. It, like even- other phase of the 
Kindergarten movement, has had its pioneer experiences, has 
even struggled at times for existence, but has at last reached 
a place, where it can pause and see that by virtue of persistent 
effort, it is now become a permanent and recognized factor in 
educational progression. With the present number, the Kix- 
DERG.VRTEN MAGAZINE appears under new cover, generally 
enlarged ^nd improved, which we trust will commend it to its 
patrons as worthy the progressive cause it represents. As will 
be seen by the title-page, the management is also changed. 
The new editors and publishers will be at home, from this date 
on, in the Woman's Temple, corner of Monroe and LaSalle 
streets, Chicago, where all friends and patrons of the cause 
will be most cordially welcomed. 

The Kindergarten Magazine most heartily indorses 
the action of the Kindergarten department of the N. E. A. in 
forming the International Kindergarten Union, and is in favor 
of the Union acting in conjuncture with the auxiliary Con- 
gress of the Columbian Exposition to do all in its power to 
make the Kindergarten exhibit at the World's Fair a com- 
plete, comprehensive and inspiring compendium of the work 
in every line. The Union will have occasion to influence 
the exhibit greatly, to show forth the national as well 
as international Kindergarten progress. The hope of the 
management is that all Kindergartners will respond to the 
call for united action, join the Union and lend their intelli- 
gent assistance that the exhibit may in no wise be local, 
personal or fragmentary, and that overlapping, omissions and 
needless repetitions may be avoided. 

Editorial A'otes. 59 

When it is rcali/.cd that America is the only ctjuntry 
which has openly and publicly received the Kindergarten 
into its public system of education the great importance of 
this movement will be seen, and for the causes sake not (»ne 
of its supporters can afford to withhold her intelligent sup- 
port. The action of Kindergartners to make a united, inter- 
national effort, is one of the signs of the times, which the 
coming Columbian I^xposition has ripened and crystallized. 
The "new education," so-called, emanated from the Con- 
tinent, but has been reared in our own country, and we may 
well be proud of the growing child, and with just satisfaction 
present it to our guests from abroad. More than this — we 
have a duty to the educators of the world, and that is, to 
show forth the fruits of the experiments and demonstrations, 
with which progress has intrusted us. And in so serving 
the educational world at large, we will l>e iK-st serving our- 
selves. The KiNDKRC.ARTEN M.AGAZINK therefore lends its 
voice to urge all who have the greatest goml of the cause at 
heart, to identify themselves with this International Kinder- 
garten ITnion and follow its movements and recommendations. 
This Union in no way takes the place of the Kindergarten 
departmeJit of the National Kducational Association. 

An educational journal is no longer complete without its 
Kindergarten corner, to which its readers may resort for a few 
crumbs of the concrete. Primary teachers in particular feel 
the need of investigating and experimenting in this ilirection. 
Many of the latter, determined to be progressive, have in 
various localities, introtluccd the j^ractical work into public 
school departments at their personal exjxMis*'. 

KiNDKRG.VRTKN training schools are everywhere extend- 
ing their curriculums, to meet the growing and expanding 
educational desires of their students. Spivial lecture ctmrscs 
are arranged to meet this need, by which si>ecialists are 
brought inti) llie work We hope next months to give a list 

6o Editorial Notes. 

of such available lecturers aud their terms and address, that 
trainers may select from the same in making up their general 
programs. Any specialists in the Kindergarten work proper, 
or other lines, such as music, art, history, literature, peda- 
gogy, etc., desiring to be placed on this list may address 
Kindergarten Publishing Co., Woman's Temple, Chicago, 
before Oct. ist. 

The World's Congress Auxiliary, of the World's Colum- 
bian Expo.sition, is the official body in charge of a series of 
World's, which in their discussions are to cover 
all departments of human achievement, by way of properly 
presenting the moral and intellectual progress of mankind, as 
well as the mercantile and manufacturing growth. The six 
months of the exposition time have been carefull)' pro- 
grammed, so that each important class may have its due con- 
sideration. The month of May is to be devoted to conventions 
in the line of music, literature and art. June is set for religion, 
ethics and reform. July is given over to gatherings in the 
interest of educations science and philosoph}-. August to the 
consideration of law, government, military and fraternal organ- 
izations. September to labor congresses, building, trade and 
social science. October to agriculture, commerce, finance and 
kindred topics. The Kindergarten congress is calculated to 
cover four days, and to be conducted by the representatives in 
this department from all parts of the world. 

Public vSchool Kindergartens. — At last, what is good 
enough for some, is being demanded for all. At the regular 
meeting of the Chicago Board of E)ducation, August 17, 1892, 
a report of the committee on school management was adopted, 
which recommends that the Board assume control of several 
Kindergartens which are now being carried on in public 
.school buildings, at private expense. The vote stood ayes 
12, noes 3. The schools received were six that have been for 
some time under the supervision of the Froebel Kindergarten 

Editorial Notes. 6i 

Association, and two under the Chicago Kindergarten College. 
The Hoard has taken a leadinj^ step, and a wise one. in that 
it is approaching the combination of Kindergarten and school, 
in gradual natural way. With two ladies on the Board, Miss 
Hurt and Mrs. Flower, and members who are there iK-causc 
of their intelligence on educational matters, the movement 
will, no doubt, be followed up by similar progression. 

The St. Paul school committee has also adopted a plan of 
work which i)rovides for twenty public school Kindergartens, 
to be opened with the current scho<jl year. At last there is 
ojjportunity for school men at large to witness the actual 
benefits and results of Kindergarten. 

The city of New York has experienced a decided awaken- 
ing the past year, on the subject of Kindergarten. The Free 
A.ssociation has made strides in many directions, and aroused 
the public to a keener interest in the city's children under 
school age, until the public school board has recognized the 
force of the argument and taken action in that direction. 

The amendment to the by-laws of the New York Hoard of 
lulucation, whereby the introduction of the Kindergarten 
system into any primary school was authorized, was adopted 
on July 6. and President Hunt probably voiced the senti- 
ment of the intelligent public when, at the announcement of 
the vote, he said : "All«)w the Chair to express the conviction 
that the city of New York is to be congratulated at last." 

OiK C«)Vi;r Pac.i-: will commend it.self to even.* thinking 
reader. It presents a face with less of Kindergarten senti- 
ment but more of Kindergarten professionalism antl must 
command for the great reform the respect of all progressive 
educators. An ardent lover of the cause the fol- 
lowing after consitlering the proof-sheets of the cover page as 
it ajjpears with this issue : 

" Mann is American. Pestalo/zi Swiss. Froebcl Ger- 
man these three show the international spirit. Although 
Mann may not compare in inventive genius to either Frocbel 
or Pestalozzi, his influence on the education of his counlrv 

62 Juiitorial Notes. 

was not only very great, it was surely greater than that oi 
either Pestaloz/.i or Froebel so far. I think he deserves a 
I>lace upon a paper devoted not to a special ism but to educa- 
tion in general. Besides, Mann's picture on the cover would 
])e CDUsidered a proof of the impartial spirit of the editors and 
their ability to recognize merit outside of the Kindergarten." 

Is THK Kindergarten a Charity? — Many zealous Kin- 
dergartners are happy over the fact that the convention 
of Charities and Corrections recently held at Denver recog- 
nized the Kindergarten as one of its departments. Is it not 
rather a sign of promise that the charity phase of the work is 
being merged into the educational, and so found to be, not 
less of a charity, but a mission of the truest order with a more 
potent influence. It is stated by one who speaks with author- 
ity that all the wrong in the world is the result of false edu- 
cation. The Kindergarten is a truer form of education than 
has as yet been demonstrated, and in that sense, it is a reform 
movement of such infinite capacity to work good, that it is 
lifted far above the term "charity." in its modern sense. If 
Charity is still to be held in its primal meaning, Love, then, 
indeed is the Froebel school a sweet charit3\ The fact that 
there is being noble work done in the mission Kindergartens, 
by no means reduces the educational value of these schools. 
The staunch Kindergartner will never lose sight of the latter 
under stress of pathetic appeals to her sympath}'. If she be 
true to her high calling she will be serving a powerful anti- 
dote to all forms of human decrepitude. 

Modern Primary Methods. — There is a growing demand 
by primary teachers to .secure practical and sound help in 
their specific department, along the lines of progressive 
methods. The Kindergarten Magazine will continue as 
in the past, to supply this need and stands open to all discus- 
sions of this important department of education. The primary 
school is no longer the first step, but the .second, and hence 

Editorial Notes. 63 

arises the desire 011 ilic part of primary teachers to become 
better informed oil preliminary methods, as well as to adopt 
whatever of the new education is expedient and practicable. 
There are many progressive primary teachers who are work- 
ing out maps of their own, having an understanding of sound 
pedagogics. The;artkn M.\gazink, hopes to 
.secure the fruits of such experimental lal>or to its columns for 
the benefit of all inquiring and earnest workers. 



As is well known to experienced teachers, there is every- 
thing in the way the first day of school opens. There are 
some inclined to think that because it is the first day it won't 
matter much even if we are not quite on time, or even if we 
do not keep as strictly to our ideas of discipline. This is a 
serious mi.stake, since, on the first day, the pattern for the 
year is to a great measure set. There is no reason why the 
expected conditions, be they labeled rules or not, should not 
be made clear on the first day, and the children adjust them- 
selves to the same. Some Kindergartners have found the 
secret of beginning at once, taking for granted themselves 
that the best way is the only way, and leading the children 
from the home rule into controlled freedom without so many 
preliminary steps toward making the change. If the trne 
home element is present in the Kindergarten or school-room, 
the children will not have to become acclimated to it, but will 
be at home at once. 

In the case of mi.ssion schools, where there are occasional 
children with whom the Kindergartner expects to have 
trouble, it is wise to begin the first day with a ver}- definite 
policy, It is fatal to be afraid of children, or even to feel un- 
certain as to their probable attitudes. The Kindergartner 
must act in faith that the truth which she recognizes in child 
nature, will respond to every touch of truth in her own efforts. 

PractUe Work. 65 

Children always come on the opening day with a feeling of 
expectancy, if not of awe, and if into this mood can be sow^n 
the ri^ht sort of confidence and earnestness, the greatest step 
has been taken. To have the child in the true relationship 
to all about him, people as well :us things, is the prime pur- 
pose of his school-going. The first days and the impressions 
brought with them, have much to do in this direction. 


Appeals come with each mail that more, so-called, '• prac- 
tical work" may appear in the KiNDKRGAkTKN Mag- 
AziNK. There is a growing desire on the part of all workers 
to make good the theory of the system in a strong demonstra- 
tion of practical results. There was a time when the majority 
of Kindergartners were lost in the endless and meaningless 
mazes of empty handwork unsniiplanted by a ktiowledge of 
the educational principle back of it. That time is passing 
and for some recent years the great effort on the part of pro- 
fessional workers has l)een to retrieve the theory, the phi- 
losophy of Kroebel. To-day and for all time to come, the 
effort is to substantiate each in the other. The Kindergar- 
TK.N' Magazinic is intended to be the mouthpiece for this 
purpose, and we trust that workers in the active field will 
take advantage of the opportunity and send their experi- 
ences and efforts in making the i>rinciple manifest in works, 
to our practical department. Thus a record may be kept 
which will l)e of mutual advantage to all concerned. 

practical work on COLUMBUS. 

Friday. October 21, has been the day set aside by national 
authorities tor a niemt»rial day of the discovery of America. 
ICvery schoolhouse antl class-room is to be given over to ap- 
propriate exercises for the day. The Kindergarten is not to 
be excluded. 

Among the famous heroes which children of the Kinder- 
garten have hitherto been particularly led to love and rever- 

Vol.. v. — NO. I. 5 

66 Practice Work. 

ence and appreciate, are George Washington and Friedrich 
Froebel. Kindergartners have worked out the stories of these 
lives in detail, each according to her own ideas and ideals, 
presenting the facts practically to the children. 

It has been suggested that the Columbus programs be 
taken up with earnest effort, that the occasion and its inmost 
meaning may be brought home to the children. The following 
suggestions are thrown out by a Kindergartner who is seriously 
considering the matter ; preparatory to presenting it to her 
children, in the hope that others may take them up and con- 
tribute the fruits of their thought to the October Magazine, 
for the common good. 

Taking for the Kindergartner' s own motive thought. First., 
the faithfulness of Columbus to his idea, leaving no means 
untried, no sacrifice unmade to execute it ; Second, how by 
pushing on to its fulfillment, and finding the land beyond the 
sea, he dispelled the darkness and superstition which fear and 
ignorance had woven over the beautiful, unknown new world. 
The career of Columbus might be divided into three epochs, 
along historical lines. 

1. The preliminary steps toward his undertaking, includ- 
ing the stories of his boyhood, life on the coast, looking ever 
out toward sea, his appeals to Queen Isabella and final 

2. His voj'ages ; accounts of ships and sailors, long and 
seemingly hopeless journey ings ; discouragement of sailors, 
but Columbus' faith,— the green branch and nest floating on 
water, final landing, and glad thanksgiving. 

3. The new country, coast, forests, and signs of habita-' 
tion. The Indians, their life in tents and general awe of 
white men, — the return voyage and the sailors' accounts of 
the new world. 

This is merely a suggestive outline, which would bear 
detailed application, and a clear purpose as to the desired in- 
fluence upon the child, in order to make it of real value. 
There are depths of romantic and picturesque beauty to the 
many interesting situations of this stor}', and the wise Kin- 
dergartner will select a few of those best fitted to carry her 

Practice Work. 67 

thought to the child and handle them carefully. It is but a 
step from this train of historic incident to the coming of the 
Pilgrims as associated with the Thanksgiving season. — A. If. 


In ulili/iiig the Columbus story for the Kindergarten, 
connecting and primary classes, the following suggestions for 
reading may not come amiss. In a life s<j torn by criticism 
and so covered with uncertainties it is best to waive the 
doubtful disputations and look out into the broad sunlight of 
its actual deeds and virtues. The idealized Columbus of 
Lamartine, Irvin;^ and others is certainly the Ijetter side to 
cull from if the honey is to be drawn for child-listeners. 

Tlie first pai>er in this issue, devoted to Columbus, goes 
into a (li.scussion of his morality and shows that he is good 
man enough to make a model for children to study, and pro- 
ceeds to place him as a central figure in history and geo- 
graphy by which they may get their bearings for all future 
time, without eliminating the finger of God from the destinies 
of nations and men. The same author, Mrs. Mary H. Hull, 
has in preparation (and about to l>e published) a child's 
story of Columbus and his great deed, which crystallizes the 
ihouj^ht in s*ich pratical form that we cannot but wish it 
mij;hl have appeared .sooner. liut Columl)Us will be always 
with us as much a feature in the future as Washington, being 
llie step beyond Washiui^tou and the home-nation into the 
great mollier, luiropc, and the !)ei;innin>;s of the child Col- 

The first halt" of \'ol. I., of Rohcrt.«ion*s ' Charles \"." (J. B. 
Lippincott. publisher), entitled " A \'iew of the State of 
Ivurope," gives Columbus a setting in the world's histon*; 
and further the adventures of Marco Polo are a wonderful key 
to his state of mind with regard to discovery. This latter is 
edited for children, by Knox—" The Travels of Morco Polo." 
I'or the story of his life Irvini^ is amoni; the most trustworthy; 
also Prescott's " Ferdinand and Isabella." Among later 
works are " With the Admiral of the Ocean Sea," by 'Mackie 

68 Practice Work. 

"Beatriz and Columbus," by Du Bois (A. C. McClurg, 
Chicago) ; Windsor's Life of Columbus, has made deep re- 
searches but is often unjust to the character of Columbus ; 
John Fisk, James G. Blaine, E. E. Hale, have written most 
inspirational words concerning this great character. Eowell 
and Schiller have spoken in verse with equal enthusiasm. 
Almost any library v/ould supph' an excellent course of read- 
ing on Columbus, although the above mentioned combination 
of works would be less apt to involve the student in useless 
discussions of minor detail. The current magazines are very 
valuable in their Columbian contributions. We would espe- 
cially mention Julian Hawthorne's "A New Columbus," in 
the Arena for June, 1891. 

It is well to read as much of Columbus' own writings as 
possible, for there is where we get at the spirit of the man. 
Yet even in these we must remember his writings were 
addressed to grandees, and that he was very anxious to 
please them, so this influence is upon him. But there are so 
many natural sentences, that here we get the most of him. 

It would seem that, though Columbus has long ago gone 
to his higher reward, he has only now come to his kingdom 
in the world of his discovery. The whole World's Fair is 
not too great a memorial of a character we can so love and 
honor, for studied in all the white — and black — light of crit- 
icism, there has not been found one real blemish, and we may 
well study him and teach him to the child. 


This little birdie flew away ; 

This little bird staid at home all day ; 

This little bird caught a blue-bottle fly ; 

This little bird found a stalk of rye ; 

This little bird cried, " Tweet ! tweet ! tweet ! 

I can't find anything to eat." 

— Babyland. 

Practice Work. 69 


The following sugj^estioiis are taken from a recent article 
by Ida G. Myers, of Washington : 

The Kindergartner must make up her mind to really " keep 
house " in the school-room as one of the most effective parts 
of her teaching. It has a homely sound savoring of menial 
service, and in all the enthusiasm and exaltations of profes- 
sional preparation, dust cloths and scrap bags had no place ; 
yet these are essentials in this "building of the nation." 
These are the first helps to prepare to use in order that we 
may be left free to teach without the harrowing consciousness 
that the eyes are taking in sights sufficient to destroy a large 
part of the value of that given in the formal work of training. 

Power for children is what we seek, nor does it of necessity 
come only with arithmetic and grammar. In the proper man- 
agement of the room there is as great an opportunity to 
develop personal responsibility in practical affairs as there is 
in the regular work. Order is po~u'er, tidiness is pcncer, pni- 
dence of plan and action is po'wcr, as truly as is the ability to add 
numbers and construct sentences. These qualities come as fre- 
quently in the little economies and judicious plannings ot 
housekeeping as in the more dignified work. 

Kindergartners should look to it then that their rooms 
su!)serve the purpose of helping to make the children capable. 
Often we are the only persons in the world who give these 
pupils one grain of help in this tlirection. Do it. Mow? In 
the first place make them think that the room is theirs. This 
is n't done by talking, but by action. There is nothing 
more certain to bring out personal interest and care than a of ownership. Do make the room theirs to preserve and 
improve. See that they keep this plac^ in i>erfect order. 
Don't do it yourself. He there : help ; suggest : Im? interested, 
but let them do it. The Kindergartner who herself does all 
the rubbing and dusting and arranging is n't giving children 
habits of work. Hring each one to feel that his part of the 
room is to be kept immaculate by his own lal>or. to the end 
that he may become habitually orderly and painstaking. 


Practice Work. 

There are general duties, too, that diflferent ones may take. 
For instance, as soon as they understand why you make a 
particular arrangement of curtains or shades at one time, 
changing this at another to give the light required, pass this 
duty to a child to perform regularly, unobtrusively and intelli- 
gently. Let another look after the ventilation. Show them 
what you mean by a perfectly clean blackboard — one fit for 
their room ; then require them to keep it so. Punctilious care 
in the execution of all the duties assigned shows them the 
good they may do. Ever}' accident that mars or disfigures 
any part of the room should be immediately made good. 

If in opening several days are needed to set things a-going 
after this fashion without fret, without friction, time will not 
be lost and Kindergartners will have done much to start ways 
of self-reliance and self-help. 

A week's work. 

[Miss Warner's contribution is' an excellent suggestion for interchange of work 
on the part of Kindergartners, and we would commend her remark as to mutual help 
and invite like papers from other workers. — Ed.] 

The week's work in my Kindergarten has been so delight- 
ful both to children and teacher, that I have wished that 
tvery Kindergartner could have enjoyed it with us. This 
being impossible the next best thing is to tell them about it. 
It cannot fail to interest and ma}-, I hope, help some teacher 
in the preparation of like work, and in this mutual help we 
should all be willing to " lend a hand." 

The subject for the week was the cow, and when the chil- 
dren came on Monday morning, the first thing that greeted 
their eyes, was a large picture of a cow drawn upon the board. 
They were delighted and made her acquaintance speedily 
giving her the name of " Bessie." 

Our morning talk was about cows. Even the babies knew 
that the cow "gives us milk," and the older ones knew for 
what the hide is u.sed, and before the week was out they had 
thought of a long list of articles made of leather ; whip han- 
dles, satchels, shoes, harness, covering for chairs, card cases, 
purses, etc. 

Practice Work. 71 

At the tables, the first morning, the lesson was with sticks, 
with which the children made a liam, each child having a 
cardboard cow. As the cardboard was gray, of course, all the 
cows were Jersey ! They were not allowed to go into that 
l)art of the barn reserved for the horses and carriages, but 
were kept in the cow sheds exclusively ! 

The next day with the Third and Fourth Gifts we made a 
stable. The Jersey was placed within and each child was given 
a little three- lej^j^ed stool of cardboard and a cardljoard pail 
covered with tinfoil. We talked about milk and what is 
made from it. 

This day's work prepared the children for the Dairy work, 
the following day, the most delightful day of the week. 

In this small Southern California town there is no such 
thing as a toy store, such as one finds in a city, into which 
one can go, and at very little expense procure little articles 
that add so much to the children's interest in work like this. 
It is an excellent place for the developing of the Kinder- 
gartner's inventive faculty. We were to have a Dairy. I 
wanted pans. Real tin ones were out of the question, but 
cardboard was plenty and my inventive i>owers were, happily, 
eijual to the emergency. I cut a round piece for the bottom 
of the pan, about the size of a nickel, and another cylindrical 
piece for the sides, and with fine thread and needle sewed the 
two together. After this was done, I covered it with tinfoil, 
and after half a day's work, had my row of shining milk pans 
complete — two for each child. A churn I made of cardboartl, 
and pasted a strip of paper on the back, leaving an opening 
just large enough into which to slip a strip of cardboard for the 
dasher, that, in this way, " really worked " up and down. 

After our talk in the morning the children went to their 
seats and with the Fourth Gift made two little tables. A few 
moments later the dairies were ready, and I wish you all could 
have visited them. Vou wouUl have seen upon one table two 
milk pans full of real niilk ; on the other rolls of butter, 
( the yellow cylinders for stringing) which the children had 
wrapped in tissue paper for butter cloth — at the same time 
learning how many pounds were in a roll, and telling me as 


Practice Work. 

they finished their calculation that they had four pounds in 
their two rolls. The churns were being worked vigorously 
by the happy little dairy women and men ; the Jerse^^ cow 
was out in the field beyond, and the stool and pail stood read}'- 
for use. It was all delightfully "real" to the children and 
enjoyable and gratifying to me. 

In the occupations they sewed a cow, and pricked the out- 
lines of the churn, stool and pail. 

In addition to the cow and calf, I drew upon the board, 
the barn, the stable, churn, stool, pail, shoes (the mamma's 
and the baby's) whips, satchels, etc., and the children drew 
on their slates, some of these. The calf was named by the 
children " Daisy," and I am not sure but that it and the cow 
will remain on the board for the rest of the term, as the 
children seem to be so fond of them and unwilling to have 
them erased. 

The babies, of course, did not do as much as the older 
ones, but they had the cardboard cows ; worked the ' ' really ' ' 
dasher in the churns ; had real milk in the little pans, and all 
of them, older ones and babies, had a drink of real milk " all 

As the Kindergarten is connected with the public school, 
I had access to the charts used in the other departments, and 
they added greatly to the value of the lessons. On the ones 
we used were pictures of the cow^ and calf, pieces of different 
kinds of leather, pieces of glue, buttons, combs, etc., and the 
children thus saw for themselves the articles made from the 
hide, horns and hoofs of the animal. 

So much for my week's work — I know how discouraging it 
is to work up a subject when cramped for material, but much 
may be done to supply the need if we are willing to put a little 
extra thought upon inventing for ourselves, and the satisfac- 
tion gained from successfully carrying out a week's pro- 
gram, fully repays one for all thought and time expended. 

I am anxious to see more of this subject work going on in 
the Kindergartens. The work oftentimes is too "scrappy" ; 
too unfinished ; there is too much smattering of many things ; 
too little thoroughness in any one thing. 

Practice Work. 73 

Let us give the helping hand to one another in this regard. 
We need each other's thought, each other's work. Let us 
give it, however small it may seem to us. I.^nd a band. 
Our own enthusiasm will grow and many a Kindergartner be 
helped and encouraged. — Anna Warner, lianning, San Ber- 
nardino County, Cal. 


A wee little nut lay deep in its nest, 
Of satin and down, the softest and best ; 
And slept and grew, while its cradle rocked, 
As it hung in the boughs that interlocked. 

Now the house was small where the cradle lay, 
As it swung in the winds by night and day ; 
For a thicket of underbrush fenced it round, 
This little lone cot by the great sun browned. 

The little nut grew, and ere long it found 
There was work outside on the soft green ground, 
It mu:?t do its part, so the world might know. 
It has tried, one little seed to sow. 

And .soon the house that had kept it warm 
Was tossed about by the autumn stonn ; 
The stem was cracked, the old house fell. 
And the chestnut burr was an empty shell. 

Hut the little seed as it waiting lay, 
Dreamed a wonderful dream day by day. 
Of how it should break it coat of bro\ui 
And live as a tree, to grow up and down. 

- Ad^ibt.d 



are a happy argument in favor of home education. In the 
Life and Letters of Louisa M. Alcott we read of the homely 
family life which environed herself and sisters. There was 
poverty, meagre opportunity, and stern duty in their dail)^ 
course, but behind this stood a father with high ideals and a 
mother with long forbearance. The education of the chil- 
dren consisted largely in what they absorbed from their par- 
ents, who took time to talk, think and live according to their 
highest ideals. The father considered it an important part of 
education to learn to think on paper, to express sweet 
thoughts in writing. In order to make this practical in the 
home school, it was made a rule that each member of the 
family keep a daily journal, these to be subject to family 
perusal and criticism. Furthermore when the good mother 
wished to express her commendation or criticism of the 
children, she often wrote it in the form of a personal note 
and received her answer in the same way. The children ex- 
changed poems at an early date and so generated that admir- 
able power of putting into good form their choicest thoughts. 
Is there not a broad illustration here of the truth that ideals 
are greater educators than facts ? The Alcott children were 
fond of playing school in the barn, and acting out their self- 
written plays. They w^ere taught all practical values through 
hard work and simple pleasures, and so developed an honest 
and sturdy appreciation of all things. 

(To tune " Mill Wheel.") 

The wheel goes round and round ; 
The wheel goes round and round. 
It moves the needle sharp and bright, 

Child-Culture Study- Circle. 75 

That sews my clothes so neat and tight. 
The merry wheel goes round, 
The merry wheel goes round. 

Huiuniing all the time, 

Like a pleasant rhyme. 

The needle's dancing up and down. 

The spool is whirling round and round, 

The merry wheel keeps time 

Like a pleasant rhyme. 

What drives it round and round, 
With cheerful, happy sound ? 
The treadle — rocking to and fro. 
Seesaw, seesaw, heel and toe. 
It drives the big wheel round 
With busy, cheerful sound. 

— Fannie Dayton. 


In the April number a call was is.sued for correspondence 
on the part of mothers in regard to the practical ways and 
means of home keeping with the little ones. 

"To Froebel belongs the credit of having found the true 
nature of play, and of regulating it in such a way as to lead it 
gradually and naturally intt) work, securing for work the 
same spontaneity ami jo\', the same freedom and serenity that 
characterizes the plays of childhood." 

The following letter comes, from a mother who has prac- 
ticed Kroebel's way, for publication in the Cmii.dCi'LTURK 
Study-Circi.k : 

Having for years been specially interested in the training and de- 
velopment of children, I have studietl Kintlcrgarten nictho«l» for the 
home anil Sinulay-school, as a "deep philosophy." The first gift I 
reconnuciul to young mother* and teachers is the gift of the Holy 
Spirit. I have not gone hcyond that. In our home are five p«ir« of 
littU- helping hands. Our oldest is a hoy of fourteen, studying Latin 
and German, and violin music. On Saturxlay he makes and Itake* the 
cakes, cookies and pies, darns the stocking*, superiateuds • tafTy palling 

76 Child- Culture Study-Circle. 

for the younger children, and when mother is sick, he is the tender, 
intelligent nurse ; frequently helping with the bed-making and bathing 
of his brothers and sisters. 

Then comes the little girl of eight years, who works magically, 
putting a room to rights, dusting and polishing windows when mother's 
back is turned, to surprise her. She can make an omelette, also soup, 
is an excellent nurse for baby brother. Next is our little sunbeam, 
a girl of six years, she flits about singing all the day, and cannot 
be pinned down to anything like work. She can gather and gracefully 
arrange flowers, can brush father's hair, bring his slippers or a glass of 
water ; she will answer the door-bell, entertain callers charmingly, and 
creep into the middle of all hearts and nestle there, but she does not 
learn anything. She has no ambition, she is "good for nothing but to 
love." Then comes a boy of five years, jolly and affectionate. He can 
stand on a chair and wash and wipe dishes, lustily singing, " First the 
glass and then the silver, rinse them in the suds so hot," etc. They all 
wash and iron plain small clothes, the little boy can iron and fold the 
napkins square and smooth. He does it so much better than the girls 
do ! He cau also bake the griddle cakes and bring them to the break- 
fast table smoking hot. The baby boy is twenty months old ; he helps 
us all. In the morning when the children are dressing, he knows to 
whom each pile of neatly folded clothes belong, and carries them to the 
owner. He knows each napkin ring, and when the others are setting 
the table, the baby places the napkins and pushes up the chairs ; 
he also carries many of the smaller dishes to the bufifet, as they are 
wiped. My children are not models, sometimes they get an\ry and 
cry or quarrel with each other. They are my constant companions, are 
taught to be cleanly and speak the truth and that correctly. They 
always work cheerfully and are happier at their play for it. It would 
have been much easier forme to do all the work myself than to take the 
pains to teach them ; but it is a duty to make children useful and it 
pays twofold, — it blesses the parent and blesses the child. Sunday is 
our red-letter day, we always have candy and our pet dishes and Sunday 
toys, and build sand-maps of the Holy Land, making paper tents for the 
army encamped around the block walls of Jerusalem. We read stories 
and have our choicest music. During the week, we have our weaving 
and paper folding, colored crayons and a blackboard. Each child has a 
box of water-color paints, they make their own paper dolls. They have 
a large tool chest, also a miniature house to keep clean, it has a yard in 
which is a real fountain. They have no other toys. The hardest work 
they have, according to their own measure, is the half hour's practice 
on the piano each day. — Mrs. C. 31. Brown, Front Royal, Va. 

Hkre is a hint for practical and possible work for mothers : The 
Mothers' Council of Crawfordsville, Indiana, is composed of a few ear- 
nest mothers associated together for the purpose of studying the best 

Child-Culture Study-Circle. 77 

methods of teaching and training their children. A discussion of 
" IMaiis for Summer Work " was participated in by all the members of 
the club. These plans were practical sujj^estions for out-of-do<jr life by 
which the abounding energy of chihlhood could l>c led into channels of 
usefulness. (Jiie member told what little children could learn of the 
habits and song of birds. Another showed the entertainment and 
instruction to be found in studying the habits of insects. Another illus- 
trate<l the pleasure and profit a child may get from free use of hammer, 
nails and saw, by giving the details of a child's success in Viuilding his 
own playhouse ; of ha])py play in clean white .sand ; and afterward told 
of a child's care for and collection of flowers from babyhocMl to the age 
of six. The Council will meet regularly for such practical discussions. 


A happy little family of water-drops lived in a (juiet 
motherly pond. What gay times they had ! How they swam 
about and played with each other ? How they loved to chat 
with the wind of what he saw in his blowing al)Out the earth, 
often asking him, if, in all the wide world there was any 
place so pretty, or so nice as their pond. One day the wind 
grew playful, and catight up olie of the little water-drops, 
and set it on the broad leaf of a tall wavin^j plant that grew 
near the bank. 

There that water-drop swung, and sung of the fun it was 
having s6 high up in the air, rocked all day in a broad green 
leaf, until the water-drops down in the jwnd longed with 
their whole hearts to be there too. Finally the drop on the 
broad leaf di.sappeared altogether ; the winil whispered that it 
had gone out to see the world. 

Then how the little drops in the pond longed to go also, 
to see the world. How (|uiet and small the pond seemed 
now. Some even called it stupid. How they wishetl like 
the wind they might go where they plea.sed. They looked 
at the white clouds, floating all day long in the pretty blue 
sky. and grew more unhappy all the tinie. The wind soon 
found out what was the matter with the water drops who had 
always been such merry playfellows but now did nothing 
l)ut frown antl look longingly far away. He told the sun. 

When the sun heard the story, he smiled a knowing smile. 

•jS Child- Culture Study-Circle. 

and said : " Foolish water-drops, they do not know that there 
is nothing more beautiful than their own quiet pond with its 
water-lilies and its grassy banks." 

He moved nearer and nearer, until he stood right above 
the pond. Then he spoke, softly, and perhaps somewhat 
sadly : 

" lyittle water-drops, if you will look in ni}- face for a 
while without once looking away, I think I can help you to 
come up here and be a cloud." 

The little water-drops trembled for joy, and almost all of 
them looked straight at the great sun. Some were afraid, for 
the sun was so big and bright, and they crept down to the 
bottom of the pond and hid. Some kept on looking and look- 
ing and at last one cried : " Oh, I believe I am beginning to 
go up ; I feel so warm and light." And sure enough, in a 
short time the}' all grew warm and light, and began to go up. 
Soon they floated off in a tin}' cloud, and laughed at the 
water-drops, who had not been brave enough to look the sun 
straight in the face. Farther away floated the tiny cloud. 
The breeze played with it, and chased it about in ever}- di- 
rection, while the old sun smiled at the fun as he kept, ever, 
on his journey toward the west. 

The little cloud, in its glee, did not notice that the sun 
was going down, until it felt a warm red glow all over it. 
How proud it was to be in that glow and red like it. In the 
pond there had been only glimpses of it caught. But to be in 
the midst of it ! What undreamed of happiness ! And there 
was the sun smiling good-night. After the sun had really 
gone, and the red glow too, the tiny cloud felt lonely and for 
the first time noticed that larger clouds were near by. Every- 
thing was so dark that it grew frightened, and crept nearer 
the larger clouds for protection. That rogue, the wind, be- 
gan to be rough. He was joined, too, by other winds, 
rougher still, and strange beside, who- buffeted the poor little 
cloud until it wished with all its heart that it had never left 
the pond and the lilies. 

Worst of all, there came a mighty, old wind who had no 
feeling for clouds of any sort, much less such tiny ones. 

Child- Culture Study-Circle. 79 

This hard-hearted fellow sent such icy blasts towards the 
poor, frightened, cold, little cloud, that it shivered through 
and through. It could hear its troubles no longer, and it l>e- 
gan to cry. The tears dropjjed, one by one. Hach little 
water-drop found itself once more a water-drop, only — falling 
— falling — right into the bosotn of the quiet pond, which like 
a patient mother had waited with open arms for the children 
she knew would come back to her when wear>' with their 
struggles to see the world. 

No one knows, except the water-drops themselves, and 
perhaps the naughty breeze, how the sun smiled the next 
morning, when he saw the ripples of gladness and the laugh- 
ing dimples all over the face of the quiet pond down among 
the lilies and the tall grass. — Ral. 

It is not sentiment, but sound sense upon which the 
KiNDKRG.VRTEN M.\G.\ziNK bases its statmeiit, that ever>' 
mother is an educator and should keep close to her children 
in the school as well as the home. This monthly journal is 
devoted to the interests of the new education and appeals 
to parents everywhere by its intelligent presentation of the 
vexed question. It is not enough that mothers are even tem- 
pered, or playful with their little ones, although both of these 
qualities are great steps toward true motherhood, but mothers 
must come, as many of them have already done, into a con- 
scious effort to educate their children. The KiNi>EKt;.\RTKM is here to help all such who have awakeneil to the 
possibilities of the home school. It is not enough that parents 
see to it that their children are .sent to a first-class school when 
grown up. but they must begin to lay the foundation of this 
after education in the home. The Kixdkrc..\rtkx Maga- 
ZINK is designed to help in this preliminary work. Its moth- 
ers' department is edited in the interest of earnest and honest 
parents, who are seeking to follow out the demands which 
m )dern educational progress are everywhere making ujxin 
them. The " home and the .school " is a phrase marking the 
modern tendeucv. 


Child-Culture Study- Circle. 


The following happy play is suggestive to mothers who 
are desirous of using the Kindergarten gifts in the home 
nursery. It illustrates one of Miss Poulsson's well known 
finger plays, and has been found to greatly delight the chil- 
dren for whom it was arranged by Miss Ellen Robena Field, 
Bangor, Maine. The forms are all to be made with the sticks 

and rings. 

The Little Bofs Walk. 

A little boy went walking 
One lovely Summer day ; 

He saw a little rabbit 
That quickly ran away. 

He saw a shining river 
Go winding in and out, 

And little fishes in it 

Were swimming round about. 

And slowly, slowly turning 
The great wheel of the mill ; 

I medium riug. 

I small ring. 

7 one-inch sticks. 

I bead or split pea for eye. 

S three-inch sticks. 
Several one-inch sticks for 

8 three-inch sticks. 
4 two-inch sticks. 

And then the tall church steeple, 
The little church so still. 

2 three-inch sticks. 

2 one-inch sticks. 

3 two-inch sticks. 

Child- Cullure Slndy- Circle. 


The bridge above the water ; 

1 five-inch stick 

3 two inch stick*. 

2 large halfrinj^s. 

And when he stojijK-d to rest, 
He saw among the hushes 
A wee ground sparrow's nest. 

For Bushes: 

I four-inch stick. 

3 one-inch sticks. 

3 two-inch slicks. 

3 three-inch sticks. 
For Nfst: 

One medium ring. 

One small half ring. 

And as he watched the birdies 
Above the tree-tops fly, 

He saw the cloiuls a-sailing 
Across the sunnv skv. 

For clouds: 

4 three-inch sticks. 
For hird: 

I two inch stick. 

3 one-inch sticks. 
For Ircc: 

I five-inch stick. 

4 one-inch sticks. 
4 two-inch sticks. 

4 three-inch sticks. 
4 four-inch sticks. 



He saw the in.sects playing. 

For hnlttrfly: 

I three-inch stick. 
M two-inch sticks, 
or 3 one-inch sticks 
I two- inch stick, 
6 otio inrh stirks. 

VOL. v.— NO. I. 

82 Child-Cnliure Study-Circle. 

The flowers that Summer 

For Flowers: 

S two-inch sticks. 
I four-inch stick. 
1 I small ring. 

He said "I'll go tell mamma g ^^an H^^gs. 

I've seen so many things." i large half ring. 

In this department more especialh' meant for mothers, the 
aim is to give such papers, stories and helps as apph' easih' to 
the home. In the department of Practice Work, with its sug- 
gestions for the Kindergarten table and circle there will be a 
multitude of excellent things that may be adopted to the 
home needs, where, although there may be no regular pro- 
gram of work possible, 3-et an earnest, intelligent mother may 
put a method and sequence into it all if she is led with the 
true ideal for her child. The great stress which the Kinder- 
garten trainer puts on the mothers' needs and the call from 
ever}' quarter on their own parts proves that such a depart- 
ment is indeed nece.ssary. We hope that Kindergartners will 
feel at liberty to suggest and contribute to this department 
whatever they may feel prompted to in the wa}- of practical 
home helps, stories, and discussion. 


Miss Ej.La C. Elder, formerly of Florence, Mass., is the ntw 
superintendent for the Buffalo Free Kinder^^artcn Association. This 
youHK orfjanization has undertaken an important and extensive work, 
and its superintendence is a correspondingly responsible office. We 
understand that the .-\ssociation will open si.x free schools this fall, as 
well as a paid training class, with a two years' course. 

rkAil" INSTITUTK, Brooklyn, opens a training class for Kinder- 
gartners this fall, in response to the growing nee«l for professionally 
trained Kindergartners. The course of study given at the Institute will 
include the usual study of the gifts and occupations of the Kindergar- 
ten, and of the scientific laws underlying this work ; lessons in form 
study and drawing, and in sinijilc instrumental drawing ; instruction in 
physical culture, as daily illustrated in the games with the children ; 
special lessons in vocal music ; studies of plant and animal life ; lessons 
in physiology and psychology ; lectures on the theory and history of 
education, and on Froel>ers philosophy, with its practical apiplication to 
the Kindergarten. Miss Hannah I). Mowry is in charge of this depart- 
ment of the work, and has as her leading assistant and training teacher, 
Miss .\lice E. Fitts, formerly with the Chicago Kindergarten College. 
These twp la<Iies have spent the past summer together in Europe, in the 
interest of their work. 

TiiK annual circular of the Oiiaha, Neb., Kindergarten comes to 
hand, Mrs. Evelyn Grifliths Stallard, directress. This Kindergarten 
has added a primary department, to meet the demands of parents wish- 
ing to continue beyoml the Kin«lergarten. 

Thk Western Normal College, Lincoln, Neb., has secured as princi- 
pal of its Kindergarten Normal department. Miss Emma Moutgomerv, 
of Chicago. Normal schools are reaching out towanl the Kindergarten 
with more serious purpose each year. 

Thk Louisville Kindergarten Association breaks the usual custom, 
in that it holds its connnencement exercises in Octol>cr instead of June. 
Two classes are graduated this year, the prograni calling for a single 
paper from each class. Miss Bryan attende»l the School of Applietl 
Ethics, hehl each summer at IMy mouth, Mass., and is most earnest in 
her recommendation of it to the peculiar neeils of the Kiudergartner, 

84 Field Notes. 

who believes so strongly iu applied truth. This school is uuder the 
direction of Prof. Felix Adler, and calls out some of the best educational 
thinkers as well as doers. 

\Vk acknowledge among other June reports a most interesting one 
from New York, All Souls Church Kindergarten, in charge of Miss M. 
L. Van Wageuen. This Kindergarten has closed its fifteenth year, and 
has the honor of having been the first opened iu New York city. The 
training class under the same management graduated eighteen members 
in June, and has every prospect of a happy year, opening September, 

Miss Susax P. Pollock, of Washington, has been in charge of a 
large summer Kindergarten at Mountain Lake Park as well as a normal 
class of mothers and teachers, and an enthusiastic impetus was given the 
work. Mrs. Louisa Pollock enjoyed the midsummer convention of the 
N. E. A. at Saratoga. 

Miss Josephine Locke, of Chicago, read an important paper before 
the National Convention of Charities and Corrections, held at Denver, 
June 29. The paper entitled " Ideals iu Education" was a strong plea 
for an extension of Kindergarten principles into primary grade work. 
Among other forceful arguments, she said the following : 

" I feel that the Primary children have been deprived of their highest 
development, shorn of their best through the popular fallacj' that they 
must be got ready to earn a living as soon as possible, and that reading, 
writing and arithmetic were means to this end ; therefore, all child- 
hood's spare minutes must be devoted to mastering these rudiments. 
**•**•»* -x- * * 

" It is here the teachings and practices of the Kindergarten must 
applv. The Kindergarten has no right to be limited in its work or influ- 
ence to children of six j-ears or uuder. The same materials can be used, 
the same methods employed, and the same principles inculcated in the 
Primary School. This is the beauty of Froebel, that his philosophy is 
inexhaustible, because it is a divine universal philosophy', and that it is 
as full and rich in its culture for the lettered as for the ignorant, and for 
the nian as for the child. 

"The progress of the Kindergarten is the greatest step of our day 
toward the recognition of the Christ in education. The teachings of 
Froebel declare that every child is per sc a child of God, and that the 
kingdom of heaven is always within him, that the finding of this king- 
dom is the secret to all knowledge and wisdom and financial success. 
This kingdom which is the realm of the intuitional and spiritual, where 
truth is axiomatic, has been steadily repressed by the study of books and 
the interfering prescriptive teaching of the adult. The principles of 
Froebel contend for leeway for this kingdom." 

Field Notes. 85 

Thk Milwaukee State Normal School has opened a Kindergarten 
-department in connection with its regular curriculum, with Mis«C. M. 
C. Hart at the head. MIsa llart has )>cen principal of the same work in 
the Toronto Normal School for many years. The Milwiukce work will 
be followed with ^reat interest by the many so long connected with it. 

TiiH graduating exercises of the I'hiladelphia Training School for 
Kindergartners were held in the New Century Drawing Room on Wed- 
nesday evening, June i. The class, numbering thirty two, occupied the 
daintily decorated stage of the hall and by essays, songs and games gave 
the audience a practical insight into the Kindergarten system. 

The program consisle<l of an opening hymn and song ; essays on the 
following subjects : " What is the Kindergarten ? " by Mrs. M. L. Pick- 
ering ; "Color in the Kindergarten," by Miss Mal>el Warren; 'Sym- 
bolism," by Miss M. Mc.\lpine; "What the Kindergarten «loes for 
Women," l)y Miss A. C. Baker ; several groups of games among which 
was an original game composed by Miss M. M. Grugen with music by 
Miss J. H. Vache ; a dictation lesson in the Fourth Gift by Miss A. R. 
Gilchrist and a music lesson in the tonic sol-fa system given by I*ro- 
fessor Batchellor after the presentation of diplomas by Mrs. M. L. Van 
Kirk, principal of the school, the exercises were closed by the singing 
of Hrahm's Cradle Song. 

Nkw Ai.ii.vNY, Ind.. is favored with a tnmlel free Kindergarten 
at the generous hand of Miss R. W. Hreyfogle, who has just erectetl a 
handsome building on her private grounds, for the purpose. The in- 
creased occasion for new and special buildings for Kindergarten pur- 
poses, shows a growth in appreciation and valuation of the work. 

Thk Grand Rapids Kindergarten Training School are looking for- 
ward to the opening of their work in September. The new classes t>eiug 
organized Sepltinber 15th. Two Kindergartens will lie directly under 
the auspices of the Association, one private and one free Kimlergarten. 
There will also be seven or more other Kiutlergartens indirectly super- 
vi.scd by tlic faculty of the Training school, in which the students of the 
school will observe and practice. Cicneral study clawcs will l>e estab- 
lished for all interested in thesubject, also s|)ecial cla.sses for mothersand 
teachers. A class of twenty young women who finished a first year's course 
lost year will form an advanced class and continue the study and are 
looking forwaril with much pleasure to this second year's course. There 
will also be advanced classes for the mothers and teachers of last year. 
The outlook is very favorable for a successful and happy year. The work, 
as formerly, will be in charge of Mrs. I.ucretia Willard Treat and her assist- 
ants. Mrs. Treat will also have the general suj>ervision of the Kinder- 
garten Training School at Columbus, Ohio, making four visits there 
-during the year, spending one week at each visit holding mothers* 

86 Field Notes. 

meetings, taking charge of the classes in training and visiting the Kin- 
dergartens. She will also visit Muskegon, Mich., everj' two weeks 
throughout the year. Meeting classes of the public school teachers and 
Kindergartens. The summer work at Grand Rapids has also been very 
encouraging. During the summertime three Kindergartens have been 
maintained none of which are self-supporting, but which have been the 
means of giving much gladness and joy to many little ones. Several of 
the churches, having the true missionary spirit, have also opened their 
doors for the establishing of Kindergartens. 

The Public School Board of Evanston, 111., has given its consent to 
an experimental public Kindergarten under the charge of Miss Kate 
Beebe, who has been a most active worker in Chicago for some years. 
If the jear's test is a success, there is some promise of the Kindergarten 
being adopted in Evanston. 

A Full .Summer's Work.— We gather the following from corre- 
spondence in regard to Mrs. L. W. Treat's movements this summer. 
Leaving Grand Rapids the first of June, after a most wonderful trip 
over the Northern Pacific, she reached Salem, Ore., to find this western 
capital all awake to the Kindergarten. Throvigh the eiForts of the 
workers there, Mrs. Treat was called to aid in spreading the influence. 
Miss Orvilla Ballou, a Chicago graduate, has one of the most successful 
private Kindergartens, having forty children during the entire season ; 
next year the parents wish her to get the necessary assistance and con- 
tinue her Kindergarten, carrying the older ones on with connecting class 
and primary work with Kindergarten methods. A large and enthusi- 
astic Kindergarten study class was formed, meeting every day. By a 
wise thought it was not called mothers^ class — and several intelligent 
men joined. There were evening public meetings. The superintendent 
of the public schools — a lady — the president of Willamette University 
and all of the clergymen of the city espoused the cause warmly. Mrs. 
Treat spoke at the State Prison one Sunday afternoon and at the State 
Reform School. Miss Ballou was so much impressed at the latter place 
that she offered her services to go out — six miles — once a week all 
winter and give the boys clay and hand-work. The month of June was 
the favored time to visit the coast, the Rose and Strawberry Fair 
was a most wonderful display. One has to see to believe all the beau- 
tiful sights. Mrs. Treat was invited to speak the closing night of the 
Fair on "Fruits, Flowers and Children." Miss Ballou and Mrs. Treat 
visited .'\lbany, south of Salem, and were the guests of Mrs. Latham who 
has there a Kindergarten and training classes. Two meetings were held 
there under the auspices of the Kindergarten and the W. C. T. U. The 
23d of June, they went to Portland to attend the graduating exercises 
of the Kindergarten Association. Nine finished the course and took 
their diplomas -the room was decorated with flowers and the hand-work 

Field Notes. 87 

^n the wall. Kach of the teachers jjave a practical Imsoo. •moiig which 
were a Third Gift autl stick lessons, a story, song and Oelsarte cxcrci««, 
the students acting as chihlrcn. The thought was the »>ec« and flowers. 
The ladies were very brixhl and animated and carried out their part 
most successfully. Mrs. Treat addressed the class. In the evening • 
large public meeting was held for a final discussion of the subject. Mr*. 
Dunlap has every reason to be gratified with the result of her work lhi« 
year, .\fter a trip up the Columbia to The Dalles an<l the Cascade, — 
sights that no pen can describe- snow mountains, flowers, salmon fish- 
eries,— lolh to leave that l>eautiful, land and its hospitable people. Mrs. 
Treat returned to her home field of lalx)r. At St. Paul, she met the 
board of education and learned of their action to intro<luce twenty 
schools this fall. Superintendent Gilbert and others talked over their 
new work with her. The lectures in Hay View, Mich.. opene«l the loth 
of July. This assembly is second only to Chautaucjua in numbers. Dr. 
Richard T. Kly of Johns Hopkins University, the new principal is a 
leading social scientist, lie brought with him many strong educators. 
Mrs. Treat had charge of the Kindergarten department. Miss Hester P. 
Stowe assisting her. They had a daily Kindergarten of forty children, 
a class of over thirty teachers taking a normal course and a very inter- 
esting mothers' class. Public meetings were held and much interest 
awakened. The Kindergarten has always been a prominent feature of 
Bay View. The lovely Hay, fresh cool air, an-l delightful people make it 
a most desirai)le Summer resort. .Xfter a Summer school at Grand 
Rapids, another institute, and then preparjlion for next year, Mrs. 
Treat took a well earned rest. It renews s-trength and vigor, to meet 
so many earnest workers. The world is so full <>f them, and after 
going about among them, it is an inspiration to come home.iiul do one'^s 
own work better. 


Among the most aggressive and discriminating publishers of sound 
literature for children, is the firm of Ginn & Co., Boston. This firm has 
adopted the sturdj- policy to put only the best and highest material 
into book form. Every new volume for the young is tested and edited 
with the child in view before it is sent to the printer. Among recent 
publications of this firm we note a neat volume of "Good-night 
Poetry," compiled by Wendell P. Garrison. In the preface the author 
pleads that the sacred privileges of the evening hour be retained by the 
parents and contributes these songs to aid in establishing this sweet 
communion time. Miss Sarah E. Wiltse's new book of "Stories for 
Kindergartens and Primary Schools " is a valuable addition for the 
little folks. This publishing house is showing a tendency toward Kin- 
dergarten lines of thought, and especially in the "Classics for the 
Young" are they solving problems for us in high class literature for 
children. Their work in primers and first readers will also bear the 
closest inspection from the profession. 

The series of Ethics for Young People is given by such men as 
Julius H. Seelye, of Amherst College, C. C. Everett, of Harvard, and 
Benjamin B. Comegys. Books of this character are always suggestive to 
teachers and should be numbered among school libraries and we would 
advise them to keep the Ginn & Co. catalogues always on hand. A list 
of recent books and prices is given in the publishers' advertisement in 
this number. 

Thk story of the German Iliad, by Mary E. Burt (Effingham Maynard 
& Co. ) has been prepared for use as a reader in the sixth and seventh 
grade of schools, but Kindergartens will find in it in simple form the 
outline of the great story of Siegfried. We need not plead for the use northern classics with all their marvel of story and imagination j 
they are being brought out for children, because there is that demand 
greater than it can be supplied. This volume, with Miss Burt as author 
does not need our recommendation and except for the resemblance which 
she would point out between this story and the Greek myths, we could 
scarcely forgive the story's being named as it is. It would, perhaps, be 
more excusable to speak of Homer's song as the " Nibelungen of 
Greece." It is well enough for the child to call thmgs after other things 
when he has discovered the analogy for himself, but it is his right as an 

Book Notes. 89 

original investigator that he be given originals. We heartily recotn- 
niend this book, and in fact all the pro<liictionH of this author, to Kinder- 
gartners, since her work is done in the spirit which they are seeking 

Miss Phckhh Thoms, Cincinnati, O., has recently published a paper 
cover volume of " Important Kvents in the Worlds History," intended 
to be a handy reference tx>ok for students. It also contains tables of 
rulers and genealogies. 

A MULTiTl'DK of Kindergartners are always interested in knowing 
what Milton Hradley Co., Springfield, Mass., are doing for them, being 
confident through experience in the past that this concern will have 
something novel and helpful to offer them with each changing season. 
The latest catalogues from Springfield are worthy of careful study 
because of the special prominence which they give to Parquetry and the 
new methods of grouping it. On this account it is essential that Kin- 
dergartners slioulil have the late editions of the catalogue. The attempt 
of the Bradley company to make all the material which they manu- 
facture conform in its colors to the color scheme to which thiy pin their 
faith will render it desirable for all Kindergartners to interest them- 
selves in this system of teaching color. One way to do this will be to 
send for the little pamphlet, " The Rradley Color Scheme." The list of 
embroidery threads is being improved and enlargetl and the assortment 
of engine colored papers is much better than it has ever Ijeen l>efore 
during the twenty years that the company has sold these papers. The 
litest a Mition to their material is Miss TruesMlell's Little Creaser. 
which is a very simple instrument for creasing lacing strips so as to 
facilitate accurate folding in connection with the work of the Seven- 
teenth Gift. It is the invention of a i>ractical Kindergartner and when- 
ever used is valued highly. The Bradley company are also arranging 
to add to the number of l>ooks which they publish for Kindergartners 
and primary teachers. They have in press a little work "CbiN Mixlel- 
ing in the Schoolroom," by Ellen Stephens Hildreth, who was. we 
believe, formerly associated with Susan K Blow in the St. Louis 



There is great demand for all back numbers of the Kindergarten 
Magazine, bj- mauy who wish to possess the complete file. This 
shows a growing appreciation of the practical value of the magazine. 
There is repeated call for Volume I. The substance of this volume can 
be secured in the compilation, Mother's Portfolio, as advertised in last 
year's Magazines. Vol. II. is entirely out of print, and only a very 
limited number of bound Vol. III. are in the market, at I3.00 each. 
Vol. IV., in cloth, can still be had for I2.25. Address, Kindergarten 
Magazine, Woman's Temple, Chicago. 

Wanted. — We need February 1S92 Kindergarten. If you have 
one to spare send it, and we will give you any other number in ex- 
change. Kindergarten Magazine, Woman's Temple, Chicago. 

Bound /W«;«^5.— Exchange your files for 'gi-'ga (Vol. IV.) for a 
bound volume of same; it will cost you only 75 cents to have a hand- 
some book made of your numbers. 

The offer made in the Juue number, granting a year's subscription to 
any one sending in three new subscribers and I4.50 was limited to date 
of June 10, and no longer holds good. 


A new Literary and Art paper. It has the exclusive right to pub- 
lish the Sermons of the Rev. Dr. Thomas, as well as the very valuable 
studies in Form and Color by Miss Josephine C. Locke. Miss Estelle 
M. Huell, of the Philosophical Department of Welleslev College is 
now contributing a very valuable series of papers on Esthetics which 
every Art student should read. Studies in Plato and the Platonic Phi- 
losophy, by Thomas M. Johnson. 

Kindergarten and Mothers' Class studies, by Elizabeth Harrison. 
It is also the only paper in Chicago that publishes literary and Art papers 
by distinguished London writers. The Woman's Number soon to be 
issued promises the finest paper on GEORGE Sand ever published in this 


Vol. v.— ocTOP>i:k. 1892—1X0.2. 


AXDIDLV. if asked to name the 
scIio(j1 where I — as a teacher — seem 
to have been of the most help to my 
pupils, I should say, " In the country 
district." If asked where the pupils 
were the most appreciative, I should 
make the same reply. 

If still further asked, " Which of 
your schools has left the most pleasant memories ;— where 
have the pupils .seemed to best enjoy them.selves and things 
go smoothest?" my thouj^ht would at once turn to one of 
my first .schools in a " countr>' district." 

And why was it ? Certainly not because the ei>jhteen 
double-.seated, hoard benches, fastened in two rows to oppo- 
site sides of the long room were inviting or comfortable ! 
Nor because about one-third of the sixty-four pupils was 
made up of great boys and Kirls from the furrow and hay-field 
ami another third were almost babies. Not even (although it 
did wonderfully help) the teacher and pupils all 
joined in such famous games of " pum-pum-|>eel-away " and 
ball at; or had delightful •sings," "socials" and 
" literary " .societies in the evenings. 

No ; as I meet these former pupils, now men and women, 

g2 Science in the Coimtry Districts. 

they seem to have forgotten most of these things, but I 
have frequently remarked how they do remember the walks 
we took at noon in search of snails ; the collections of leaves 
we pasted on cards ; the insects we noticed and the flowers we 
gathered to decorate our bare room. 

There was no study of these things ; no books used (except 
as I bought and loaned them ) and no school time taken ; for 
the "common-sense," "practical," directors, fresh from the 
"fatherland," insisted that no time should be taken up with 
such " nonsense " and would doubtless have been better 
pleased if the noons had been spent at figures, reading and 

No ; I simply showed my interest in what was interesting 
to me ; went where I wanted them to go ; looked at what I 
wanted them to look at, and the children " caught " it, just 
as they catch anything, from the mumps to cigarettes and from 
polite behavior to honesty and truthfulness. 

Now that the fruitage has come, what am I to decide ? 
Emphatically— that there is no more important branch 
of education for the children of our countr}^ districts than an 


Aimless, methodless, and even incorrect, as I fear much of 
my maiden efibrts were in science, I still can plainly see these 
results : 

ist. A happy, contented group of pupils ; doing their 
tasks in that willing way which adds so much to their help- 

2d. Some gain in those exact habits of thought and 
observation which all science demands and cultivates and 
which are so invaluable in later life. 

3d. A refining influence on all. (I do not now remember 
a single instance of profanity or vulgarity among these 

4th. Increased happiness in after years. If he be "a 
benefactor of mankind who makes two blades of grass grow 
where one grew before," much more he who doubles the hap- 
piness of a human being. Who, with heart at all in unison 
with nature, can doubt that toil is lightened and drudgery 

Science in the Country l^istricts. 93 

relieved when the mind is in loving acquaintance with omni- 
present nature? 

These results seem evident. How much vice and rascality 
was starved out by this innocent preoccupation —how much 
less they might have learned in their studies if irritated by 
enforced obedience or in listless indifTerence — how many less 
dollars they wcnild now be worth, but for these better habits 
of seeing into things and how many degrees nearer the brutes 
they might be I have no means of knowing. 

I do know that I feel like grasping every country teacher 
by the hand and saying, " I congratulate you on your pecul- 
iarly grand opportunity to influence these lives for good. 
They are farmers' sons and daughters, and in time will be 
the owners of these farms and orchards ! What they are is 
of much more importance than what they have. In no way 
can you better help them to happy, successful lives, than 
cultivate by precept and example a loving interest in the 
natural objects and phenomena they will always be among. 

Do this 1)\- a study of thini;;s — only using books as aids. 
Critically read with them such poems as Bryant's Thana- 
topsis and Psalm of Life ; Whittier's Snow-Bound ; Barefoot 
Hoy, and especially, Among the Hills (always an inspiration 
to me), and their eyes will not be "blind to the beauties 
everywhere revealed . ' ' 

It will be your great privilege to 

" Invite tlie eve to see and heart to feel 
The beauty and joy within their reach ; 
Home and home loves aud the beatitudes of nature, 
KrL'e to all." 

Do you feel that your knowledge is insufficient ! Then 
you can the more honestly say, "Come let us study these 
things toi^tt/ier," and what may be lacking in the ground 
gone over will be in a measure made up by the harmony 
of such a class. 

And lastly " Do not be afraid to invest some money iiv 
Iwoks and specimens. It will prove a good investment in the 

94 Science in the Country Districts. 

end b)' guiding your own interest, by aiding your pupils and 
making your work more acceptable to those in authority. 

Much more I might add regarding my own days of farm 
life and how I daily realized that quiet and helpful condition 
of mind which comes from a loving interest in the world 
about me. I know I have done better work and have been 
a truer man for it. 

Kdward G. Howe. 

Tracy, III. 


Who has the blithest lambkins ? 

The golden moon, say I 
His home beyond yon tree-tops, 

His pastures, deep blue sky. 

At night when forth he cometh 

And dreams all do fill 
His mellow light he poureth 

Thro' skies serenely still. 

He herds his flocks so fleecy 

Upon these boundless meads. 
'Tis stars, so white and brilliant, 
This heavenly shepherd leads. 

Nor do they crowd each other, 

But mildly, there afar, 
Like sister and like brother 

Star beams lovingly on star. 

When to the sky I'm gazing 

A wish comes e'er to me 
That we might be as friendly 

As seem these sheep to be. 

— Translated from the German, by K. G. 


Tin*; time has come for us to know better the men and 
women who liave pkinted our great institutions. When 
tlie personality of their originator has become so swal- 
lowed up in the successful embodiment of his thought that 
we .see only the results, and the name stands rather for the 
work than for the man, then we can well afford to turn to 
the individual himself, his aspirations and labors, in order 
to realize the clear thought and strong endeavor he has put 


Charles Pratt was born October 2, 1830, at Watertown. 
Mass. His first real experience with life was at the age of ten 
years, when he left home to work on a farm. This was fol- 
lowed by a clerkship in Boston, and an apprenticeship to a 
machinist at Newton. His early life was full of hard exi>eri- 
ences. While at his work, he boarded himself at one dollar a 
week, cooking his own meals and rising at four or five o'clock 
in the morning to study. 

The four maxims of his life might be summed up as fol- 
lows : — vigorous health ; temperate habits ; industry ami 
thrift ; honesty. 

Even as a boy he showed the traits which were the making 
of his character. livery moment of his time was occupied in 
self-development. As his family grew up around hiuj. he felt 
the need ot giving them that training and education which he 
had lacked in his own lifetime. For that reason, he quite 
early identified him.self with one of the l>cst in.stitutions of the 
city, — the Adelphi Academy; and was, at the time of his 
ileccasc. rresidciil of the Board of Trustees. 

96 Charles Pratt and His Life-work, 

Pratt Institute was founded out of the experience of his 
own life ; — not that he did not appreciate the work which the 
preparatory and classical schools were doing, — but that he 
felt it was inadequate and incomplete. For that reason, the 
Institute was started, more to supplement than to take the 
place of existing institutions. 

As some one has expressed it, "It is rare to find a 
man financiall)' able, mentally capable, and morally will- 
ing to found, equip, endow, and organize a Pratt Institute." 

His contact with the teachers and students was of the most 
intimate character ; in fact, his personalit}^ filled every one 
with interest and enthusiasm. The instances are manj- that 
show the real vital interest that he took in all his work, and 
this interest w^as one of his characteristics. As is placed on 
his bust, in the General Office, "The giving which counts, is 
the giving of one's self;" this was the keynote of all his 
charity. He was never a member of any organization or 
Board, to which he did not give his personal thought and 


The Institute was organized as the result of many 3'ears of 
study on the part of its founder. Unable to fully mature his 
plans without a concrete and tangible subject to work with, 
the Ijuildings were built, two instructors engaged, and a class 
of twelve pupils formed, October 12, 1887. From that as 
a nucleus, the work of the Institute has developed — depart- 
ment by department ; in fact, it represents a natural and 
normal growth. It did not start full-fledged, as some insti- 
tutions claim they can, but was the result of hard thought, 
time, and much patience. The organization of the Institute 
is vested in departments ; each department of which has a 
director, who is responsible for his work, and those under 
him, to the secretary of the Institute. 

The trustees are sous of the founder, and the entire 
Institute is, so to speak, a family matter. It would be more 
proper to call the Institute an " Industrial University." 

Charles Pratt ami His Ufe-work. 97 

Tlie buildings and equipment are of the Ixjst obtainable ; 
not showy, but with the object of indicating the kind of work 
to be done — honest, strong— vigorous. I may say that the 
influences of the building — in its cleanliness, in its dignity 
and simplicity — upon the students, have been not the least 
of thf influences that have gone forth from this institution. 


The keynote of the Institute work is the develoj)ment 
of individual power in every student and teacher ; not the 
acquisition of facts, but the growth of mind, body and soul, 
into a harmonious whole. The development of j)ower can 
only come by the exercise of the individual faculties and 
energies of every student. It cannot be pushed in, nor 
coaxed in it must be grown in. Kvery student can develop 
strength only so far as he exerts his own self— sees his own 
facts— makes his own judgments — does his own deeds. 

The direct object of the Institute is the development 
of art, science, literature, industry and thrift. This work 
is accomplished by means of departments, each of which is 
organized for a special line of work, under si>ecial directors 
and instructors.; and with distinct equipment, studios, lalxira- 
tories and class-room ; at the same time, the work presents a 
unified whole — each department supplementing and complet- 
ing the others. 

The kind of work which the Institute is doing is indi- 
cated in three divisions — the normal, the educational and the 
special ; the normal, giving thorough training to teachers, for 
the duties of preceptorship ; the .second, giving an all-round 
traiiiiu};, from the Kindergarten through the high school ; 
and the third, training in special lines of industry. 


In the belief that the home is the center from which all 
good influences must arise, we have l)een developing the 
domestic science and Kindergarten work ; the fornier, includ- 
ing scietjtific anil accurate training for women in all lines 

g8 Charles Pratt and His Life-xvork. 

of household and domestic economy — the latter, giving that 
training in the care and nurture, as well as education of chil- 
dren, which a true mother should possess. 

Another development of the work has been along the lines 
of science and technology, for young men, unable, for any 
reason, to acquire the training that an engineering or tech- 
nical school could give ; such specialized training as would be 
obtained through a knowledge of chemistry, physics, elec- 
tricity, mathematics, strength of materials, machine design — 
steam. These three departments, together wath the work in 
art, commerce, vocal music; the library and museums; and also 
the high school and Froebel Academy, constitute the work 
of the Institute. 

In addition to the above named departments, the Institute 
has done considerable work in what might be called " Insti- 
tute Extension": Its co-operation with the Young Men's 
Christian Associations of the country, whereby it hopes to 
furnish an educational secretary, for the development of their 
work throughout the community ; and with the Prang Educa- 
tional Company, to whom it stands as theofl&cial and recog- 
nized school. These two outside sources and the library — 
with its membership of fifteen thousand, and its circulation 
last year, of one hundred and sevent}^ thousand — together 
with the numerous lecture courses which are given, compose 
in some degree, the work which we are trying to do. 

The position of the Institute among other institutions, and 
the general character of its work, will be determined largely 
by the work which it does. It is filling that place in this new 
industrial and educational movement which is sweeping not 
only this country but the rest of the world as well — that 
movement, where every man is considered a brother to every 
other — where industry, thrift and honesty are the basis of all 
fair dealing and of all fair living. 


ICADING amotij^ the (lualities es- 
sential to a professional teacher, 
be she Kinclergartner or normal in- 
structor, is her so-called carr>ing^ 
power. This quality is frequently 
spoken of as magnetism peculiar 
to the i^erson in question. It is 
more often the result of that per- 
son's implicit conviction, that what he or she says or does is 
not only ri^hl, hut iin])erativ&. 

Among such strongly individualized instructors, who carry 
])ower and conviction and life into daily practice, is Miss 
Josephine C. IvOcke, su])ervisor of Form Study and Drawing 
in the Chicago public schools. Miss Locke is rcmeml>ered in 
gratitude by many Kindergartners for the in.spiration she has 
thrown into several departments of their work, by revealing 
to them the beauties of color, form and historic art. She is 
now doing the same for the hundreds of teachers of the Chicago 
l)ublic schools, and .securing results unattainable by any but 
illuminated teaching. She is bringing that something with 
which Kindergartners are imbued, and which makes their 
work not onerous, but joyous, to the people's teachers. It 
is already being remarked in educational journals East and 
West, that the department of drawing and art in the Chicago 
.sch«)ols is reaching an elevated standard under the suj>er\'ision 
of Miss Locke. 

We hope to give from time to time notes taken from her 
practical instruction to teachers. The following are gleaned 
from several recent institutes of primary teachers, prepara- 
tory to the openitig of their fall work. These institutes 
call together the teachers of a given grade antl di.strict for 

lOD Sermons to Evcry-day Teachers. 

actual demonstrative work. It is an interesting picture to 
see from fifty upwards of teachers, gloves and wraps aside, 
modeling board and clay before thera, doing what the}' ex- 
pect to help their pupils learn to do. One primary teacher 
among others said, " This is the first handwork I have done 
in a long time. It is a relief after so much head work. 

The broader art education is doing a double work at pres- 
ent, reconstructing a generation that has matured without its 
influence, and starting a new generation more truly right. 
The teachers under Miss Locke's sturdy but scientific as well 
as artistic training are responding to the high ideals held 
over them. 


Education must cease to be a painstaking effort, hence 
encourage all work to be done* in the large. Exaggerate 
the size of the model rather than copy it in miniature. Too 
close analysis and too much talking over the work in hand 
destroys the interest. Do away with the much class-room 
talking, and leave more opportunity for quiet feeling. 
A universal struggle is going on now, and will for a decade 
to come, between information and inspiration. 

What do we mean by inspiring our pupils ? 

First of all, we mean hiteresti)ig them. 

Why are our American people so dull- to beauty ? Because 
few of them have been interested, and no one has helped them 
to see the beauties neighboring them in on all sides. Yet the 
beautiful buildings on the World's Fair grounds to-day, are a 
flag to all nations, repudiating the charge made against us as 
a people of having only mercenar}- motives and undeveloped 

All real art work is suggestive. The true artist transcends 
what he sees with his eyes, in order to lay hold of the spirit. 
When working from nature detail must be dropped out ae 
much as possible. To tell much with few^ lines in drawing, 
or few strokes in modeling, is the aim of artistic worknian- 
.ship. Simplicity and largeness go together in strong work. 

Sermons to Every-day Teachers. lOl 

Our country calls peculiarly for large, free works, and this 
can be accomplished through seeing nature in her spirit, 
feeling her truth and not merely reading her facts. 

Children are ordained to work wonders. The instinct of 
personification with the child, is the same as that manifested 
by the early races,— the instinct which sees God everywhere. 
The Greek found a god in every tree ; he placed a nymph 
in every stream, a dryad in every wood, and a dolphin 
in every sea. The child sees the same life and individuality 
in every wayside thing, which he recognizes in himself. 

A .scientist has recently said in one of the magazines, 
" Every atom of matter breathes. Every stone is a living 
entity, and in proportion as we are alive to nature will she be 
alive to us." 

The most important movement in education is the teach- 
ing of friendliness for all things. When the human family sees 
nature and every part of being as living beauty and near unto 
us, there will be less cruelty, less outsidedness, less hard- 
heartedness. We must feel for beauty, get right thoughts 
about nature and then go work them out. 

Clay modeling .should resemble .stone-cutting in its effects 
more nearly than any other treatment. Stone treated in the 
rough is always pleasing it admits of a play of light 
and shade. The depressions and elevations are important 
factors in good modeling, as they throw the object into relief 
through light and shade effects. Finish all modeling fnmi 
nature in the rough. When we think of elevation and de- 
pression, we are really thinking of light and shade. In 
modeling from the wooden type-forms the work may be left 
more smooth than from life objects, l>ut never as snuxjlh as 
in the wotxlen model it.self. 

Clay is especially u.sed to teach form, size and relief, and it 
is not a mediinn for color. We do not teach clay modeling for 
the sake of the result but for the development and correct feel- 
ing of form. 

Use a great plenty of clay, and give each child his own 
object from which to work. He must feel and .see for him- 
self, then work out, moilel what he .sees and feels. 

I02 Sermons to Every- day Teachers. 

Use the thumbs as a mason does his trowel, to pack,, 
smooth, level, build and draw together the clay. 

With children of the first and second primary years place 
the object in a certain position, that the child may feel the 
importance of relative positions. The greatest length or 
diameter line of an object should always be placed right to 
left, not vertically. The horizontal arrangement pleases the 
eye and produces better artistic results. 

To modeling a leaf against a background outline the form 
with the thumb on the background, then sight the highest 
and lowest points for standard of elevation and depression. 
Always build up the highest portion first. 

There are two stages in the process of modeling a leaf : 
(a) massing the general form or structure ; {b) securing the 
texture or finish. 

The history of the structure of a continent is the history 
of the structure of a leaf, the mountain elevations and valley 
depressions corresponding to the surface graduations of the 

Stems, stalks and branches should never be modeled as 
cylinders, but always as the rectangular or square prisms. Do 
not think veins at all, study the ups and downs of the leaf 
and the veins will take care of themselves. 

There are two things to keep constantly in mind in order 
to model correctly, first the main characteristic of the leaf, 
that which makes it a maple, or burdock or geranium ; 
second, that it is a living, growing leaf. The first clearly 
held in mind will produce a strong, individualized form and 
structure, while a steady adherence to the second will secure 
good quality and texture. 

In modeling fruit against a background, begin where the 
fruit and the background meet and work up the general form. 
Use all strong depressions or elevations as points to direct 
attention to the character of the model. 

There has been a great tendency' to model the apple^ 
because it approaches the sphere type. It is too nearlj^ a re- 
production of the type and does not compel as much creative 
force and individual conception of form on the part of the 

Sermons to Every-day Teacher i. 


child, as a more modified fruit. If apples are used as objects 
for modeling, select those which have broken or irregular 
surfaces, and give them out to the class in differing positions, 
viz.: let one model with the stem toward him ; another with 
the blos.som pointing to the right, etc. This compels indi- 
vidual seeing. 

The art and educational value of all this work is, not to 
teach the children to see our way, but to discover thera.selves 
to themselves. We may select pronounced forms for them, 
even lead them to feel and see the characteristic ix)ints, but 
each one must reproduce what he sees, in his own way. 


MAl^NOI.IAS A I'AM.I. IN 1111. WilMA.N s lU'IMllNi. HI- rill. LOLIMIUAN l..\I^MITtU?l. 



"^HO do you suppose Mr. Jack Greenman 
is ? He's no relative of Jack Frost, that 
is sure, for whenever Mr. Frost comes to 
spend the winter, Mr. Greenman goes away. 
In fact he has never even seen Jack Frost, 
and perhaps none of our little children have 
seen him either. 
In the Spring when Mr. Jack Frost leaves the country, 
immediately Mr. Jack Greenman begins to peep out. He is 
tiny when he first comes, but has an odd little umbrella over 
his head. He never leaves this little umbrella behind him 
all summer from the very first day, when he keeps it 
curled round his head, and hardly peeps from under its folds. 
Remember, children, you are to guess who Mr. Jack 
Greenman is, from what this story tells you about him, so 
every one must listen. 

He is a Httle country man and is never seen in cities, 
although his pictures are all about, and sometimes even in 
brother John's primer. 

He is not a farmer, for he does not plant and reap corn and 
wheat, but he is very apt to be found on farms, standing in 
the shade, by the side of a little brook or at the foot of a 

This queer little man grows in the oddest way ; from the 
time he is very small, he does n't run about like other folks, 
but is fixed in the ground ; and he stands up bravely on one 
foot as straight and strong as you do on two, nor does he ever 
get tired from morning till night and all night besides. 
When the wind blows very hard, he never bends over or lies 
down, but just sways back and forth a little bit to fit himself 
to the breeze, — but then, that's fun. 

.-/ Typical Kindergarten Story Analyzed. 105 

When Mr. Jack Greeniuan gets liis umbrella opened up, 
and his leg is strong enough to take its all summer stand, he 
finds it is his business to look out from under his umbrella 
and sees that things go right in his part of the valley. 

Some people try to make out that his umbrella is a little 
pulpit, that he stands under, but he never preaches ser- 
mons, he just d(x;s his duty and makes the best of things, 
never saying a word or complaining. And that is better than 
preaching sermons. 

He holds a very responsible position, for he must keep a 
sharp lookout, overseeing everything, being the only real 
tall gentleman among his kind. Sometimes he almost touches 
the lowest branches of the slirubbery. All the flyers and 
creepers and climbers in his neighborhood must be watched 
and helped, and somebody must stand and see that they come 
back at niglit, and that there is no crowding nor confusion ; 
for you know, in the woods everything has its place as well 
as on our cupboard shelves. 

Dear little Mr. Jack, how he does have to scamper .when 
the winds whistle some of those sharp, quick whistles. He 
knows what it all mean. It means some one is coming and 
that is Jack Frost. But the winds always warn him. 

And now let us hear what he does before he leaves. Right 
in his heart, where the warm sununer loves most to creep, and 
where all the sweets are stored away, right there, grows everj'- 
thing that lasts of Mr. Jack Greenman (and just like cver>' 
other little Mr. and Miss). .-Vml when he iscjuite out of sight 
he leaves it behind him as a promise of his coming again, 
and what cU) you think it is ? 

What could it possibly be that couKl hold all his happiness 
for a whole summer — have loe^ked in it all the .secrets of the 
birds and bees — and keep every song and drop of dew that 
has crept under the umbrella. All summer it has Ix-'en grow- 
ing insiile his little jacket and under his umbrella, and when 
the warning whistle of the wind comes (sometimes in the very 
early morning). Jack Greenman furls up his umbrella, antl lo ! 
there stamls a l>eautiful cluster of reil berries, .m» shining and 
bright tliat you can see them a great way oflf. And the 

io6 A Typical Kindergarten Story Analyzed. 

strangest thing about it is, he leaves his little leg behind him, 
that the beautiful berries may be held up from the ground. 

Now, children, who do you suppose Jack Greenman is and 
■what does every one call him ? 

" Jack-in-the-Pulpit," yes, and we love to look at his 
beautiful berries and let them stand for next ^-ear's promise, 
and if you ever go into the woods after the snow has come, 
you may see them glistening like a bright fire in the white 
flakes. A. H. 


The good story-teller loses herself in the narrative aud briugs for- 
ward the child's own experiences as related to the subject treated. In 
this case the Jack-in-the-Pulpit is handled from two standpoints : in the 
fact a plant — and a personification. Thus the story is built without 
either incident or climax, which are usually considered necessary to the 
dramatic effect, and are often carried into extremes. The deed of which 
the story treats should be its dramatic power, rather than the descript- 
ive fire or gesture of the person who tells it. The latter are accompa- 
niments to the former. Jack is pictured as keeping his own place in a 
permanent truthful way, and bearing the fruition of so doing in his 
beautiful ripening. It should never be necessary to point the moral 
with which a story is imbued. 


Rock-a-bj-e babj-, go to sleep, 
Mother a lonely watch must keep ; 
The wind is wild in the chestnut trees, 
Father is sailing over the seas. 

His boat is his cradle, the waves rock-a-bye, 

The deck is his pillow, his curtains the sky. 

The stars are his candles — safe watch may they keep, 

God love him, and guard him and send him sweet sleep. 

Mary F. Butts. 
Booth Bay Harbor, Me. 




INDERGARTEN training is the need of our 
age, as it was at the time when Froehel deliv- 
ered his ardent appeals for a reform in Educa- 
tion. And our .schoolmen .seem to know it, 
as appears in the favorable disposition of 
many .school boards towards the admi.ssion 
of the Kindergarten as a preparatory institu- 
tion for the grammar .school. 
The lime has arrived, therefore, when we ought to try to 
fni<l a method securing an organic connection between Kin- 
dergarten and .school in addition to the external ct)mbina- 
tion. Has not Froebel him.self, in his writings and doings, left 
some instructions by which that method inay be found ? Let 
us see. 

The schools which Froebel managed were all located in 
the country, under conditions .somewhat similar to those of 
tlie common country .schools in the Stales. Keilhau. where 
he kept school the longest, is a small hamlet located in a nar- 
row valley in the Thuriugian Forest, which forms the central 
region of Germany. The population of Keilhau consists of 
small farmers, kitchen-gardeners, and wood-cutlers. Their 
lives tlrag along as quietly and uneventfully as that of any 
.\mericau farmer, the conditions of existence being similar to 
those in our own country towns, as far as the differences 
between the life and doings of the Old World and the New 
will allow. 

vol.. v. — NO. 2. 

io8 Kindergarten and Ptiblic School. 

The inference is clear, that the teacher of an American 
country school has a good chance to find in Froebel's method 
of studying nature guidance for the management of his own 
school. It may not be so easy for schools in a large city to 
adopt the same guidance. But it must not be considered im- 
possible. City life offers many peculiar traits of nature that 
can be made available in education. And to be able to use 
them, the teacher need only understand the principle upon 
which to proceed, in order to apply it to the occurrences sup- 
plied by the environments of her school. 

Froebel used to emphasize the necessity of giving atten- 
tion to the seasons of the year in educational work. The 
great aitli to be held in view by educators was, he said, that 
man should grow in sympathy with nature, that he should 
develop a lively feeling of being in union with nature, that he 
should have the harmonious feeling of being a part of nature, 
supported by her and bound to do his reciprocal duty in sup- 
porting her progress to the extent of his ability. For it is 
nature, he said, in which man lives and moves and has his 

In order to accomplish this end of developing man to live 
in harmonious union with nature, the educator ought to keep 
his pupil in touch with nature all the time, and to take care 
that the touch be a truly intelligent one. This cannot be 
done to a sufficient extent without keeping a permanent care- 
ful watch over the vicissitudes of the seasons, which are the 
life of nature, and over the products and phenomena con- 
nected with the seasons. 

This end Frobel tried to accomplish at Keilhau, mainly 
through frequent walks and work and exercise in the open 
air. Whenever the weather would permit, the day opened 
with a walk of the pupils attended by a teacher. During the 
walk they would study the weather, observe the progress of 
vegetation, and gather flowers, stones, insects and other 
living things, etc. All these objects and observations offered 
material for work, di.scussion and study. 

Let us look at the dififerent material separately. To com- 
mence with the weather, its observation may be made very 

Kiyidergarten and Public School. 109 

simple, or more elaborate. We may notice the sky only, 
whether it is clear or cloudy or foggy, and how the wind 
blows, whether it is warm or cool. We may more elalx>rately 
oljserve temperature and humidity ; direction and force of 
wind ; the form, height, movement, etc., of clouds and so on. 
Such observations growing nu)re elaborate with the increasing 
age of pupils, will accustom children to observe and compre- 
hend atmospheric conditions and enable them, in time, to 
make an intelligent forecast of the weather. In the higher 
grades, where these observations can be assisted by readings 
of the barometer, thermometer, hygrometer, etc.. the con- 
clusions will be more reliable. But without such artificial 
hel])S, the observations of nature by themselves can be 
rendered so perfect by practice as to be pretty safe guides. 

As regards the ob.servations of the progress of vegetation 
in the seasons, they are least interesting, but not least in- 
structive, in fall, when most people think they can see noth- 
ing but remnants of summer growth decaying and falling off. 
At this sca.son, however, the labors of tillage and sowing the 
.seeds of winter-grains should be observed and studied. A 
goodmany fruits, either u.seful Ui man or not, can be observed, 
gathered and studied. The leaves are at this sea.son in the 
best condition' for study. Hard and dr>- as they are, their 
form and anatomy are easily observed. Their nets of ribs are 
hard and can be readily .separated from the softer or leafy 
parts. I )rawing these nets from nature will give the pupil a 
thorou};h practical knowledge of their shapes, and he will Ik* 
plea.sed to notice and define the similarity between the anat- 
omy and shape of a leaf, and the anatomy and shape of the 
tree or shrub on which it j^jrows. An observant study like 
this will impart a deal of valuable knowledge. Hut what is 
more important, it will arouse and develop a habit of careful 
and intelligent t)bservation of the world, which is the basis of 
sounil and indepemlent thought. 

During the fall season many curious circumstances of ani- 
mal life must be observed. The migrations of birds, the 
winter rest of insects, toads, etc., ;uul the change of fur and 
feather of beast ami l)ird. These preparations of animals for 

no Kindergarten and Public School. 

the cold season ought to be compared to the preparations 
which man makes for the same purpose. Such comparisons 
will realize the Froebelian idea oi the unity of life, /. e., the 
idea that man is part of nature, subject to its laws like any 
other creature. The manner of communicating such an idea, 
depends upon the age of the pupil. Very young children 
take it in most easily and permanently, if communicated 
purely sympathetically, which may be done b}^ comparing 
animal conditions with those of childhood, calling the cocoon 
the insect's "bed and blanket," the winter coverings of dog, 
horse or bird, "their winter overcoats," and so on. The 
mode of explanation has, of course, to be adapted to the age 
of the pupil whose wants and capacities in that line readily 
manifest themselves. 

In winter there are 5^et fewer objects of observation to be 
found in nature. But there are some. Mosses and lichens 
can be found at all times, even when the ground is covered 
with snow, and many of them assume their greatest beaut}' 
at this season. The dry leaves of the oak withstand the cold 
and storms of winter and cling to their boughs until fresh 
buds in spring compel them to drop off. Evergreen plants 
must be noticed, particularly pines and firs. If there is such 
a tree in the surroundings of the schoolhouse, let it be ob- 
served and studied b}^ the pupils before any heavy snowfalls 
occur. On a day soon after a snow-storm let the teacher take 
her .school to look at the tree again. For surel}^ such a taper- 
ing pine covered with snow and having the appearance of a 
pyramid built of spotless white, is one of the most fascinating 
sights in nature, more especially so when the rays of a bright 
winterly sun make the snow and icicles on it glisten like 
millions of diamonds. 

The birds and animals that remain with us in winter, 
ought not to be forgotten. Among them I would mention 
that winged tramp, the sparrow. If the valiant little pest 
nuist be exterminated, let the cruel business be done b}' adult 
people. But do not suffer the mind of innocent youth to be 
vitiated and poisoned by cruelly persecuting and destroying 
little birds, or any living thing, including plants. Froebel 

Kindergarten and Public School. \ \ \ 

had a remarkably placid terajK-r in dealing with his pupils, 
and I do not remember having read of a case of anger on his 
part except when he found a ])ortion of a plant destroyed 
without any sensible object. Then he was truly indignant as 
if the crippling, and destroying of plants had l>een as wicked 
a deed as the wanton destruction (jf animal life. And no 
doubt, deeds of destruction and cruelty in early childhood 
cannot fail to accustom the child to cruelty and indifference to 
the destruction <jf any life, including the life of man. The 
child that will go out to kill sparrows in order to get a few 
cents awarded by law for such a deed, will most likely grow 
to be a cruel and selfish man, devoid of sympathy and social 
virtue, and callous to the verge of criminality. 

The study of the progress of vegetation during the months 
of February, March and April must be directed to the devel- 
opment of buds, their shape and coverings, their gradual 
increase in size producing a change of appearance ; further, to 
the chaii.i;ing color of the bark of trees ; to mosses and the 
few plants that sprout very early. Connected with these 
observations may be an interesting course of study of the 
development of itisect life on the bark. 

It would .seem harilly necessary to give instructions on the 
study of the progress of vegetation in spring and summer. 
A careful observation of nature day after day will show a 
teacher how to proceed most naturally. Or, at this season 
the teacher can hardly do better than follow the lead of her 
])upils. Let every child gather and bring to school whatever 
lie may be promptetl to have and submit. Kxplanations do 
not require great learning, as they need not be scholarly or 
elaborate except with the oldest j^upils, who must be altentlcd 
to separately. If too many tlifferent objects are gathered, a 
few words of instruction as to what is the most striking flower 
of the season, or which objects are the most desirable, will 
generally suflice to check too great a plenty. 

The method of studying nature in this way must vary 
according to the ages of the pupils. I'«»r the youngest, the 
chief ]H)int is to make the objects considered as impressive as 
possilile without any scientific digressions. Older pupils 

112 Kindergarten and Public School. 

should be directed to determine and classify plants and stones. 
They may make regular observations of barometer, thermom- 
eter, hygrometer, etc., which the younger pupils must hardly 
know by name. 

The question, at what age a pupil ought to do this or that, 
or to follow certain lines of study, cannot be answered by 
giving certain numbers of years of life. Be guided by what 
the pupils are well disposed to study. Unless their minds are 
sufficiently advanced to assimilate a matter of instruction, 
the study will be no benefit to them, but rather the contrar5\ 
The only reliable test of their ability, is the manner in which 
they take to a study. Any knowledge that shall benefit them, 
they must take up with a pleasurable interest. Whatsoever 
may be said concerning the value of this rule with regard to 
abstract knowledge or book studies, the principle is undis- 
puted as regards the stud)^ of natural phenomena. All young 
people are naturally predisposed to observe and study nature, 
and will take to any such studies with pleasure if the manner 
of teaching corresponds to the point which their mental devel- 
opment has reached. 

This much must suffice regarding the extent of the study 
of nature pursued by Froebel in his schools. The statement 
is not exhaustive, of course, but shows the aim held in view, 
which was the development of a deep and helpful sympath}- 
with nature. Froebel himself lived in a profound love and 
sympath)- with nature and never wearied trying to impart it to 
others. He would take his pupils on long walks at every time 
of the year, and understood how to use every event to impart 
useful knowledge and point out the beauty which his eye saw 
in e\^ery natural object. Even so apparentlj' barren an object 
as a naked rock would inspire him to descant on the beauties 
of stratification and crystallization ; snowflakes were made to 
show the regularity of the star of six rays, which is the form 
in which water crystallizes as snow, and which is also seen in 
ice-figures on window panes. In woods and fields Froebel 
would point out the beautiful combination of sunlight and 
shade, and the coloring of tree-tops in sunshine. Most of all 
he loved the sun. He never missed seeing the sun set. if 

Kindergarten and Public School. 113 

his time and tlic weather permitted, and he frequently took 
his pupils and friends through the dampness and darkness of 
early morning to see the sun rise. Whenever the weather 
permitted, he would teach his normal classes in the open air, 
under the shadow of a tree, where nature inspired him to de- 
liver many an oration upon the beauty of nature, the harmony 
of all creation, the unfathomable goodness of God, and the 
right way to educate man to be in union, /'. e., in perfect con- 
scious harmony with the universe. hints regarding the manner in which Froel^el used 
the oi)portunities which his natural environments offered, for 
teaching his j>upils, are not intended to l>e a definite rule of 
I)roceediiig but merely to offer suggestions concerning the man- 
ner of making nature the foundation of education at school 
as it ought to be at home. What has been said, shows how 
F'roebel adapted himself to his surroundings. It can .ser^•e as 
a model for such object-lessons as the local environments of 
a school may suggest or demand and be able to support. 

No real disciple of Froebcl, that is to say. nobody who 
has fully understood and internally realized the principle of 
the system of Froebel, would yield unthinkingly, i.e., slavish 
obedience to the rules and directions of anybody, of Froelnrl as 
little as of any' one else. And I wish that the manner of .study- 
ing, as above described, should be received under the same re- 
striction. It is, no doubt, teeming with suggestions to him 
who loves and understands something of nature and life, and 
knows how to incite his pupils to follow after natural phenomena 
and data of life in an intelligent manner. Suggestiveness is all 
to be expected from general information. Application to par- 
ticular circumstances must be made by every student him.self. 

Nevertheless it may be possible to show a way how to 
apply the above information to particular kinds of schools. 
An attempt to do this, shall be made in the next numlx*r of 
the KiNDivKc'.AKTHN The plan will l>c to slu)w 
the Froebelian way of studying and teaching nature, as the 
starting point and foundation of all eilucation, and how it 
can be applieil to American country .schools. 




BACHING in the drawing depart- 
ments of primar}^ schools in the 
past few years has shown me the 
great difficulty in getting children 
to draw geometric figures mechan- 

The method seemed so compli- 
cated, that it was no sooner 
learned than forgotten. Fre- 
quently, to ray chagrin, I would 
find the children unable to repeat, independently, the exer- 
cise on the following day. 

I concluded, either I must be a very poor teacher, or I 
was using a very poor method. Of course I could not believe 
the former, so my indignation fell on the latter and I deter- 
mined to find some method which would simplify this work. 
In drawing I could get any regular geometric figure, by 
dividing the circumference of a circle into as many equal parts 
as there are sides to the required figure and connecting the 
points of division ; all the divisions being mechanical except 
fifths and sevenths which must be freehand. For fourths and 
eighths I simply bisected, and for thirds I found the diameter 
would measure itself just three times, while the radius or half 
diameter would give me six equal divisions. 

This was not satisfactory, as it required the construction of 
the circle, before the figure could be drawn, which was not 
always convenient. 

My attention was next directed to paper-folding and cut- 
ting, making my first experiments on the circle, folding it 
into fourths, eighths and sixths with little difiiculty. 

Folding and Cutting. 


I then saw that the circle was divided by means of lines 
radiating from the center and making equal angles at the 

Why could this not be done to the square ? 

I had learned to make many stars and rosettes in parts of 
four and to fold the equilateral triangle, from the Prang sys- 
tem of drawing. The Kindergarten taught me to fold a 
hexagon, but it was a complicated method and did not answer 
my purpose. 

After some study, and many experiments, I found I could 
divide the center of the square, by radiating lines, into as 
many equal parts or angles as I desired, and this I found to 
be the principle underlying the construction or making of all 
regular geometric figures. 

Many exercises having four repeats, have been done very 
generally, but in order to give a sequence I will use one. 



F.g I 

I^'old 1-2, on 3-4, as in Fig. i, making Fig. 2. 

In Fig. 3 I 
have four thick- 
nesses of pajHrr. 
and any unit of 
design drawn, 
on the upi>er 
one, and cut 

through the fold, will give an arrangement of four repeats 
radiating from the center as ./ giving /», but in order to 

make the method still more 

r— -^— I ( \ f / )| mechanical and accurately bal- 
\ V \ / yl anced, I fold Fig. 3 again as 
folding I on 2 giving Fig. 4 
and draw on it only half of 
the rejKat, as C. The fold 
should always be held by the 


Folding and Cutting. 

left hand at point o, the cen- 
ter of the original square, 
while cutting, otherwise the 
design maj' consist of four 

separate parts instead of one complete whole. 


For the octagon, I make one cut on the fold hav- 
ing eight thicknesses of paper, or divisions, as D. 
Points I and 2 must be equidistant from 3. 
For a rosette having eight repeats, I can draw the entire 
repeat on Fig. 4 as E, or fold Fig. 4 again, as F, giving me 

sixteen divisions, and by cutting onl}' half of the repeat I get 
sixteen halves or eight units, as G giving H. 


For any arrangement having three or six repeats, I fold 
from corner to corner as in the following- : 

In Fig. 3 the three angles centered at 0, must be equal. 

Folding and Cutting. 


If the fold of Fig. 3 is true, the edges in Fig. 4 will meet on 

both sides. 

Fig. 4 has six thicknesses of paper, and in design having 
lliree repeats, I cut only half of the repeat. 

For the equilateral triaiigle, I cut from i to 2 as in /, 
making the line 1-2 perpendicular to 3-4, and for the rosette 

of three repeats, I again cut only half the repeat as in / 
giving K. 

For the hexagon I cut from i to 2 as in L, but for a rosette 

having six repeats, I fold again, making a division of twelve 
parts as in .1/ giving N. 


For arrangements of five 
parts, I fold i on 2. as in the 
following : For Fig. 3. I fold i 
on 2, so that the angle at <i, 
will be only half the size of the 
angle at b. For Fig. 4, fold the 
angle a under the fold, giving 
a fold of two and a half thick- 
ness of paper. 

ii8 • Folding and Cutting. 

For the pentagon I cut from i to 2 as in O. Points i and 


2 must be equally distant from 3. For the rosette having 

five repeats, I fold again, giving ten thicknesses of paper, 
and cut only half of the repeat as in P, giving O. 

In the above I have given the same repeat in arrange- 
ments of parts of three, four, five, six and eight, hoping that 
I may have covered the ground sufficiently to give the reader 
an idea of the principle involved. Any one desiring further 
knowledge of the subject can find it in my little manual, "A 
Series of Foldings and Cuttings, adapted to Kindergarten and 
Public Schools, ' ' published by the Prang Educational Co. 

This manual contains general suggestions for folding, cut- 
ting and pasting and simple design, together with a method of 
presenting it to the school. 

In the illustrations are to be found the regular geometric 
figures, stars and rosettes in parts of three, four, five, six, 
seven, eight and nine, also crosses and borders, which have 
been especially prepared for the benefit of teachers. 

I trust the few hints I have given in this article may 
prove to be useful and be the means of giving a new im- 
petus to form study and design. 

Katherine M. Ball. 

HROUGH the long, sweet summer 
we've walked 
With lifted hearts ; 
With reverent palms the flowers 
we've touched, — 
And, lips apart, - 
To drink in deep their secrets 

of perfume, — 
We've hand in hand conversed 

of bee and bloom. 
And so adown the vista of the 

season sweet, 
We've trod, and learned her secrets 
to repeat. 

Into the ^lowinj? chill of 
autumn-tide — 
With living heart- 
Each flower we've shorn the 
sea.son of 
Must bear its part ; 
Each pearl of dew rememl)ercd 

in its prime 
Must rest still fresh within the 

flower's rime : 
Each seed of prophecy must be 

Though summer's wealth and life- 
blood needs be spilled. 

Andrka Hofbr. 


A PROMINENT Chicago educationist said this week, "I 
begin to think I will have to study Kindergarten in order 
to know my own business." 

The Kindergarten ceases more and more to be a philan- 
thropy that goes begging from door to door that it may gain 
admittance. Kindergartners are no longer obliged to work 
for a nominal salary, under the notion of its being "love 
labor," and therefore its own reward. Mission Kindergartens 
are being fitted out more and more as legitimate schools 
should be, and not run on the painfully economical plan 
which has sometimes been called the doing of good works. 
Kindergarten Training Schools are raising their standards, 
expanding their curriculums, and placing a corresponding 
money price upon the advantages offered. As a result 
Kindergartners are refusing inadequate recompense and de- 
manding professional salaries. This tendency may in some 
cases go to an extreme which is anything but healthy or hon- 
orable, but in the main, is righteous. Froebel plainly teaches 
the truth which is embodied in compensation, in his " Mother- 
Play of the Target," showing how money is but a correspond- 
ing value received for the energy and good will put into a 
piece of work. 

One penny pays for the frame of wood ; 
■ One penny pays for the nice, smooth board ; 
One penny pays for the work about,— 
Who can not pay,— must go without. 

Because of the systematically arranged sequence of Kin- 
dergarten materials and the step by step logic of its theory, 

Editorial Notes. 121 

some fall into an unfortunate tendency of holding back the 
child that he may develop along this straight line of the 
teacher's logic. An eminent Knglish psychologist has said : 
" Vou cannot present the world ])iecemeal to the child, object 
after object, in strictly logical order." One educationist ob- 
jected to little children visiting a wood or forest because the 
difierent sorts of trees were all jumbled together, instead of 
l)eing scientifically classed and arranged as they would be in 
a botanical garden. The child, however, must take the world 
as he finds it. Impressions come crowding in u|X)n him in 
such numbers that he has no time at first for paying minute 
attention to any one. In truth, so mas.sed and grouj>ed are 
his impressions that the outer world presents it.self ti> him as 
a wliole." wholesome '\\\\^Xi:s'^\o\\'f> are what the Kinder- 
gartner is working toward in her effort of building up .step by 
step, but she must give heed not to lose herself or the child 
in any one step lest it be mistaken for the whole. 

It is the intention of the editors of the Kinderg.xrten 
M.\G.\ziNK to keep its policy and clearly Ixjfore its 
readers. We ftre pleased to quote a paragraph from a recent 
letter, from Mr. Henry Sabin, as it shows that the spirit of 
our intention has been read by representatives in the profes- 
sion. Mr. Sabin is ex-suj^erindendent of public instruction for 
thcvState of Iowa and is at present editor of two energetic edu- 
cational papers, Iowa School Journal and The Country School. 
Mr. Sabin is one of tlie new .school patrtuis, who l)elieves 
in turning the whole force of progressive thought into the 
old channels and by so doing invigorate the whole edu- 
cational system. We quote the following from his letter : 
"The magazine came to-day. It is *a thing of lK*auty 
and an everlasting joy.' I hail it as a departure. It is not 
in the ruts ; it will give teachers something to think al>out. it 
is not fillet! with the everlasting drivel, * How shall I teach 
this and that and the other?' We want the Kindergarten 
spirit in our common schools." 

122 Editorial Notes. 

Wherever the Kindergarten takes root in a community 
it revives the musical feeling among not only the little folks, 
but in the home circle as well. This is a factor, which un- 
questionabl}' makes unto righteousness and follows in the 
wakes of the education which claims man's first and most im- 
portant dut)^ to be a knowledge of himself, his home and his 
God. Also the development of art studies in connection with 
public instruction, is an eflfect of the revival of true education. 
Music and art are not to be mastered from the material stand- 
point of self-culture, but are necessary avenues of expression 
which urge themselves upon every awakened mind. It is of 
the greatest importance that the modern teacher possess her- 
self of the art sense, the musical feeling, even though she be 
neither artist nor musician, in the commonly accepted mean- 
ing of these terms. These are not means to, so much as com- 
pletion itself. 

KiNDERGARTNERS are heard to talk less about Kindergar- 
ten and more about Froebel ; in other words they are studying 
deeper into the originator and his logic and less into their own . 
ideas of what the Kindergarten is or is not. Many instructors 
take up a regular and systematic study of Froebel's Mother- 
Play Book and make it the basis of their practical application. 
Others are studying psychologists at large and then adapt the 
general principles by them set forth to the daily work. Froebel 
embodies the general laws of so-called psychology in his 
Mother's Book, and does so in a simple, sympathetic waj^ 
which appeals to all students of human nature. Young Kin- 
dergartners are heard to discuss psychology in a general way, 
holding it far off as a line of study, apart from daily compre- 
hension. This kind of study will never reveal child. Froebel 
begins with the child and childish things and in the presence 
of his pupil student, deduces the laws of natural, logical, true 
mental phenomena. It takes a loving, sympathetic nature to 
see into the child's thought- world, not an analyst, who, with 
preconceived notions and laws looks for what he thinks he 
should find there. Froebel was a p.sychologist of the Kin- 
■dergarten, not of the text-book type. 

A YOUNG Kiiidergartner said in an emphatic manner, 
recently : "I think the first weeks of Kindergarten are 
very hard, because the children won't listen to stories 
or talks." 

The Kindergarten talk or story-telling, is really the art of 
the work, and appreciation for this part of the program must 
often be tlevel()i)ed in the child. Having a pretty thought 
and expressing it in pretty language often fails to interest the 
children. Why is it? The children are left out. As Kin- 
dergartners we develop a fancy alive to ever>' bit of detail and 
synil)olic word picture. We expect the same of the child, 
and find him interested. The stories told in the early part of 
the Kindergarten should be very simply worded, each sen- 
tence carrying a picture to the child — and that a picture of 
something familiar and graphic. As it demands a finer sense 
of beauty to admire the golden-rod above the sunflower, so 
the mature person finds greater satisfaction in fineness of 
detail than the child. The story should never be "long- 
winded " or aimless. If the Kindcrgartner tells it for a pur- 
pose, she will group her thought to produce the right and 
strong impression. If she is simply filling time l>ecause it is 
the hour for story-telling, she will find both herself and the 
children uneasy. I once heard of a Mission Kindergarten in 
which for a whole year no stor>- was told, because the Kinder- 
gartner was afraid of losing control of the children by so 
(U)ing. Again I have heard the children themselves telling 
the story in turns each Friday morning, and originating, re- 
peating ami modifying each according to his idea of a stor>'. 
The Kindergartner sat back and listened as eagerly as the 
chililren. perhaps not so much to the story, ns to what the 
telling revealed of the inner thought of her children. When 

VOL. v.— NO. a. 9 

124 Practice Work. 

a mother or teacher feels the force of her eflfort is waning, let 
her put herself in the child's place, then tell her story to 
meet that condition. 

Conversational discourses are not childlike. It takes a 
peculiarly cultured adult to enjoy the art of conversation. 
Stories must be clear and dramatic and childlike, then there 
will be no lack of interest on the part of the children. — K. G. 

The preference which children show for sewing, over all 
other occupations in the Kindergarten is universally noticed. 
Many Kindergartners themselves design the first cards for the 
little ones, and also those for all special work. The so-called 
"school of sewing " has been found unsatisfactory for the 
first work, and is no longer followed by wide-awake Kinder- 
gartners, who can design their own sequence of work. 
The " school " of sewing as taught by training schools, is not 
practicable for immediate use with baby beginners, because of 
its short, complicated lines. First work should be large, free 
and simple ; if the outline of the ball is given in circles, these 
should be larger than the ball and perforated at considerable 
distance. The child is not yet discriminating size, but form 
is being impressed. It is an excellent plan to perforate in the 
presence of the youngest children — one hole at a time as they 
are ready for the next stitch. The reason children so often 
sew over into the middle of the disk outlined by the circle, is 
that the}^ seek to find the surface, which satisfies them better 
than the mere outline. It has been suggested that a circle 
made up of radiating lines be given them early in their work, 
of course as a life-form to illustrate the topic under considera- 
tion — as a wheel, window, etc. 

The straight lines should be given in full length of the 
card at first, either vertical or horizontal, and not in repeated 
rows on the same card. It is of great importance that the 
first work given out for the children to do be clear and 
easy. This avoids all discouragement and impatience which 
naturally arises when too many difficulties are presented. No 
such feelings should be allowed to become associated with 
any work. 

Practice Work, 125 

TiiK room decorations of the Kindergarten reveal to a 
great measure, the taste of the Kindergartner. At this 
season the walls are apt to be quite bare, awaiting the accum- 
ulating wealth of the year's history. What do you like Ixrst 
to have in your room at the opening of the year? Grasses, 
ferns, grains, — some grain in the full stalk, corn and a few 
bird pictures. 01)jects from nature are more appropriate 
ornaments to the living school-r<x)m, than the handwork, 
however attractive that be. — C. 


Do birds sing much nowadays ? 

Are they nesting and laying egg ? 

Do they seem inclined to flock together? 

Have any disappeared ? 

What are .squirrels and chipmunks busy about ? 

What are the bees doing ? 

Can you why ? 

Is there anything which sings nowadays? (crickets, etc.) 

Is the hair of cows, horses and sheep growing thicker or 
coming out ? 

How about the feathers on the hens legs ? 

How do house flies ])Lhave on cool mornings? 

Are dragon-flies about ? 

Are the leaves changing color ? 

What color comes first on tht- maple ? What next ? What 
last ? 

The green of the red oak becomes ? Then ? 

What other bright colors do we see in trees and plants ? 

What flowers are most abundant ? 

Do leaves and fruits seem to break ofl" more easily now 
they are ripe ? 

Are the days growing longer or shorter ? 

Do the noon shadows on the floor creep farther into the 
room or towaril the window ? \ Mark it and watch ). 

Is the dew heavy or light ? What shape are the drops ? 

126 Practice Work. 

On which side of things does it gather ? 
Notice and then let the teacher write a list of things it 
gathers oji and another list of these free from it. 

Which list has the most things which would take fire ? 
Which the most earthy and metallic things ? — E. G. Howe. 


The thought uppermost in my plan for early fall work is 
that of family and home life. The stories are to give the 
child clear pictures of the ideal home life and to develop the 
right feeling for and attitude toward the family relation, also 
to bring him into sympathetic relation with all life about him, 
in seeing the unity of endeavor in the home. From this I 
will lead on into the Thanksgiving work. 

Beginning with the story of The Birthday, the children are 
introduced to a boy who on the great occasion of his birthday 
makes every one about him happy, while sister is helping 
make the birthday cake and mother and father are contribut- 
ing their share. At evening all gather together and talk 
over what had been done and said, emphasizing the spirit of 
mutual helpfulness and how much it contributes to the joy of 
all the family. Loving thought culminates in doing. 

Turning the child's thought again from his own to other 
homes, we give the story of the Robin's Home in the maple 
tree ; then to the flower families and the Good-bye Party of 
the birds and flowers as they take their farewell after their 
happy summer. Then follows the story of the Anxious Leaf 
the Sheep Family and the Sqiiirrer s Home. Bach of these 
nature stories give other pictures of the unity of family life 
and bring the children close to all life in nature about them, 
leading them not merely into keen observation of the 
season and surroundings but to a sympathetic understanding 
of all its life and beauty. Each of these little stories is 
closely connected with and illustrative of the thought in 
Froebel's Mother-Play Songs. As the stories are worked out 
by the children, I shall give them the Mother-Play Book, and 
et them pore over the pictures which correspond to the 

Practice Work. 127 

thoii^'ht, to their heart's content. The simplicity and natural- 
ness of the life portrayed in these pictures attracts them 

Each succeeding story is linked to the first leading 
thought, "the light of unity shining through" the entire 
scries. This connection precludes the indefinite ideas which 
are too often put into so-called stories for children. — Anna 
Lit tell, Ihiffalo. 


A gay little aster 

Was bless' ming one day, 
Near a rock by the roadside, 

Just over the way. 

Her dress was of purple, 

Tile most royal hue ; 
And she wore for a ball-dress 

A chiffron of dew. 

" Pray tell me my aster 
Of what use are you ? " 
Not a word did she answer — 
I don't think she knew : 

But light grew sad hearts 

As she l()(^kcd up and smiled 
And I thought " That's tlie duty 
Of blossom or child ! " 

Be gay and contented, 

And once in a while, 
Don't forget little children. 

To look up and smile I 

— Hattie Louise Jerome, Worcester ^ Mass, 


Practice Work. 


When first opening our Kindergarten in the Fall, how 
difficult we often find it to get on conversational terms with our 
children, or to receive from them intelligent answers to our 
questions. I wonder if a reason could be found in the fact 
that we have such well regulated plans of our own, which we 
are anxious to follow out, in the bees or squirrels, or some 
other subject unfamiliar to the children, by which we are try- 
ing to force their attention to our way of thinking, rather than 
work with what is uppermost in their thoughts. 

Let us take a subject that already interests them and leave 
our plans until a further acquaintance with the children per- 
mits of them. We would first direct the attention to the Jwme 
which the child has so recently left, and where all his past has 
been experienced — where mamma, no matter what kind of a 
mother, is still mamma — his home — where so many times he 
has sat on the floor and played in the water dripping from the 
tubs ; where he has crawled into the clothes-basket to be 
landed vigorously elsewhere ; or where he has been so nearly 
choked with dust during sweeping time. These are our chil- 
dren's everyday experiences, and it is through this knowledge 
we can come very near to their home-life, and have them feel 
that the Kindergarten is home and the teachers and children 
a part of the family. 

Ask them who brought them to Kindergarten ? Who pre- 
pared them to come ? Who will be waiting to hear if they 
have been good children ? and the answer is, Mamma ! mamma ! 
mamma ! It is this mamma we want to help, and help 
through her child— to make each worthy of the other, and the 
family life one of harmony and love. 

Practice Work. 


The trades witli which we so zealously work during the 
year, concern the fathers. The constant work in the home, 
such as the wasliiiij^, ironing, baking, sweeping is the moth- 
er's, not so attractive perhaps, on account of its familiarity, 
hut always necessary to the completion and comfort of the 
family life. 

In e\cry way possible, through song, game, picture and 
story we would endeavor to strengthen the ties of affection 
that bind the family together. 

F"<jllowing this general outline we will take the days of 
the week, with the especial work assigned to each day — trj'- 
ing to have no " Blue Mondays" or blue other days, but a 
cheerful, happy, busy week. 

Monday : 

As the weather forms so important a part in the of 
Monday's work, encourage the children to tell, if it is a dr>' 
or wet, cloudy or bright, windy or still day, and which would 
be best for mamma's clothes, out on the line ? 

Let us sing about all the mammas who are so busily work- 
ing at home for us : (" This is the mother so good and dear." ) 
When Mondaj'. comes she has so many things to get ready for 
the washing. 

Who can tell me some of them ? The stove, tubs, 
wringers, .soap, clothes-pins, and so on, the children naming 
until they have exhausted the list. 
They may draw some of these on the 
l)()anl if convenient, or the teacher 
ini^ht draw them as the articles are 

liy this time they will be thor- 
oughly interested and anxious to show 
at your suggestions, how mamma rubs 
on the board, wrings out the clothes, 
shakes them out ready to hang on the 
line. While Miss Poul.sson's " Monday 
Song," with the suggestive little ac- 
conijianinicnt l)y Mr. Chapek is being 


Practice Work. 

plaj-ed on the piano, let all the children take part in these 
gymnastics, following the chorus leaders. 

The table work is easily suited to all grades. 
Beginning with the little ones, plan a direction 
lesson, using the balls as if clothes on the line 
were blown about by the wind, backward and 
forward, round and round. Think of the wonder- 
ful possibilities of the Second Gift, on wash day ! 
There are stoves, benches, pails, wringers, a line to 
clothes on, a complete range or 
kitchen, however the child's fertile 
tion ma}' picture it. 
the Third Gift a solid little stove 
fender and kettle made of Hailmann 
With Fourth and Fifth Gifts more 
washing-benches and stationar}' tubs 
Drawing, painting 

ting of 


wash da}' 


and form 


bars of 


hang your 
a whole 
i m agina- 

with pipe, 
can be constructed, 
crayoning and cut- 
backyard scenes, 
can be designed 
with clay, making 

clothes-pins, tubs, etc. With different 
length sticks make tub and board, with 
the addition of a half ring for a handle 
to the pail, and a pease- work clothes- 
bar, all of which will be very satisfac- 
tory, as no one would mistake them for 
other than they are. 

When the children are actually 
allowed to wash pieces of cloth in the 
little tin pans and hang them on a string across the window 
in the sunshine their joy is complete for the time. 

They might mix bluing-water also by adding blue paint to 
water and trying their pieces to get the right shade. The 
group work, in wliich each child at the table represents parts 
of Monday's work, will complete the picture. 

After such a homespun experience in the Kindergarten, 

Practice Work. 131 

when the chihlren will go home to the tired mothers, will it 
lighten their labors any, I wonder, to hear what a bai)py time 
they have had ; to hear, "This is the mother so g«x)d and 
dear " ? 

Who knows hnt what next Monday it may be the mother 
who is sinj^'inj^, 

" Washing day is here again, 
Get tlie wash-tubs ready — 
Put them (ju the washing bench 
See that they are steady.*' 
— Mary E. Ely, Chicago Free Association. 

^ --^^^^^ 


Two wee chestnut boys. 

In jackets of white, 
Hoth lived in a home, 

Without any light. 

Kind wind and warm sun, 

Both helped at tree-town. 
To make for boys 

Twin jackets of brown. 

And with nimble Jack Frost, 

As still as a mouse, 
They opened the doors 

Of the chestnut boys' house. 

"Good-bye," called the tree. 

And the nuts with a whirl, 
Both fell at the feet 

Of a dear little girl. 

— Sopha S. liixby, Norttich, A'. )*. 

132 Practice Work. 


One day Mr. Farmer decided to set up a new 
bee-hive in his garden ; so he and his son, 
<^^- Henry, a little boy with big black eyes and 
v\.;-^ red cheeks, took a walk and visited Mr. 
Carpenter, who worked all day in his shop with nails, ham- 
mers and boards as merry and jolly as he could be. 

Mr. Carpenter promised to make the hive out of nice pine 
wood, and said that it would be ready for use in three days. 
Papa Farmer and Henry drove over for it, paid and thanked 
Mr. Carpenter and brought it home one lovely day in the first 
month of summer, when the little baby June wind kissed the 
clover blossoms and asked them if he could n't carry some of 
their sweetness away with him as he sang his song to the 
trees and flew over the meadows ? The clovers nodded their 
heads and gave him all that he wished. When the farmer 
and his little boy reached home they put down the new hive 
in a safe spot, and went near the old hive and listened. 
They heard all the bees talking in a most excited manner. 
The buzzing and humming grew very loud, then suddenly 
out of the hive flew a bee, Mr. Buzz, and went as fast as his 
wings could carry him toward a locust tree. Before the farmer 
could count three, out flew a whole crowd of bees and in 
the midst of a group of fine lively fellows flew the Queen Bee. 
She looked very grand as she gracefully flew along dressed in 
her robe of shining dark green, her wings glistening with all 
the colors of the rainbow. "Stop," she said proudly, 
"wherever 3'ou see my faithful Buzz, do so." When the 
bees spied Mr. Buzz flying about the locust tree they all flew 
toward him and very soon the whole swarm were swaying 
back and forth on the branch of the tree. This was Mr. 
Farmer's chance, calling quickly to Henry they together 
picked up the fine new hive. Then Mr. Farmer held the 
hive up over the bees and then clapped it down in a minute 
over the Queen and all her subjects. Such a humming and 
buzzing as followed the Queen's subjects trying to find her in 
the confusion, for you must know that bees love their Queen 

Practice Work. 133 

very much and take the best of care ol her. Suddenly there 
was silence in tlie hive, the Queen was speaking and the bees 
stood with bowed heads to hear what she had to say. 
"Where is Buzz?" she said. "Here, most gracious mis- 
tress." and Mr. Hu/./. walked out from the midst of the bees 
and bowed very low three times. Hees are very jjolite and 
Buzz was the Queen's page and always did her errands and 
when in the hive he stood beside her throne. The Queen 
waved her wings and then said. " Hu/z, I wish you to choose 
twenty-five of your best workers and fly out to the garden- 
beds and fields and gather the golden pollen, (that is the yel- 
low-dust that we .see in the center of our Kaster lilies,) and 
honey, all you can sip, and bring home with you. We must 
make a great deal of honey this .season for the good farmer 
that has provided us with such a fine new hive." Again Mr. 
Buzz lx)wed very low and the Queen waved her gauzy wings 
gracefully to and fro and gave orders to the remainder of the 
bees to get the hive ready for work. A part of the bees must 
clean the hive, others must glue wax to the roof of the hive 
and stop up all the cracks, .so that when Jack Frost Hew al>out 
he amid not get into the home. Mr. Buzz, in the meantime, 
had gone about A very busy bee, choosing the bees he wished to 
help in gathering his hotiey and pollen— bee flour. When all 
was ready away he flew followed by his company t.f helpers. 
Some of the bees he sent to the clover family to beg honey of 
them, some to visit the honeysuckles and the morning-glories, 
others run their long tongues into the golden cup of the 
cucumber, and the flower asks, in a voice as bright as her 
.sunny dress, if Mr. Bee will kindly lake a little of her iM.llen 
to the baby cucuml)ers at her feet so that they may grow 
stronger and faster. What a busy day it was and how hard 
they all worked. At last the bees had all the flour and honey 
Ihey could carry to their Queen. But before starling for home 
ihey cleaned off their yellow toats and put their jackets in 
order ; then they kneaded the juillen dust int«i a ball and 
tucked it away in their trou.sers pocket, which is in the 
hollow inside their thighs. The ix)ckct is linctl with bristly 
hairs to keep it from falling out. When all was in 

134 Practice Work. 

readiness each bee took a long drink of honey and then 
looked about for their leader, Mr. Buzz. But Mr. Buzz did 
not act as if he were in the least of a hurry to go home 
and finally they asked him how much longer he wished 
to stay. You can imagine how surprised they were to hear 
Mr. Buzz say, as he sat a-tilt a tall spear of grass : " Oh! I 
have n't been to see Miss Snapdragon 5'et, and I wish to call 
upon her before I return to the hive." All the bees knew 
how badh'- their dear Queen would feel if Mr. Buzz did not 
return with them, but Mr. Buzz was getting ready to fly away, 
so they very sorrowfully started for home. When they flew 
into the hive with their pockets so full of wax, the Queen 
waved her wand at them and smiled. So each bee bowed 
verj- low before her and then went and hung himself up on 
the top of the hive to rest. All had gone but Mr. Hum and 
he stopped to speak to a brother bee when the Queen buzzed 
very loudly and said : " Where is my faithful Buzz? " There 
was no answer, then she said in a louder voice : "Where is 
Buzz ? " Poor Mr. Hum felt very sorry, but he had to bow 
very low and answer, " Mr. Buzz did not come home with us." 
The Queen looked, oh, so sorry, but all she said was, 
"That will do Hum," and Mr. Hum hurried away and hung 
himself up with his brother bees at the top of the hive. The 
sun had gone to sleep, the baby stars, one after another, 
opened their bright eyes away up in the sky and still Mr. 
Buzz did not come home to the hive and the Queen went to 
rest feeling very, very sorry. But all this time where was 
Mr. Buzz ? When his brothers and sisters flew home he 
started off in search of the Snapdragon. When he came to 
her he knocked at the door and it flew open and in he stepped. 
Miss Snapdragon, in her purple blue dress, was very glad to 
see him and gave him all the honey he could carr5^ He told 
her about the new hive and that it made him remember it was 
time he should start for honVe, but what do you think hap- 
pened ? When he tried to open the doors of the flower he 
found them locked, and Miss Snapdragon said to him : " Why, 
it is time to go to sleep now, and my house is closed for the 
night." What .should the Buzz do ? He shook his wings, in 

Practice Work. i35 

despair, he had n't taken the Queen's message to the Clovers 
yet ; what would the Queen do if he did not come home that 
ninht ? Tlicre was nothing' to do but to wait until morning 
and all the night through Mr. Buzz said to himself, " I will 
never stay so late again, never, never." P:arly the next morn- 
ing, Snapdragon's doors were open and Mr. Buzz almost forgot 
to say. " good-by," so anxious was he to get out in the sun- 
shine. At first he thought he would fly at once to the hive, 
then he decided to look for the Clovers. But it took him a 
long time to find them, and when he found them, to gather all 
the honey he wished kept him until the sun was again get- 
ing ready to go to rest. When he reached the hive he felt so 
sadly he did not want to go in. He could hear the bees hum- 
ming as they worked, for those bees that had flown home 
with their wax the night before had now gotten ready for 
work and were taking the wax out of their pockets and were 
making the walls of their rooms where their honey was to be 
placed. Mr. Buzz at last went in and saw the Queen sitting 
on her throne with two bees on each side, fanning her with 
their wings. Mr. Buzz flew to her and dropped down on his 
knees sol)l)iiig, " I am so sorry, dear Queen." "Oh, Buzz, 
how could you stay away all night?" " I will never do it 
again, I promise you." The Queen waved her wand and 
Buzz stood upon his feet, but with bowed head. " I have told 
Hum," said the Queen, "to be my page for a week in your 
place, after that time if you are ([uite sure that you can serve 
me faithfully I will take you back again." Mr. Buzz made 
three very low bows and then said : " Dear Queen, I will try." 
Then he flew away to the top of the hive and hung himselt 
up, as his brother bees had done, to rest. After a week had 
passed and Mr. Buzz had worked hard to build the rooms or 
cells with the wax walls and helped the l>ees about him with 
their work, the Queen sent for him and told him to take his 
place by her side once again and be her Messenger. Oh, how- 
happy Mr. Buz/ felt as he stood once again by the dear Queen's 
throne and how gently he fanned her with his gauzy wings 
and hummed a song she loved to hear.— /•'<!« «K Chapin. 

136 Practice Work. 


(The storj'of Columbus is too new to the children and too rich in material for one 
talk and may be divided into several. For convenience we will make three stories, 
the preparation, the struggle, the reward.) 


A long time ago there was a little 
boy named Christopher who lived far 
away from us in another countrj\ 
The great ocean is between our coun- 
try and his. He loved the ocean and 
used to watch the ships with white 
sails going so quietly over the water. 
They looked a little like the sail 
boats in the lake here, but the ocean 
was much bluer and larger and deeper, and rougher, when 
the wind blew and tossed the waves about. 

The people who lived in the country where Christopher 
was born thought the earth we liv^ed on was shaped like this 
cylinder, and that the ocean came to an end here at the edge, 
and the little ships dared not go too far away from land or 
they might fall off the edge. Nobodj^ knew what there was 
off there, no one had ever been there. But as Christopher 
Columbus, that was his whole name, grew to be a man, he 
watched the ships on the ocean go off out of sight and then 
come back again, and he watched the sun rise and set, and he 
watched the moon and stars when he was on the water in the 
night, for he was a sailor when he grew up, and he thought 
about all these things until he said the earth was not fiat like 
this cylinder but round like this ball. 

The more Christopher Columbus thought about it the 
more he wanted to sail away off on the ocean and see if he 
could not come back home by going clear around the world. 

The Stnigi^le : 

Columbus was a poor sailor who had no ships an-d not 
much money. He told rich people and kings of different 
countries about this new way to travel around the world to 
India and China, those far-away countries, but they only 

Practice Work. 137 

laughed and would not help him. He said there was more 
land there which he would find and give to the kings but they 
did not believe him. Sonic people thought he was right but 
they had no money to give him and it t<jok money to buy 
ships, money to buy food for so long a voyage away from 
land, and money to pay the men who would go with him to 
iKlp sail the ship.s. 

Hut Columbus would not give up, he tried again the next 
year, and the next, again a»id again to get people to help 
him, nothing could make him give uj) trying, and we will see 
what good came from trying. 

At last he went to the good Isabella, Queen of Spain, and 
he t(dd her about the plan to sail away off to the west and tn.* 
to find the country of India, and perhaps new countries, by 
going that way. She believed he was right when he .said the 
earth was rountl like a ball, and she wanted to help him, but she 
had not enough money, even if she was the Queen of Spain, — 
and her husband, Ferdinand, the King of Spain, would not 
give him the money it cost .so much t«) buy the ships. 
Now Queen Lsabella had a crown of gold to wear on her head, 
and chains of gold and rings and bracelets and other jewels, 
beautiful stones i,)f blue, red, green and yellow.-and clear white 
pearls, very large and fine, and she told Columbus if he would 
get some ships reatly with footi and water, and men to tend 
the sails and ilo the work, she would sell her gold and jewels 
and give him the money to pay for the ships. No other queen 
had thought of being so generous as that and Columbus was 
Very glad and thanked the good queen and got three ships 
ready to sail. King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, and hun- 
dreds of people went d«)wn to the edge of the water to say 
g»)od-bye to Columl)Us ami his men as they sailed away in 
their ships. They waved their flags and fired their guns and 
shouleil as the ships sailed off out of sight. KverylxHly was 
happy for a while V)ut soon trouble began again for Columbus. 
He had nothing to show him the way off over the great waters 
but his compass, aiul the sun, moi>n and stars. lie watched 
them day anil night to see which way he was ."iailing, for he 
wanted to go west, toward the setting sun. There was no land 

138 Practice Work. 

to be seen. The ships went very slowly, there were no 
steamboats then ; and storms came, and the men grew afraid 
and some were sick and they thought that they would never 
see their homes and little children again. But Columbus 
would not turn the ships back, he kept right on and told 
his men to work and wait and be very patient. The men 
said the}' would throw him in the water if he would not 
turn back, but he would not. He was kind and good but he 
would not give up, for he was sure they would soon find land 
if they kept on sailing westward. 

Reward of Perseverance : 

One da)' they saw birds flying, and a branch of a tree with 
red berries on it floating on the water, and the next morning 
they saw far away a green line beyond the blue water. What 
was it ? They came nearer and nearer and at last they saw 
trees, then men with dark skins and black hair, and then 
they left the ship and went in small boats to the land. They 
kneeled down on the green grass and thanked God for taking 
care of them in their long journey across the ocean and for 
bringing them safeh' to the land. 

Columbus and his men stayed on the land for awhile and 
then went back to the ships and took some of the curious 
things they found there with them, and then sailed away to 
the east toward the rising sun to their own homes and chil- 
dren. How glad they were to get home ! And how glad 
Isabella was when Columbus told her of the new country he 
had found, of the queer people who lived in it and of all the 
strange things he had seen ! 

It was four hundred years ago, this month, October 12, 
when Columbus came to this land, and now the white people, 
our people, are nearly all over this great land, and they 
have great rivers and lakes with many ships on them and 
cars run for miles and miles through this country, and there 
are great cities and schools and churches and Kindergartens 
to be thankful for. We are very thankful to Columbus that 
he was not afraid but kept right on until he found this beau- 
tiful country for us to live in. We shall never forget the 

Practice Work. 


little boy Christopher Columbus, nor what he did when lie 
grew to be a man. 

Siii^ilt'stiotis: Tlu- cliildrcn may work out on the cylinder and lull 
the ilirectiou in wliiih mariners sailed. The talk about the ocean 
may he more detailed and the, compass shown. The rhildrt-n may 
fiml out what was indicated by the birds and berries. There is room 
for delif^htful talk upon the Indians, their feeliny^s when they saw the 
bird-ships approaching, their habits, dress, etc. The children will make 
up appropriate games, they will l>e flying birds, sailors, soldiers march- 
ing to the shii)S, etc. They will sew and draw the berries on the branch, 
the outline of Columbus' old sailing-ships, bow and arrow, canoe, the 
queen's crown, etc. Make a clay worlcl, berries, wigwam. Indian Ix-ads, 
arrow, etc; make a ship of sticks, compass with rings and sticks; fold 
sails, wigwam, Indian blankets, etc. In proportion to 'the clearness 
and vividness of the story will be the originality of the chihlren's in- 
ventions.— J/rj. Susan J'. Clement, Kacine, 11 is. 

Miss M.vckhnzik, of PhibuUlphia, writes : " If you would 
like to make use of the projjrani I have prepared, and 
am about to send out to the Kindergarlners for October work 
on the Columbian topic, I shall be glad. Karly next week I 
shall meet our Kimlergartners in order to talk over the work 
with ihein as barely outlined in the program. Rich, of 
course, will fill it out as she feels her special Kindergarten 
needs. The requests from them for such a plan lor the Col- 
li mlius work was so general that I thought your readers in 
other cities might also find it of use. I send each Kinder- 

VOl.. v.— NO. 3. IQ 

1 40 Practice Work. 

gartner a slight sketch representing the three ships, Santa 
Maria, Pinta and Nina." 

October Program : 

Carry the story of Columbus through the month in con- 
nection with the topics that at this season of the year naturally 
obtrude themselves upon the children's attention. The 
story should be given in its utmost simplicity and illustrated 
through gifts, occupations, games and songs, and by 
blackboard sketches. 

The two following suggestions may be offered from many 
possible ones as simple ways of introducing the main subject : 
Begin with the seasonable topic, grain-gathering, carrying to 
the mill, the miller, the mill, the mill-stream, the river, to 
the sea. Or begin with shells, sand, the seashore, the sea and 
on to the story of Columbus. Tell simply of family life ; love 
of the sea ; interest in discovery ; idea of new country ; efforts 
to obtain aid ; success in securing three ships ; setting out ; 
mutin}' ; arrival ; landing in warm country ; time of landing, 
(October 12, Autumn). Plants and animals discovered un- 
known to Spain, such as are familiar to the children. (Sweet 
potato, white potato, red pepper, Indian corn, pineapple, etc. ). 
Difference of Autumn in West Indies and our part of the 
country. (Continual green — falling and changing leaves. 
Birds remaining in warm country ; our birds migrating to 
warm country, etc.) Inhabitants, manners, customs, as Col- 
umbus saw them. Subjects incidental to the story of Columbus 
and to occupy part of the month in connection with it. Man- 
ner of communication with other countries by sea ; sailing 
ves.sels ; steamships. Internal means of communication ; rail- 
roads, (carrying passengers, mail and freight.) Government 
supports schools ; gas and water supplies ; police ; fire and 
postal service. ( Develop through observation of police- 
men, firemen, postmen, etc., and what they do ; street-plugs, 
lamp-posts, etc.) World's Fair. Why it is to be held. What 
its work will be, simply told. 

In addition to the program these hints are given : 

First Gift: Birds, flowers and fruits (tropical and our 

Second Gift : Building wharves, railway stations, etc., 
cylinders and spheres for barrels and bags of freight, etc. 

Third Gift : \ Building ships, embankments, harbors, 

Fourth Gift : \ World's Fair buildings, etc. 

Tablets : Laying river-courses, river-beds, islands, boats, 
canoes, harbors, etc. 

Practice Work. 1 4 1 

Sticks and tim^s : Laying canoes, boats, trees, Indians' 
houses, ])0\vs and arrows. 

I'lipcrt'ohtini^ : Ships, birds, boats, hammocks. 

Scu'i/i;^ : vSliips, boats, birds, fruits, vegetables, leaves, 
Spanish and American flags. 

Clay : Vegetables, fruits, ships, l>irds, Ijoats. 

Pastini^ : Spanish and American flags. 

Papcr-rinj( making .- Spanish and American colors. 

Ih'ad-strinj^ini^ : Necklaces of beads, wampum l>elts. 
Spanish and American colors. 

Drauinii : Bows and arrows, boats, ships, Indian l>eads, 
fruits, vegetables. 

Drape Columbus' picture with Spanish and American flags. 

TiiK story of the great discovery, referred to in our last 
issue, has gone to press and will l)e out before the holidays. 
It is called " Columbus : and What He Found." The work is 
the result of .several years' research on the part of its author, 
Mrs. Mary H. Hull, in her eff"orts to present the story to a 
circle of little ones. It is rich and charming in style, and 
was prepared under the supervision of the editors of the 
Kini)i;kg.\rti:n M.\g.\zink. The volume will sell at one 
dollar and all orders sent now will receive first attention. The 
demand for this book is already great among teachers sincejt 
is the only successful attempt at interpreting this great deed 
to the child. Send all orders to KiNUKKi;.\kTKN M.\g.\zinb, 
Woman's Temple, Chicago. Price, $\ .00. Per do/.en, $10.00. 

A STRO.Nc; contribution, in story form, to Cupbearer, (358 
Hurling street, Chicago ; 10 cents per copy, ) by the author of 
" Columbus: ami What He Found," will be an excellent help 
at this time. 

It is my good fortune to us.* the colored crayons very suc- 
cessfully, and it may be of interest to you to know my plan 
for illustrating the Columbus story. I shall reserve the 
largest blackboard in the room for it. I have made an illus- 
tration, at one end, of the boy looking out toward sea, where 
ships are sailing by. As fast as our story grows, I mean to 
add the next scene, and so keep the picture growing. The 

142 Practice Work. 

children are delighted at every new development of the pict- 
ure as well as the story, and particular!}- when I add a touch 
to the picture in their presence. It seems to become a living 
reality to them ; every tree and line has a peculiar meaning, 
as belonging to them. I shall have the good queen in the 
act of giving all she can to help the voyage, and Columbus 
rejoiced at the possibility of carrying out his plan. I shall 
not draw many figures, but rather the nature surroundings 
in which the story puts the people. I shall dwell much on 
the sea and its varying appearances and the life of the 
sailors. — Mary S. 

When traveling in Ital}' a party of young ladies came to 
Genoa. The}' had heard of how proud the Genoese people 
were of Columbus, even claiming him as their fellow-citizen. 
They asked the guide to take them to the Columbo statue, and 
on the way spoke so that he could hear them, saj'ing : " Our 
Columbus was such a brave man. Where would we Ameri- 
cans be if he had never found the way across the sea." The 
guide stopped and said : " Here is the statue of c/^;- Columbus, 
which we erected because he did so much for us." One of 
the young ladies said, " But he does not belong to you, for he 
was the first American." "You are right," replied the guide. 
" He is yours and he is ours, too, because he is all the 
world's." The statue toXolumbus at Genoa looks out toward 
the sea. 

To our Chicago readers we would saj- that Mrs. Mary H, 
Hull is arranging for a series of talks on Columbus for Kinder- 
gartens and teachers. The schools are demanding that this 
story be given the children, and Mrs. Hull feels well prepared 
to give authoritative and informal lectures on the all important 
points. Correspond with her at 3353 Indiana Ave., Chicago. 

For copies of " The Boy Columbus " as it appeared in the 
September Magazine, send five cents each to Kindergarten 
Magazine, Woman's Temple, Chicago, 111. They are very 
appropriate pictures for the wall. 


A Columbus scrap-book is a most excellent home educa- 
tion during these present voluminous times in connection with 
the Columbian Exposition. The older boys and girls can 
gather scraps from newspapers and magazines, and the 
younger ones gathering together the pictures and illustra- 
tions in current literature. If any family contemplates coming 
to the World's Fair it will be well to read thoroughly on the 
subject and bring the younger members of the family into a 
position to truly appreciate the wonders of architecture and 
art which will be presented there. 

In the primary grades of the Chicago public schools a 
systematic plan is being taken up co-oix.*rative l)etween 
teacher and children with particular reference to historic and 
geographical classifications. They will gather, for instance, 
all scraps in regard to Spain, which will be arranged for prac- 
tical reference use in the school-room. 

Parents wishing for an excellent gift volume for their little 
ones can do no better than order the \xx^k "Columbus: and 
What He Found," by Mrs. Mary H. Hull. It is a wonder- 
tale filled with all the romance and truth of the great event 
of America's discovery and told for young readers in a pure 
yet thrilling manner. The hook will be ready Inrfore Christ- 
mas and the price is one dollar. Send in your orders early 
and they will be filed and filled among the first. There is 
already a large demand for this uni(iue child's history. 

{ For Home Reading. ) 

More than four hundred years ago there live<l at Genoa a 
wool comber named Dominico Columbo. His little sou Chris- 
tophoro contentedly worked and played among the soft fleece. 
till one day he fell asleep in a quiet corner of his father's 

144 Mothers' Department. 

workshop. There he had a wonderful dream, a dream so 
impressive to him that it cheered and helped him his whole 
future life. A beautiful angel appeared to him, holding in its 
arms a golden cross. A path like sunlight seemed to be re- 
vealed, proceeding from the brightness of the cross, and the 
messenger beckoned little Christophoro to follow the shining 
guide, whispering the \NZ.y would lead him to wisdom, honor 
and gold, in a far-off land. 

From that day the vision never left him. He followed it 
on and on through his university life at Pavia, never closing 
his eyes at night but the Golden Cross mingled with his 
dreams of the land be3'ond the sea. 

For years he followed the life of a sailor and ' ' wherever 
ship had sailed there had he journej^ed. " One day a piece of 
wood floated to his ship, with carving so strangely wrought 
that none could claim the workmanship. To Christopher 
Columbus this came like a message from the undiscovered 

Then the brave hero of the fifteenth century left the sea 
and followed the shining path to many a throne, begging the 
princes of Europe to aid him with money and ships to explore 
the western waters. 

No one listened to him. Even the great Ferdinand and 
Isabella of Spain denied him assistance at first, for their 
thoughts turned to the Moorish war in their own sunny land. 
Still after months of waiting the good Spanish Queen became 
interested in the strange adventure and provided Columbus 
with one ship and two smaller boats, manned by one hundred 
and fifty sailors. 

Never had the Golden Cross gleamed brighter before the 
great explorer than on that August night of 1492, when with 
light heart he prepared to follow its shining path over the 
unknown waters. 

Friday morning the little fleet weighed anchor and stood 
out for the strange new world. The Admiral's diary shows 
how hopefully the voyage was begun, but at last how wearily 
the men looked for the promised land. After two months of 
sailing, Columbus yielded to the entreaties of the homesick 

Mothers' Deparlment. I45 

crew and jiromised on the morrow to turn back, if no land 
were seen. 

The day was done, for long since tlie sun had disappeared 
and a full (Jctober moon rose in the clear sky to rule the 
nij^ht. Anxiously Columbus watched and prayed as he paced 
the deck, alone in the stillness of a ni^ht at sea. For the 
first time he almost doubted whether he should follow his 
golden guide, and wondered if its path really led across the 
ocean ; when suddenly the disk of the moon was strangely 
transformed I Uul from the glorious orb stretched four shin- 
ing bars of light that widened and glowed, till there iri the 
heaven above him hung the marvelous Golden Cross of his 
early dream, with its radiant path leading toward the West. 
As though a light were shining around him, the great man 
.sank to his knees and stretched out his hands in thankfulness 
toward the brilliant spectacle, so sure that all would be well 
on the morrow, that ere the cross with its rainbow halo had 
faded, he sank into a quiet sleej). 

At early dawn a branch of wild-rose blossoms floated near, 
and ere the rosy message was reached, the cry of " Land ! 
Land ! " was given, for a dim line of hills along the western 
horizon, told that a new world was found. That same day 
Columbus, richly clad, and bearing the royal banner of Spain, 
landed in America. He was soon followed by the crew and 
when he knelt to thank the Father above for the gift of a new 
world, at his side bowed a friend bearing a banner, adorned 
with the Golden Cross, in jjiemory of the one that had so 
safely led them over the path of the sea. 

In a few montlis Columbus returned home, anxious to tell 
the glad news of his discovery to those who were watching 
and waiting — with all the splendor of their royal court the 
King and Queen of Spain welcomed the great explorer. 

For days he sat in their Majesty's presence, telling the 
story of his wanderings, showing them the gold and cotton, 
strange animals and jilants which he had found, describing 
the beauty and value of the new wt»rld. Hut this was not all 
the honor Columbus had l)esl«>\vctl on him, he was given the 
title of Don, anil rode at the King's bridle, and a wonderful 

146 Mother' s Department. 

shield was blazoned for him, bearing the royal castle and Hon, 
together with his own coat-of-arms, four anchors, which he 
had placed in the form of a cross. This shield he often wore 
and at length was known throughout all Spain as the Knight 
of the Golden Cross. — 5. 5. B., Noriuich, N. H. 


One bright Autumn day there was an universal rustle 
among the leaves and blossoms and feathery brown grasses 
'that grew by the brook. There seemed, too, an unusual stir 
among the crickets and grasshoppers. What could it be that 
had set them to tuning their little fiddles so vigorously ? 

The Southwest wind knew. Since every morning he had 
flown about whispering a message to the birds, the bees 
and every living thing out of doors. This is the message he 
brought them : — 

" Mrs. Autumn invites you to a party to be given for our 
friends, the Birds, who are soon to go South for the winter. 
The party will be given at Mrs. Autumn's country place, 
'Out of Doors.' " 

"Yes," said Mrs. Autumn, to her friends, "Spring gave 
the Birdies' Ball, and Summer has been made very happy by 
their songs. It will be a pleasure to me to give them a fare- 
well dance." 

Mrs. Autumn's daughters, September, October and No- 
vember were to decorate the house for the party. Lovely 
September brought sheaves of golden grain, plumes of nod- 
ding golden-rod and yellow corn. 

"O how beautiful, September," cried October, coming in 
with her arms full of purple grapes and trailing crimson vines 
and scarlet leaves. Then, when November had added deli- 
cate brown grasses and scarlet berries, the house was beauti- 
ful indeed. 

" I must order a new gown for the party," said Septem- 
ber. My last year's gown was spoiled by the equinoctial 
storm." So she ordered one of yellow trimmed with tassels 
of the Indian corn. 

Mothers' Department. 147 

"I, too, must have a new one." said October. " For, 
when November came last year, I lent her mine. How well 
slie looked in it. Every one said she was the most charming 
Xovemher ever .seen," 

*' Let me paint you a gown for the party, October," said 
little Jack Frost. " I know your favorite colors." "O thank 
you Jack," said October. " Vou may, indeed." So, that 
ni^ht, when the world was asleep, the little artist worked ; 
and in the morning there stood October in a gown of crimson 
and russet, all dashed with purple and orange. " Now Jack, 
do paint one for November," said October. " Perhaps we 
can persuade her to wear gay colors again this year." 
"With pleasure," said Jack. But when he looked in his 
paintbox he was so sorry, " O, November," he cried, "I've 
nothing left but brown and white ! " 

"Never mind. Jack," said November, "Brown is my 
favorite color." So November's gown was of soft brown 
trimmed with oak-leaves. 

Soon the guests began to arrive. The Misses Poplar came 
first, all in lovely yellow. They were followed by the Misses 
Maple in and yellow, escorted by their br«)ther, Mr. 
Swamp Maple, in scarlet. The Beec'lies and Chestnuts were 
there in gay colors ; the Oaks came in last in dull crimson 
and brown. 

And what niu.sic there was for the dancing ! High in a 
tree .sat our old friend. Professor Wind, leading the band. 
The Crickets brouu;ht their violins. The Ihimble-l)ees played 
the, and the Wookpecker the drum. Gra.s.shopiK'r 
Green was there with his " dozen wee boys" who were quite 
grown up by this time. They had changed their little green 
jackets for brown (.)ues. and each carried his little fiddle under 
his wing. 

The Katydids had been askcil to entertain the gue-«^ts by a 
story : The story of Katy. Hut before the time for stor>"- 
telling came, a slight difference of opinion arose among them 
as to s(unething Katy di«l or did n't do. And they became so 
interested in discussing the matter, that they forgot all about 

148 Mother' s Department. 

telling their story ; not one word did they say all evening ex- 
cept " Katy did n't ! Katy did ! " 

The birds flitted softly from spray to spraj', sa3-ing good- 
bye to their friends. Their songs were not as loud and joy- 
ous as at the Birdies' Ball. Were they thinking of their 
empty nests ? Were they thinking of the long journey 
before them ? Yet, I know that not in the heart of one of 
them was a doubt that the kind Friend who had alwaj'S led 
them would guide them over land and sea, and bring them 
safely back. 

What a merry time the dancers had ! Grandmother Spider 
said it made her feel quite young again to see them. Mr. 
Natcracker frisking in and out of his hole with his pockets 
full of nuts, said he would love to dance with them, but that 
this was his busiest season, and what would the little nut- 
crackers do next Winter if he did not work ? 

As the party was given in honor of the birds, they were 
the first to thank Mrs. Autumn and say farewell. "We 
thank you, too, dear trees," they said, "for the shelter from 
sun and rain. We thank you, dear Wind, for rocking our 
babies so gently. We thank you, dear Grasses, for you help 
in building our nests. And we thank 5'ou, dear Earth, for 
the food we have had in abundance." 

Then they fluttered away like a soft, brown cloud, to sleep 
with their heads tucked under their wings and to dream of 
their long journey. 

As for the other guests, I really can't say when they went 
home. For when I fell asleep that night, the Crickets were 
still playing their violins, and most of the Katydids agreed 
now that Katy did. — M. Gertrude Flynyi, Norivich, Conn. 


Can you tell me what it is 

That fills our hearts with cheer ? 
It is the light of two bright stars, 

The eyes of baby dear. 

Mothers' Department. 149 

Can you tell me how it is 

That music sweet we hear ? 
WliLii listening to the merry laugh 

And voice (if baby dear. 

Can you tell me why it is 

Til at sorrow, pain or fear 
Take their flight ? Whene'er we press 

The hands of baby dear. 

Can you tell me when it is 

That God we most revere ? 
It is, when gazing on the dome 

And brow of baby dear. 

Can you tell me when it is 

That Heaven seems so near ? 
An angel came to our home, 

Our own sweet baby dear. 

— Louise Pollock, to her grandson. 


Miss Elizabeth Harrison has returned to Chicago from Colorado. 
Her work opens October 3d at the Art Institute. 

The Topeka Training School for Kindergartners is opened to the 
public at a tuition price of $100.00 for a regular one year's course. Miss 
I,. A. Doolittle, Principal. 

Miss J. D. Proctor, of Roxbury, Mass., graduated from Miss Gar- 
land's training school in 1874, and up to the present date, which finds 
her a Kindergartnerin at Fauntleroy Hall, has not been out of the work 
more than four mouths. 

We read in the Denver Daily News an interesting account of the 
work of the Free Kindergarten Association of that city under Miss 
Karrie Johnson, a recent graduate of the Chicago Kindergarten College. 
The course of study for the training class of forty members includes 
Philosophy of Childhood, Froebel's Gifts and Occupations, Physical 
Culture, Games and Songs. Miss Johnson has also the supervision of 
six large Kindergartens. 

Miss Anna I. Davis, Principal of the North School, Austin, 111., 
has prepared a comprehensive, as well as suggestive, outline for a year 
of Science work with first grade children. The plan is arranged by the 
month, bringing in seasonable work. Primary teachers will find it very 
well organized and helpful, in that it gives all the references for study 
and storjf in connection with each topic. 

The Chicago Kindergarten Club holds its first meeting on Saturday 
morning, October ist, 10 a. m. The first division of the year will be 
occupied by a series often lectures on "Mental Training," by Mr. 
William George Jordan. Mrs. Chas. L. Page is president for the current 
year. Miss Mary J. Miller, secretary. The club meets in the lecture- 
room of the New Jerusalem Church, 179 Van Bureu St. 

The following is taken from the professional circular recently issued 
by Mrs. O. E. Weston, of Chicago, which speaks for itself of her future 
work : " Mrs. Olive F. Weston, a member of the Chicago Kindergarten 

Field Notes. 151 

CollcKo Faculty or 1891-92, feeling that there is a growinjj need of help 
for mothers and teachers outside of the great centers of Kin<lergarten 
work, has decided to offer herself to this field, and will promptly answer 
all communications a<I<lressed to her, asking for terms, sptrcial arrange- 
ments and details, for work in every practical or helpful way. Although 
she was for many years a successful public school teacher, and has de- 
voted her entire time during the past seven years to the study and prac- 
tice of the Kindergarten principles and methcxis, Mrs. Weston feels that 
she is hut just upon the threshold of the great work, and is now pre- 
pared to help mothers, teachers, parents and educators in general to a 
like uuderstanding of the theory as well as the practice of the Kinder- 
garten." See Mrs. Weston's professional card on another page of this 

YouNOSTOWN, Ohio, has a successful Free Kindergarten under the 
direction of a graduate of the Chicago Free Training School, Miss 
Mary S. Morgan, who tells in the following letter how it was organized : 
"By personal calls and face-to-face talks with clergymen, editors and the 
leading Christian workers, they l)ecame intensely interested in this (to 
them) new idea. A Free Association was formed and in two weeks over 
four hundred dollars was secured, and later three hundred dollars more 
was subscribed. K room was given free in the most needy part of thecitv. 
On September 5, we opened the doors to thirty two little Italians, Slavs, 
fewish refugees, Russians, Hungarians, Folanders, two Irish-.Americans 
and two colored children. As the eager little eyes looked wonderingly 
into mine asking what mes<<age I had for them, I said to nivself, 
'Blessed be Kindergartens, they are truly a meeting ground for the 
nations.' Fifteen more are waiting for places. Seven young ladies 
have applied for admission as unpaid a.«sistants. Three were accepted. 
For the first few days the room was crow«lcd with fathers and mothers 
all »n>ili«ig and asking in many tongues what sort of a place was this 
where such little children were wanted and what could they do ? Kven 
the policeman is interested ami stops regularly on his beat to ask if he 
can be of any service or to bring a brother to see this tjueer school 
where babies laugh and play. As yet the Kindergarten is experimental 
here, but we hope it has come to stay. I hope to gather inspiration from 
your magazine an«l I look to it with peculiar interest and anticipation, 
as I am sixty nules from any other Kindergartner." 

Mrs. Ivi.sii: I'avnk .\i>ams, so long a-ssociated with the Chicago 
Froebel .\ssociation, is announced as supK>rintendent of the Free Tr.iining 
School under the Minneapolis Free Kindergarten .\v(ociation. The fol- 
lowing account comes from one of the workers associatetl with the work : 
'The Kindergarten spirit has gained an undeni.ible im|>etus the past 
five years, and has taken wonderful strides in our city. A few mouths 

152 Field Notes. 

ago Minneapolis, though supporting, with pride, a s}-stem of public 
schools prououuced by President Elliot of Harvard, and other compe- 
tent judges, second to none iu the country, seemed quite indifferent to 
the Kindergarten ideas. What might seem to many a discouragiugly 
small beginning, in the interest of Free Kindergartens was made in the 
early spring of this year. Mass meetings at which well-informed and 
enthusiastic speakers were present were held, and finally an organiza- 
tion was completed. The earnestness of the few obtained the sympathy 
of the man)', and generous, and often unexpected support was bestowed 
upon the young ' Free Kindergarten Association.' The autumn finds us 
read}' for work. We are now in possession of a Training School for 
Kindergartners, most pleasantly and centrally located, and one model 
Kindergarten all under the superintendency of an acknowledged leader 
in the work. We expect to open shortly, a large number of Kinder- 
gartens in the poorer sections of the city where children are the least 
cared for. The idea of the association is to support the work mainly 
throuo-h membership fees, and to graft it as soon as expedient upon the 
public school system. A work of incalculable good has begun, and we 
have every reason to hope that in ten years more, we shall see the three- 
fold development of body, heart and mind, shining in the lives of our 
children, and in a lesser degree also in the hearts and understandings of 
their elders. 

The Chicago Free Kindergarten Association adds two new Kinder- 
gartens to its list this year, making twenty in all. The work opened in 
September with a large and promising class. A special feature in the 
normal class this fall, is a lecture course on Mental Training, given by 
Prof. George Jordan. Calls for Kindergartners and training teachers 
are Coming to the Association constantly. There have been a larger 
number this year than ever before. 

Miss WhiTmore is in Pyrmout, a little watering place in Northern 
Germany. She writes that the place is delightful — "Fine old trees, 
wide avenues, beautiful rose bushes," etc. She is there for a complete 
and much needed rest. She expects to travel some and visit the noted 
Kindergartners later, when a friend joins her. Her plans are very 

The Commissioner of Education has verified 725 public Kinder- 
gartners who teach 21,066 pupils and 1,517 private Kindergartners who 
teach 29,367 pupils, making a total of 2,242 Kindergartners and 50,423 
pupils. Besides these he has the addresses of 2,145 unverified Kinder- 
gartners, which if estimated at 1,000 and their pupils in the same ratio 
as above, would give 75,000 children in this United States enjoying the 
benefits of Froebel's method of child-gardeuiug.— j5?//ra/o News. 

Fit Id Notes. 153 

Thk Klectra School, at No. 9 Thirty-first Street, Chicago, is a practi- 
cal attempt at carryiiij{ the Froebeliaii philosophy from the Kinder- 
garten to the higher school grades. It has a boarding hall where even 
the youngest ]>upils are received and given home care. See the ad- 
vertisement elsewhere. 

TiiR selection of Albert G. Lane, of Chicago, as the president of the 
National Ivducational Association must not be considered in the light 
of a tribute to the general interest in the great exhibition to l>e held in 
the city where he is installed as superintendent of its public schools. 
Mr. Lane won a retuarkable reputation as superintendent of the ^chools 
of Cook county in which Chicago is situated. The normal school at 
Knglewood with Colonel Parker as its principal came under his super- 
vision ; for eight years he had a constant oversight of this school ; he 
followed the graduates as they went out into the county to teach. The 
majority of the graduates, it will \vt remembered, remain as teachers in 
the county, this being a county normal school. He saw a new spirit 
pervaded the work of these gradiuitcs : he saw there were deep, under- 
lying principles aimed at by Colonel I'arker ; he became the firm friend 
of the new movement that had been inaugurate<l at the school. Troba- 
bly no educated man has had such a peculiar and competent prepara- 
tion for his work as city superintendent. He is not an old " educationist 
with a new education attachment." He is a man of clear, steady mind, 
who has embraced the new education doctrines because they aro the 
foundation doctrines of mental development. He has been present 
when they wvre expounded at the normal school ; he has seen they 
would " work " when put into practice in schoolhouses in most unin- 
viting points oil the level prairies of Cook county. The National .\sso- 
ciation has at last a firm believer in the new education as its president. 
The world does move. — The School Journal. 

TiiK Dominion of Ontario Teachers' Association met during the past 
Suniiner and aiiioug other progressive measures inaugnratei! a Kinder- 
garten Deparlnieiit. Miss C. M. C. Hart reail a paper iK'fore that 
branch on the sul)ject of " Kimlcrgarten : Its Relationship to .\rt " \Vc 
quote from it: "The ;Lsthetic work of the Kindergarten regarded 
merely from the utilitarian standpoint is most im{)ortaut. It is the duty 
of the nation to provitle measures looking to the promotion of improve- 
ment in the character of its industries. The merely useful will not 
accomplish this. The a-sthetic manufactures of Belgium arc ratctl at a 
thousand time the value of the same articles from Norway and Swetlen. 
I'sing the inatlieinatical as the basis of the .i-sthetical the chiUl l>cgins 
thu-* early to realize that ' lleauty is but the splendor of the True.* 
The training begins in the physical. We cannot conceive power of this 
kind without the skilled hand. It is the old storv of Ariadue and the 


Field Notes. 

Lion. Beauty always rides upou strength, and in the fullest sense, all 
true power manifests itself as delicac}-." The paper closed with a plea 
for the higher culture of the Kindergarten. The legend of St. Chris- 
topher was recounted. "The good Saints stand beside a raging stream, 
and as he stands there a little child appears before him, and with arms 
stretched out to the saint cries, ' Carry me across. ' The tempest is 
ra"ing, but taking the child in his arms he plunged into the stream. 
The waves threaten to engulf him, and heavier and heavier the burden 
grows, but holding the child aloft with his strong arm he battles against 
the wind and wave and at last placing the child in safety on the farther 
bank, he beholds him all clothed in light, and the child cries, ' Know 
ye that in bearing me ye bore the weight of all the world ? ' We have a 
task like St. Christopher's, we must bear the children aloft, far above 
the tempest of life, far above the waves that threaten to engulf them. 
This is our task, to uncover the divinity within them, that after the 
iourney we may see them, like the Christ-child, all clothed in light. 
This is our work, ' Worthy the proudest strength of man, and woman's 
finest skill.' " 

Art Talks. — The classes held during the Winter of '9i-'92, in Chi- 
cago, studying the classified collections of the Art Institute, will be reor- 
ganized for the first Saturday in November, the 5th, giving a course of six 
classes before the holidays. Application should be made immediately, 
since the classes must be limited. Mr. Geo. L. Schreiber, who gave 
the interpretations last season has been secured again, and under his 
leadership, the enthusiasm of last year's classes will, undoubtedly be 
continued. For circulars and terms, address A. Hofer, 420 Woman's 
Temple, Chicago. 

Our October frontispiece, drawn especially for the Kindergarten 
Magazine, pictures a scene from the Mississippi river. It is a most 
interesting perspective of one of the winding bayous of that picturesque 
river, overhung with Autumn foliage. The artistic quality of this illus- 
tration cannot fail to make its impression upon the children, partic- 
ularly the perspective which admits of their gazing far into the vista. 
There is no healthier form of picture for children than strong perspective 
studies. Let the children look at them again and again, and see how 
far they can see into the picture. They will learn that seeing is not only 
a matter of eyes but" also of feeling. Among other pictures decorating 
the school-room or Kindergarten walls, there should always be one good 
perspective study. We have a few of these that can be secured. To 
such as apply early, extra copies of each month's frontispiece can be 
had at 5 cts. each. 

Fidd Notes. 155 

A VISIT TO Pcstalozzi ami I'roebel points of interest, as ){Ieanetl from 
the personal letters written by Miss A. K. Fitts, during her summer 
abroad: "To-day we went to Yverdon, Pestalozzi's home for some 
years and where he had his school. The chateau is still there and has 
l)een added to since his time and has now a graded bchool, having seven 
classes from six years up to college classes. We saw Pestalozzi's rooms, 
these are now in one and used as school and music rooms and library, in 
which there are two pictures and a bust of Pestalozzi. The influence of 
that goo<l man is still plainly to be seen an<l the town profits in many 
ways through his having lived there. We met and talked with an old 
man, over ninety years of age who was a pupil of Pestalozzi for nine 
years an<l has written his life and a summary of his principles. His 
farewell blessing on our work and interests was Ijotb dignified and sweet. 
We are in Thuringen, and have been out to Keilhau where Froel>cl had 
his first school. This part of Germany is rather pretty but this place 
seems tame after Switzerland, but it was the place where Froebel worked 
and that gives it a romantic touch. Everywhere here the women are 
working and the men away as soldiers. In Switzerland one does not sec 
so nnich of this. There are a great many slate roofs here but they are 
not so i)icturesque as the tiles of red clay. The coming here makes 
I'rDebel's life very clear to one and also Pestalozzi's, lx)th great and sim- 
ple men. We stood to-day on the hill above Keilhau looking toward 
lilankenburg where Froebel thought of the name for his new school, i. e.. 
Kindergarten. On a distant hill above Oberweissbach, where Froebel 
was born, is a high cairn called after Froebel. On the hill t)eside stands 
.1 lower put up \\\ memory of Barop, so they still stand to light the 
world. These hills are lovely places and would tend, I should think, to 

VOL. v.— NO. 2. 


The article on the "Advance of Education in the South," by Mr. 
Charles W. Dabney, in the August Cosmopolitan, is a very noteworthy 

There is no more helpful, simple or substantial expositions of edu- 
cational psychology, appropriate for the practical uses of teachers and 
parents than the booklet called "A Pot of Green Feathers," written by 
T. G. Rooper, Esq., recommended by Wm. T. Harris, and published by 
C. W. Bardeen, Syracuse. It presents the subject from the homely but 
lucid standpoint of daily occurrences, mentally viewed. The title of the 
book is taken from the experience of a teacher who presented to very 
young children, for the first time, a pot of green ferns. Asking if any 
child could say what it was, the answer came, "It is a pot of green 
feathers." The author takes this ordinary mental comparison as the 
basis of his educational application of psychological law. A Kinder- 
gartner recently read the little book, and said as she finished : "There 
is meat for hungry teachers, who cannot fathom the depths of text-hook 
psychology." We recommend the " Pot of Green Feathers " to every 
Kindergartner. You will find there another version of the same prin- 
ciples laid down by Froebel in his Mutter und Kose Lieder, and you 
will possess these anew in finding them so clearly formulated. 

The Kindergarten Nezvs, for September, is full of help and facts, 
which cannot do otherwise than further the movement, in telling the 
world of the work in many places and inspiring others to take it up in 
new fields. Owing to the greatly increased expense of publication and 
value of the News, the publisher deems it necessary to advance the 
subscription price to fifty cents a year, which still makes it nominal and 
within the means of Kindergartners, mothers, and those having the 
slightest interest in the cause. This advance will not take effect until 
January ist. Address Kindergarten News, lo Exchange Street, Buffalo. 

'twB, Music Review, ■pxxhWshGAhy QX&yion F. Summy, Chicago, makes 
an important announcement in September number which concerns 
musical educators. Mr. Calvin B. Cady assumes entire editorial charge. 
Among other announcements as to the future scope of the Review, em- 
phasis is placed upon its purpose as being purely and strictly educa- 

Literary Notes, 157 

tional in the fullest sense of that all inclusive term. The subscription 
price up to November isl is |i.uo. Address Music Review, 174 Wal^ash 
Ave., Chicago. 

Thk Plack of the Story in Early Education and Othkr By Sara K. Wiltse. Author of Stories for Kindergartens and 
Primary Schools and Kindergarten Stories and Morning Talks. With 
an Introductory Note by President G. Stanley Hall, (iinn M: Company. 
Publishers. This book contains a series of papers on the study of chil- 
dren in nursery and Kinderjjarten, l)esides some observations of pupils 
in primary, grammar and high school grades with reference to sound- 
blindness, mental imagery and other phases of the physical and intel- 
lectual development of children. Much of the work was done under the 
ilirection of O. Stanley Hall with the hearty co-operation of the Boston 
School Hoard. 

TllK Christian t'nioti, that broad-gauge weekly which not only calls 
il-self a family paper, but is one, devotes its Septeml^er issue to a home 
interest, the Kindergarten. Among other interesting articles are an 
editorial on "The Kindergarten and its Mission," "The Spread of the 
Kindergarten in our Public Schools," by L. H. Allen, "The Philosophy 
of the Kindergarten," by Angeline Rrooks, " Freidrich Proebel as a 
Poet," by Kli/abelh Harrison, and a happy sketch of "A Day in the 
Kindergiirlen," by Miss Nora Smith. This special edition cannot be 
overestimated iu the good it makes known of the Kindergarten. 


Foreign Subscriptions. — On all subscriptions outside of the States, 
British Columbia, Canada and Mexico, add forty cents (40 cents) for 
postage, save in case of Africa, which amounts to So cents extra on the 
year's numbers. 

The pages of the Kindergarten Magazine will no longer be cut 
by machine since the majority of readers save their files for binding and 
prefer not to have them trimmed twice. Vol. V. will be more hand- 
somely bound than ever, and no magazines will be exchanged at the end 
of the year that have been cut by machine. Our readers will please 
take notice. 

All offers of premiums and special rates made to June, 1892, no longer 
hold good. 

Business Correspo7idence. — Always send j'our subscription ($1.50) 
made payable to the Kindergarten Magazine, Woman's Temple, 
Chicago, 111., either by money order, express order, postal note or draft. 
(No foreign stamps received.) Send your subscriptions direct to us and 
avoid delay. 

All inquiries concerning training schools, supplies, literature, song 
books, lecturers, trained Kiudergartners, etc., will be freely answered by 
correspondence or by the advertising columns of the Kindergarten 

All subscriptions are stopped on expiration — the last number being 
marked, "With this number your subscription expires." 

There is great demand for all back numbers of the Kindergarten 
Magazine, by many who wish to possess the complete file. This 
shows a growing appreciation of the practical value of the magazine. 
There is repeated call for Volume I. The substance of this volume can 
be secured in the compilation. Mothers' Portfolio. Price $2.25. Vol. II. 
is entirely out of print, and only a very limited number of bound Vol. 
III. are in the market, at I3.00 each. Vol. IV., in cloth, can still be 
had for I2.25. Address, Kindergarten Magazine, Woman's Temple, 

Publishers' Noles 159 

Wanted.— ^e need February 1892 Kinokkcaktkn. If you have 
one to spare send it, and we will give you any other nunil)er ih ex- 
change. KiNDKKGAKTKN Maoazink, WoHiaii's Temple, Chicago. 

Bound Volumes.— Exchange your files for '^i-'^ (Vol. IV.) for a 
hound volume of same; it will cost you only 75 cents to have a hand- 
some book made of your numbers. 

The offer made in the June number, granting a year's subscription to 
any one sending in tltree new subscribers and $4.50 was limited to date 

of June 10, and no longer holds good. 

If you want to spread the work send for a bunch of our new circulars 
to distribute. 

In requesting change of address always state both the new and old 
location. It saves us time and trouble. 

Send us one dollar for the new child's book of " Columbus, and What 
lie Found." It is authentic, detailed, and full of iuspiratiou and sug- 
gestion to the teacher and parent. 

To Our Rtaders. — Before making up your minds about 
what Holiday Books you wish to purchase, look for our lists 

in the ensuing i.ssues. We shall give a full line of Special 
Kindergarten Literature of a Gift Hook Nature with prices. 

Trade Department. 


This is the latest picture in our illustrated educational 
catalogue. We reproduce it here for the benefit of people 
who read the Kindergarten Magazine, because we are 
sure that they will be interested in the Creaser. It is the 
invention of a practical Kindergartner and is a voxy simple 
device for creasing lacing strips so as to facilitate accurate 
folding, being intended for use in connection with the Seven- 
teenth Gift. It does the work in excellent style and costs 
only lo cents. We hope that you will send that amount for 
a sample. 

It is well to remember that we are making our Kinder- 
gaten material conform to the colors of the Bradley Color 
Scheme as fast as possible. It will pay you to send for a 
copy of our color pamphlet ; new edition just out, with Sug- 
gestions to Teachers about Teaching Color. Our Teachers' 
Sample Boxes of Colored Papers are handy to have ; No. i 
costs you 15 cents ; No. 2 is mailed for 25 cents. Thej' con- 
tain Pupils' Envelopes for the Massachusetts Normal Course 
in Color for three years, and other helps along this line. 

To the Kindergartners of the South we would say Flexner 
Bros, of Louisville, Ky., handle our goods in the Southern 
States. We are printing 35,000 catalogues a year in our edu- 
cational department. You can have one for the asking. 

Thomas Charles Co., 211 Wabash Avenue, Chicago. 

Flexner Bros., 330 Fourth Avenue, Louisville. 

Henry M. Crist, Room 22 Clinton Hall, Astor Place, 
New York City. 

Springfield, flass. 


Vol. v.-novhmp.i:r. 1892.— Xo. 3. 


CHILD recognizes beauty as freely as it 
breathes. Its life is a sonj;. and its joyous, 
emotional disposition is untouched by the 
sombre melancholy of morbid life that has 
ceased to see beauty. 

So when we behold a child, and see its 
• inclinations, unprejudiced by custom — when 
we .see its susceptibility to all kinds of impressions — when 
we know the man is formed by the impressions received and 
the direction these inclinations are given I should we not 
pause before we enter upon these sacred premises and begin 
to lead it? That very touch of sympathy and love, which we 
feel for the child, makes us want to fill its storehouse with 
treasures of the sweetest experiences ; and taking it by the 
hand, and seeing with its eyes throuijh our discennnent. we 
point out every ray of sunshine we meet upon the way. We 
find oiirsf/irs again antl know liien, that ■ whosoever shall 
not receive the kingdom of God as a little child, .shall in no 
wise enter therein." 

The liistory of art (art in its broadest sense) shows the 
development and i^rowth, the ever-presence of the child- 
mind ; because, in art, the nai:r child- mind was es.scntial to 
its maintenance— without it art could not be. The great 
riiidias and Angelo touched Go<.t Uirough their child's seeing 

1 62 A Child's Artistic Seeing Power. 

power. The manifestation of art-thought in its infanc}', 
when it gave its first expression, was a crude symbol of what 
it would express — but feeling, as it did, with true instinctive 
nature, it remained by its creator and soon learned to speak 
its parent's loving language — and produced masterpieces 
before which nations have stood transfixed in mute admira- 
tion, and kings laid down their crowns. Art is the interpreta- 
tion of man's divine conception — it is not the conception itself, 
and we can onh' receive its message so far as we understand 
the language it uses. Unless we are in harmony with the 
mind about us, everything is a dead letter ; and the sooner we 
decipher the obelisks and unfold the m^-stery of the pyramids 
— those distant monuments in the shades of which the soul of 
man struggled for utterance — the sooner we are in the living 
thought that prompted all action. 

We need not be Egyptologists and read hieroglyphics, nor 
do we need to know the accurate date of the building of the 
pyramids, but we must recognize their existence as a living 
thought ; they are monumental evidences of man's dominion 
over all ; they are the child's heritage. 

True art has always dealt with the innermost being of man, 
and so far as the artist interprets this divinity, he gives 
expression wherewith to move humanity — and through this 
high purpose addresses himself to all. 

But we must make this lesson practical. We have seem- 
ingly wandered away from our subject, but only to find the 
essence with which we are dealing : Truth and Beauty, and 
its expression. We can not express Truth too beautifully, 
nor Beauty too truthfully. The modern French school of the 
Fine Arts, says : " Cherchez le charadire dans la nature ; " al 
that is, is worth manifesting ; everything truthfully rendered 
is beautiful — \i\x\.find its character. 

Sculpture which deals with form onlj-, with all the nations, 
was the first means of expression ; the museums of the world 
are filled with its record. Architecture of the higher order 
was only produced in conjunction with sculpture— I mean the 
architect largely depended upon the sculptor. Painting in 
flat tints, decoratively, no^-^-liave been simultaneous ; but 

--/ Child's Artistic Seeing Power. 163 

painting, which speaks through light and color, was last. 
So let us study these three sister arts in their natural suc- 
cessive phases. Not liistorically nor even technically; we can 
trust the judgment of our museum directors sufficiently for 
the present to take for granted that there is something to see 
in their galleries — <»f technical merit surely — and as concerns 
history, the classified catalogues instruct us considerably. 
We are a^ter substance, we want to be made to reflect. 

Observe a child iti a picture gallery. It never wonders 
how a. picture was painted, nor does it admire the clever brush- 
work ; all its impressions re.solve themselves into the great 
question : what does all this mean ? What it sees is some- 
thing that appeals to its consciousness of being and its whole 
.sensitive nature responds at once. The child is here con- 
fronted with an array of something which we unwittingly 
might call " pretty," but, which, for it, stands for all there is ; 
and it is wisely silent. But watch this child when it reaches 
home and leave it to itself, and it remembers that it saw some- 
thing and forthwith begins to draw, no matter how crudely, 
what it has recognized as a real thing — and each added .stroke 
adds to its Or better, give it some clay 
and it will begin to do, what the most ancient records show 
us man in his infancy did, and, which put into a museum 
might hold its place as a primitive work of art. Here we 
touch uj)on the child's artistic seeing powers — it is sttf' 
'nsciousnrss beginning to express itself, this is the liegin- 
niiig of all art. 

A child will more naturally express itself through lx>th 
the senses of sight and of touch than through that of sight 
otdy. Form is more tangible than color and light- -the first 
is absolute and the second relative so far as interpretation is 
concerned. Therefore, I would say, because it is more nat- 
ural to express something which appeals not only to the eve. 
but to the touch anil l) we have found here a 
parallel to the child thought, let us present to it that phase of 
art which lies nearest to it : sculpture. We have seeti why 
art is at all -it is it is the nearest expre.ssion of 
beauty, and thus is as essential to our iK'ing as our ver>' life. 

164 Wood- Music hi November. 

We have oiih' come to our developed recognition of beauty 
by successive stages ; every man that has ever been or is, has 
paid and must pay his tribute at the shrine of beauty. Let 
us not mistake the true essence and mission of art ! We 
walk through our galleries, and see not what we go to see ; 
we look about, and when at home remember something about 
having seen some statues ; j'es, and a beautiful frame around 
some coins, and some paper money patched with stamps — let 
us beware ! ask the child ! it wonders why you passed by the 
many figures that had no heads — some of them. The child 
saw them and it ponders ; let it tell you ; it will help \o\x 
touch the hem of the garment of God — it will even raise the 

George L. Schreiber. 


The good-bye trill of the bird — 

That breaks like a ray of light 

Through the web of gray 

That covers the day — 

Is the only song to be heard — 

Save the rustle of its flight. 

The rill of the brook below, 

As it shivers through the leaves, 
Marks the run of rhyme, 
And the beat of time, 
In the melody and flow 

Whicli dull November weaves. 

A. H. 



THE Sunday-school has opened its doors to the pure, 
sunny influences of the Kindergarten principles and 
methods. The living truth is supplanting facts ; the 
religious nurture of little children is being considered bffore 
definite religious training. 

In the twelfth annual report of the (lolden Gate Kinder- 
garten Association, San Francisco, 1S91, there is a full 
account of a Kindergarten Church ser\'ice at Oakland, which 
has ble.ssed not only the little children, hut mothers, -fathers 
and friends. . 

Sunday-school assemblies are reserving a portion of time, 
and a place on the platform for the exemplification of j)rac- 
tical methods of applying Kindergarten priiuiples to Sunday- 
school primary work. There is need for thoroughly trained 
Kindergartners to extend a helping haml. 

" The most delicate, the most difficult and the most im- 
portant i>art of the training of children," says Froel)el. "con- 
sists in the development of their inner and higher life of 
feeling and of soul, from which spring all that is highest and 
holiest in the life of man and of mankintl; in short, the 
religious life, the life that is at one with God in feeling, in 
thought and in action." Froebel has recognized the triple 
nature and relationship of the child, and the trained Kinder- 
gartner a.ssists in the development of this nature and relation- 
ship through definite work in a definite time, and the 
influences of this work should extend through all the hours 
of the child's life, including the quiet hours of Sabbath. 

1 66 Primary Sabbath School Work. 

The child should be led to feel the harmony between his 
week days and his Sabbath, each strengthening the other. 

The Kindergarten builds the bridge between home and 
school life, and so it might unite the home and the church. 

We know not when the development of the little child's 
religious nature begins. We do know that like seeds in the 
ground it lives and grows long before it is seen, and needs the 
same tender, sheltering care as the seeds. If you expose a 
seedling to the direct rays of the sun, and if you pour water 
upon it carelessly, the result is fatal — and so with a little 
child's religious nature. We must proceed gently and 
gradually, working first only through general influences. 
Precept is an unimportant factor. The religious atmosphere 
which surrounds a child influences greatly its religious devel- 
opment, and the cultivation of religious feeling must always 
precede the teaching of facts of religion. 

General training must precede particular ; general insights 
must be attained before special ones ; general states of feeling 
before particular emotions, wholes before parts. 

Child nature should be understood by the Sunday-school 
teacher as well as by the Kindergarten teacher. Principles 
and the child nature being the same on the Sabbath as on a 
week day, educational methods and influences should be the 

It is not Kindergarten material which is needed in the 
Sunday-school, but the application of Kindergarten principles. 

Teachers ought to study the method of the greatest of all 
teachers. They should learn his read}- sympathy, definite 
teaching and use of natural objects for the illustration of 
spiritual truths. They should know his constant use of 
figurative language, his avoidance of argument and his pres- 
entation of absolute truth. They should remember his con- 
stant call to personal action, and they should understand his 
command to feed the lambs. We must study the life and 
teachings of Christ, study the nature of the little child and 
present truth in accordance with the child's attained power 
of insight. 

The soul knows God, first as Creator, second as Preserver, 

Primary Sabbath School Work. 167 

third as Redeemer. The child must know the perfect I.IFE of 
Christ before his suffering and death. Christ's life must be 
emphasized as it is the child's inspiration to action and 

The work of the infant class teacher lies in giving the little, 
child tender religious nurture, developing a /<y//>/;^;- of love and 
gratitude to his heavenly Father. Later, the teachers of 
intermediate classes may picture the suffering and death of 
Christ, being sure that the children are ready to accept the 
great love which dictated such a sacrifice. 

A program for the year's work must Ik* developed which 
shall have a definite aim in view. Various means to this end 
should he used, each performing a different function, yet all 
working in harmony. Each idea must he foreshadowed, act- 
ively illustrated and consciously applied. Kach series of 
lessons must be, not only a connected series each step built 
on a preceding step and foreshadowing another, but also inter- 
woven with every other series, until the work of the year 
becoujes a living whole, and the child pa.sses through an 
organized set of exjieriences which lead him onward to a clear 
realization of the truth presented. 

The vital truths of the Kindergartens are reflected in the 
vital truths of religion, and the infant class teacher needs only 
to recognize this and her plan lies before her. 

Kinilergarten metliods utilize the ceaseless activity of the 
child, and develop it in its productive tendency. To keep the 
child constantly employed in the line of right development is 
the secret of a happy, well-conducted Kindergarten, and the 
solution of the problem of infant teaching. 

The influence of melody, word and gesture is known. 
Gesture should Ik.' used as a symlH)l of inward feeling, used 
intelligently and freely. The melodies should Ik* simple and 
sweet, always in harmony with the words and gestures. Chil- 
dren should not Ik" alh)wed to sing sacred music ti>o rapidly, 
or while the body is in a careless or relaxed position. The re- 
action of the physical upon the spiritual is so great that much 
of the softening power of the melotly and the enlightening 
power of the words may l>e lost by a Iwdy Koo unsympathetic 

1 68 Primary Sabbath School Work. 

to complete the whole. The subject of the song must be in 
harmony with the special phase of truth chosen for illustra- 
tion, and should be used as a means to an end exactly as songs 
are used in the Kindergarten. 

One cannot be too careful how she leads the little children 
in formal worship. Prayer is the most holy act of worship 
the child performs. He should be led confidentl}' and intelli- 
gently. The body should be in the attitude of prayer, stand- 
ing or kneeling, with hands clasped and eyes closed. Stand- 
ing is significant of readiness to hasten in obedience to the 
will of the Father, kneeling is the attitude of humility. The 
clasping of hands signifies that, for the time, all earthly things 
are given up and the spirit is in a state of inward collective- 
ness. Closing the eyes to external surroundings opens them 
to spiritual truths. The combined action of all parts of the 
body in the act of devotion will help to open the heart to holy 

Children cannot hold one position for any length of time, 
neither have they great power of concentration. For these 
two reasons the prayers offered should be short, simple and 
direct, and should be offered by the children themselves. If the 
child is to feel and understand the medium of pra5^er, he must 
live through it, he must be taught to pray. One sentence 
uttered in praj^er by a child will do more to help him than 
many sentences offered by the teacher. Praj^er sentences ap- 
propriate to the day's subject may be selected from the Bible 
and carefully taught to the children. Froebel says, "The 
child must be able to concentrate its spirit, and the words of 
the prayers must be in close relation to the child's experiences 
and feelings." There should be in every infant class-room a 
large Bible, to which constant reference is made, that the chil- 
dren may know where to look for the story of Christ's life and 
messages to us. 

Charts illustrative of various topics may be made of 
materials and pictures b^'OJtght by the children themselves, just 
as they are made in the Kindergarten. 

Connection between the lessons from week to week may 
be preserved by using a series of charts, or pictures constructed 


Primary Sabbath School Work. 169 

on the plan suggested by Miss Burt for the literary education 
of children, e. ^., a line of time, and pictures pasted or drawn 
at intervals illustrating a series of events on subjects, — or a 
chart may l>e constructed in the form of a circle made up of 
sections, each section containing a group of pictures which tell 
part of the story, while the complete circle gives the whole. I 
give as example tlie method of constructing the " Love chart " 
in the Kindergarten. A small picture of the " Madonna and 
Child " is shown to illustrate mother-love. The children sing 
about the " finger family " and about the " bird family " i'\x\ 
the branches of a tree). Then a picture of a family of animals 
is shown, perhaps a cat and kitten. The children are asked 
to bring pictures of various kinds of families— birds, dogs, cats, 
rabbits. These are received and hung under the picture of 
the Madonna, each lailike the child's own life in all particulars 
but the one emphasized, ( family love) this is made objective. 
When the collection is made, each family is pasted on a little 
piece of cardboard cut in the section of a circle, and these sec- 
tions are arranged around the Madonna picture. 

Then comes the next .step, mamma and papa love their 
babies, and take care of them ; the babies love their parents. 
What can they do to show it ? A collection is made of pictures 
of active love, of little children doing something to make 
others happy (feeding a bird, watering tlowers) introduced 
through the " Basket Song." These pictures arc pasted in 
sections of a larger circle and arranged outside of the circle of 
families, and the thought is extended in circles through 
friendships and love for others outside the family. 

The story of the Creation may l^e illustrateil in the s;mie 
way, — the children bringing pictures of trees, flowers, fruits, 
animals, birds, insects ; grouping each in a section, and ar- 
ranging the sections to form a whole circle. 

Several weeks may be well spent in the illustmtion of one 

ToUowing the Creation is the thought of Growth. Wc 
^liould show how seeds sprout and grow, each seed repro- 
ducing itself. If corn is plantetl, com will grow. If a grain 
of wheat is planteil, wheat will grow. There should be a 

lyo Primary Sabbath School Work. 

collection of pictures showing various stages of growth. So, 
out of one good action grows another good action. This les- 
son should be emphasized with much power. 

The next lesson should be the loving care of all that has 
been created. Begin with the life of birds ("Your Father 
careth for them " ) as given in Froebel's commentary on the 
song of the Birds' Nest in his "Mother Play." Let the 
children bring pictures of various kinds of birds, showing how 
each nest is built in the location best suited to meet the needs 
of the bird. Study the " Lilies of the Field." 

The steps to be taken will unfold naturally, and as the 
wise Kindergartner adapts her daily program to the varying 
needs of her children, and to existing circumstances, so may 
the teacher of the infant class. She may use the raindrops or 
the sunbeams, drawing from either one the truth she wishes 
to present, and adapting it to the needs of the little ones 
whom she influences. Filled with the truth herself, she 
must give it right expression, and the seeds are sown. 

Mabel A. Wilson. 

St. Louis. 


JASSING from the country, with its fresh- 
ness and abnndance, to the dusty city, one 
would naturally expect to find great diffi- 
culties in the way of proper science work. 

Lack of material, of opportunity and of 
place suited to such work would j)roniptly 
present themselves, and to many end the 

whole matter. 

But the happy rooms and successful work of more than one 
teacher of my acquaintance, assure me that these difficulties 
are not insurmountable, even under the present unfavorable 

That I may lend a helping hand to increase these practi- 
cal demonstraiions, and hasten the time when those in au- 
thority shall render that systematic aid which would cost so 
little and accomplish so much, is the purpose of this article. 

There are several things I shall take for granted : 

/.7^^/._Teachers earnestly desire the best good of their 


Stronii.—A clear and ready apprehension of the words of 
the printed page, is of vital importance to good scholarship. 

rujiils /////.s7 in the truest sense, he good naders. 

77, /,v/. —Words are symbols and are only of value as they 
correspond to correct mental concepts. 

/.;„<;//, _'r he preponderance of nature (if accurate) in the 
modern reader, geography and drawing book, is uisf, and in 
the line of the child's normal development. 

Fifth.— Tliit city child is especially in need of ot^Jfcts to 
see and handle, in order that his concepts may J>e correct and 
his interest sustained. Pictures are exrcllenl. but can only 
partially meet the neeil. 

What can be found in the city and where ' 

Placing things in nature's own seiiuence. we note : 

172 Primajy Science Lesson in the City. 

(i.) The Sun. With its heat, light and chemical power. 

Notice how the noon shadows are dail}^ creeping farther 
and farther into the room and apph^ it to geography. 

Note the shortening days and lengthening nights. 

(2.) The Stars. Constellations can be drawn and found 
"straight out " some street at some certain hour (early enough 
for a child). 

The pole star is always in the north with its attendant 

(3. ) The sister planets of our Earth will delight and 

(4.) The Moo?i. Her light, heat (?) and phases. 

How did we get the word " month " and its meaning ? 

What are the ' ' faces ' ' in the moon ? 

How can we see "the old moon in the young moon's 
arms ? ' ' 

Be sure and call attention to any available eclipse. 

Children take especial interest in the heavens, and are 
wonderfully helped by a very simple acquaintance. 

The Air. Why we breathe. Need of its purity. Simple 
directions and experiments illustrating proper ventilation and 
danger of draughts. 

IVifids. Causes of and the benefit they are to the city 

The work they do for us on the water and on land. 

Dnst. What is it. Its omnipresence. 

Smoke. Where it comes from. What it is. 

Coal. Kinds, use, how obtained, its origin. 

Coke. Where made. Why no flame. 

Gas. How made and uses. Dangers connected with it. 

Light. Oil. Kinds of oil and origin. Dangers from 
some. Candles, How made and of what. Electric. Con- 
nect with the excited rubber comb ; the snapping of the cat's 
fur and woolen garments ; the lighting of gas by the finger 
after scuffling over dry carpet, etc., etc. 

Caution about the danger of meddling with wires. 

Minerals. Common sorts brought and studied as to points 
of difference. 

Primary Science Lesson in the City. 173 

Stone. Class, gather and karii kinds and uses. 

Pebbles. Where found and how made. 

Sand. What is sand and how made. 

Clay. How made. Its plastic nature and how moulded 
into ? 

Pricks. How made and burnt. What colors and why ? 

Tile. Kinds and uses. 

Crockery. Made of? how? where? 

Lime. How made. 

Mortar. Materials and making. Use. 

Metals. As many kinds as possible learned and character- 
istics known. 

The above is the mineral side. As to plants, we have : 

Trees. Learn to know any which are available. 

Encourage the children to examine them and describe, 
bringing specimens of leaves, buds or fruits to verify their 

Woods. Children bring pieces and learn to know the 
jieculiarities of each sort.* 

Ai)ply to furniture, dishes, etc. 

Lumber. Learn the meaning of "joists," " timbers." 
"sills," "floorings," "2x4." " 2x6," etc., etc. Onthcendof 
large sticks look for the private marks of the logging camps : 
which will introduce the whole subject of " pinery." 
"cami)," saw-mill, etc., etc. 

Darks. Hirch-bark, tan-bark and for geography, pro- 
cure large specimens from the wholesale druggist of barks 
used in medicine, for dyeing, etc. 

Roots. Many kinds can be found at the market, «)r in the 
vacant lots. 

Stems. Both undergrt)und (as potato, etc. < and aUn-e 
gn-ound, vas asj)aragus) can be had in the market ; to which 
uld the com (gladiolus and crocus), and bulb, to be had of 

I.eaics. Besides those of trees and the plants in waste lots. 
I'lorists are very kiml in helping to get such material for 
the children. 

• A ct>Uccliou of from twciity-ftve to thirtv tiniiictl »orts c«n l>c had of drnlcr* in 
<ron-ituw work for a few cent.4. 

174 Primary Science Lesson in the City. 

Flowers. Must be purchased, unless some kindly green- 
house or the park authorities can be interested, as will often 
prove the case. The da}' is not far distant when the re- 
sources of our parks and public greenhouses will become 
available for such purposes and much that now goes to waste 
become an important factor in aiding the schools and thereby 
greatly increasing the attractiveness of the parks themselves. 

The increased expense to both parks (for raising and 
saving) and school authorities (for distributing) would be 
small, beyond a certain amount of planning and forethought. 

Fruits. Are abundant and cheap. Let pupils bring 
them and the study is delightful. 

Seeds. Get all the children can gather and then add such 
as friends in the country will donate. 

Seedsmen will sell "old" seed — unfit to send out — at a 
cheap price. 

As to animals. — Parks often show rare collections. 

Sparrows and Pigeons are abundant. 

Birds of passage often get lost on their migrations and 
are found in lots and alleys or throng the parks. 

Game in the markets and meat at the stalls can be 

Fish can frequently be seen in the markets and the com- 
mon sorts will be easily used to illustrate points in structure 
or use. The scales of the larger ones will make interesting 

The Products of Animals. Milk, butter, cheese, leather, 
glue, horn and bone in combs, buttons, etc., hair and wool 
in fabrics, furs, etc., are abundant and serviceable. 

Shells are not rare and oyster and clam can be easily had 
of dealers or eating houses. By adding some univalve, 
almost a complete set for study is at hand. 

Insects. Flees, mosquitoes and cockroaches are only too 
plenty. Butterflies and mosquitohawks are frequently be- 
wildered and lost in the city. Caterpillars feed on the trees 
and many cocoons can be seen and gathered by the boj'S, to 
keep in reference to the silkworm. 

Man. Rare opportunities belong to the city child to see 

/'riniary Science Lesson in the City. 175 

different nationalities of men and obsen'e their dress and 
iistoms. Materials for fabrics, etc., etc., can be easily had 
iiid processes of manufacture observed. 

But I not further specify— enough has been said to 
show the abundance of material easily accessible. As to when 
time can be found for this work and a place to do it in — I 
would add a word. No " time " nor " place " beyond that 
of the ordinary school is needed. 

Read your reader and geography through before work is 
begun ; and as you find any object referred to which can 
under any possibility be gotten or any exi>eriment which 
may be helpful, note it in pencil in the margin and make a 
list in some note-book of the material or ai)paratus required. 

Then gather these things as soon as possible and put 
away in boxes, etc., so arranged as to l^e instantly found 
when the need arises. By looking ahead hardly a point 
iieetl be spoken of, which cannot be made clear, and the in- 
terest (and order) of the pupils will reward you. 

This hap-ha/ard work is not the best that can be done, but 
all I would advise for the beginning. 

As interest develops in the class and skill and fertility of 
resource in the teacher, more and better work will grow up 
and ways and time for it come. 

Tracy, III. Kdw.vkd G. Howk. 


MONG all the varied places of amusement, places 
of interest and true pleasure, the person of leisure 
has the greatest scope for selection. There are 
churches, entertainments, social resorts of all kinds, 
as well as books and home pleasures to share the 
brimming hours. But there is one place to which 
such a fortunate possessor of leisure might go, 
where he would find all these engredients most happily com- 
bined. This* is the school-room. It is a grievance only too 
common among school men and women that the outside world 
so seldom conies in to them, that parents so rarel}- find their 
way to these workshops where their own bo3-s and girls are 
whiling away the most beautiful and best part of their lives. 
It is even hinted that some mothers tremble with dread at the 
thought of stepping within the walls of learning. Some 
fathers, it is said, when urged b}' Tom or Mabel to hurry to 
the window to see "Teacher" go b}', shrug their shoulders 
and say, " Don't bother me now." 

Such parents, I am sure, would be glad to break this spell, 
•which seems to separate them from their children, which 
divides the home and the school as distincth^ as the old 
geographies used to cut the two hemispheres. And the good 
little children would be so happy to find that the two pieces 
fit together after all. 

A good way to make a beginning to reunite what has so 
long been put asunder is to visit the nearest Kindergarten. 
Take the baby wuth you or a friend, and if you go early enough 
you can just slip in with the gathering children, and find a 
cozy corner before you are noticed at all. The informality, 
the homelikeness of the place and its little people will strike 
3-ou at once, and j-ou will wonder why you had never come 

How to I 'is// a Kindergarten . 177 

before. It will seem a little un-schoollike to you at first, for 
it is <juite likely some of the children will talk out loud and 
even skip across the floor in their delight to see each other or 
the Kindergartiier. Hut you will ^ind yourself reflecting the 
same free and happy UKJod, and soon ycni are wondering why 
there are not more public places in the world where grown 
people feel so at their best. 

As you watch the pleasant exercises, notice this or the 
other individual face, .so bright and happy, or as often dreamy, 
shy or furtive. When the work is well started at the tables 
walk about the room, — come close to the children, of course 
not in any sense to crowd them or interfere with their uncon- 
sciousness of visitors. Peep over into their busy midst, for 
you will be interested in the passing remarks and comments 
of the earnest little workers, and above all else glean what 
you can froju the ways and means pursued by the Kinder- 
gartner. Slie has a rea.son, you know, for everything she 
says and does, and by using your eyes and ears, and Ijetter 
still your sympathies, you may catch some of her secret. By 
keeping still and thinking, visitors often get more information, 
than by talking with the children or asking questions of the 
Kiiulergartner. Vox everything said and done is ver>- simple 
yet full of meaning. 

Do you see that little girl, surely not three summers old ? 
If her mother could see her busy at her handwork, she is fold- 
ing a shawl of soft yellow paper, do you not think she would 
be surprised ? X'isitors sometimes say when seeing such a 
picture, "Oh, how cuiuiing ! " but you see. it is more than 
that, — it is real work that the little one is doing. When the 
children are at their circle play, you will be surprised to see 
the grace and beauty of every movement. Did you ever 
notice them in their home or outdoor play .' They arc quite 
as happy and free there, but the Kimlergartner has a way of 
giving the children real ideas in their play, which l>ecome so 
real to them that they forget all al)OUt themselves for the time 
iK'ing. Gracefulness is the result of this uncon.scious doing 
and being! 

Visitors are not in a Kindtrgarleu long, in the attitude of 
VOL. v.— NO. 3. 13 

lyy How to Visit a Kindergarten. 

audience, — they cannot resist the home atmosphere. You 
must not be at all surprised if some of the children run to 
you, show you their work, even give it to j'ou, or, perhaps, 
love you. A young lady who had for many years been a 
school teacher, came one morning to visit a Kindergarten. 
She brought her work-bag, for she said she did not wish to 
waste the whole morning. She sat knitting quite a while, 
when a rolly-poly little boy frolicked over to her, pulled at the 
yarn, and finally at her, until he brought her triumphantly to 
the children who were working together at a table. He felt 
that some one was outside the circle, which was against the 
golden Kindergarten rule. 

Perhaps you have noticed one or two particularly " bad," 
or at least disagreeable children. Your first impulse will be 
to say if only to j^ourself, "That child ought to be pun- 
ished," — and your indignation is quite righteous. For surely 
the child is spoiling the pretty circle and his own happj' time. 
But wait a moment. Watch the Kindergartner, for she never 
fails to see all these little side tragedies. Over across the 
room one " disagreeable " has spatted another, and soon there 
is a tangle of little fists and curls. Now is your opportunity 
to see what the Kindergartner, who has perhaps seemed too 
calm to please you, will do. Notice how she approaches the 
children, — just as calm and steady as ever, — she even stands 
still before them, without a word, or onl}' a very gentle, firm 
one. You skeptically wonder to yourself how it will work. 
But the skillful Kindergartner has been under the same test 
before, and she has proven too many times that non-doing, is 
often better than hasty deeds to be undone. As you Avatch, 
the cloud disperses, and you as well as the little ones who 
were under it, emerge stronger and better. 

By all means give yourself over to the happy restful 
atmosphere of the place, — be expressive and reflect the chil- 
dren's joyousness. Make the most of your rare visit. As- 
similate the sweetness of the bus}- active, loving mood which 
the Kindergartner shows forth, and which in her heart of 
hearts, she knows to be more eloquent than words, most 
effective and abiding in influence. Amalie Hofer. 


THE watchword of the present hour is higher education ; 
the very air of Chicago is full of it. Our long dreanied- 
of lil)raries are becominj^ magnificent realities, and will 
soon offer rich and manifold opportunities to our reading and 
thinkinj; i)ul)lic. The great University of Chicago has just 
opened its doors to hundreds of students who may care to 
partake of the kind of higher education which it offers, and 
the still greater University IC.xtension movement is carrying 
higher education to thousands of men and women who cannot 
give their entire time to study. The Xorthwesteru University 
has recentl)- made giant strides ahead in the field of science, 
hut it has not any of these forms of higher education of which 
I would sjieak this afternoon. Grand and much needed as 
they are, it is a still higher of education to which I 
would call your attention ; namely, that of man's spiritual 
being and the right understanding of all material things as 
factors in the tlevelopment of this spiritual nature. All 
clergymen, statesmen, philanthropists and reformers agree in 
this one fact, that the world needs higher education concern- 
ing the relationships of man to nature, to his lellowmen and 
to God. In order that the duties arising from these relation- 
.shii)s may he more clearly understotxl. and known, they all 
agree that this comprehension of right relation.'>liips cannot be 
attained until man is considered as a spiritual being, and the 
development of his spiritual nature Ik* made the aim of all 
teaching and reform. 

Surely each of us. as individuals, are in much need of 

*0|>cuiuK nditrrM before the Chicago Kindcnnirlcn Cotlcgr. by Kliubclh IUrri> 

i8o The Watchword of the Prcseiit Hoicr. 

this form of higher education. Is there a man who would 
blunt his higher nature with sensuality or starve it with mere 
material pursuits and thoughts, or debase it with dishonesty 
and fraud if he realized his spiritual possibilities, and the 
richness and fullness of life which might be his did he obey 
the laws of spiritual development? Is there a woman who 
would weaken and undermine her physical strength by fol- 
lowing the foolish dictates of an unreasoning fashion which 
commands her to compress all her vital organs into most dis- 
astrously unhealthful limits, who would deprive herself of her 
buoyancy and brilliancy by unhealthful hours and slothful 
lack of exercise, which modern societ}- and fashionable dress- 
makers demand? Is there a woman who would live the 
starved, pinched lives that most women live because the}' fear 
to be unconventional and to lose caste by doing some real 
work in the world ? I ask, is there a woman, who would so 
rob and defratid her individual life of its highest possibilities, 
could she realize that her spiritual needs were her greatest 
needs ? Most evident is it that this form of higher education 
is needed in the home life, that parents may wisely develop 
the bodies of their children, may intelligently train their 
minds, and may reverently inspire their aspirations and lift 
up for them their ideals. Scarcely a day passes that I do not 
hear some mother regret mistakes made in the training of her 

Henry Drummond has given to the world a remarkable 
little pamphlet called "The Greatest Thing in the World," 
which he claims is love. But more love is not needed in the 
home unless it can be wiser love. Excessive but foolish love 
is almost as injurious to a child as unsympathetic lack of 
love. An incident quite fresh in my mind will illustrate 
what I mean by unwise love. One afternoon last summer an 
acquaintance of mine, the mother of two strong, healthy 
children had planned to take two guests out for a drive. 
"When the carriage appeared at the door the younger child 
burst into a flood of tears and sobs, protesting that he did not 
wish mamma to leave him. In vain mamma promised to re- 
turn in an hour or two, and reasoned with him that his nurse 

The Watchword of the Present Hour. i8i 

and little sister would l^e with him. Arguments made the 
child cling only more closely around her neck and sob the 
more vehemenlly. that he did not wish mamma to leave him. 
At last, with tears in her eyes, the mother turned to her 
guests and said, " I cainiot bear to cross him. I love him so 
much. If you will go without me I will take off my wraps 
and remain at home." * '^- ^' * 

To turn to the brighter side of home pictures I will 
tell you of a mother whose love is wise love. She is the wite 
of a clergyman in a country town, and, it is needless to say, 
has but a limited income. When the first child arrived, al- 
though there was no wealth of means to greet it, a richer 
wealth of love was the daughter's birthright. When the 
time for christening the child had come, an impulsive, kind- 
hearted parishioner handed the young mother a two-dollar bill 
saying: " Buy the baby a christening cap with this." All 
the pride of the fond mother's heart was aroused. Lovingly 
she lingered over the ilainty lace caps which the milliner 
temptingly showed her, however, in the end. she purchased a 
jdain little muslin cap with one dollar of the money, and with 
the other bought a book which some friend had told her 
would be helpful in the bringing up of her child. " For." said 
she, "my little daughter need never know what kind of a 
cap she was christened in. but she will know some day 
whether or not I have been a wise mother." I remember 
once standing upon a pier which projected into Lake Geneva, 
and watching the face of a mother blanch, and the hands 
clutch convulsively as her splendidly developed nine-year-old 
daughter jumped from the end of the pier into the water 
twenty feet and ilisappear from our sight. Hut when a mo- 
ment later she arose to the surface some yards away and 
turned her smiling face toward us the mother dapjK'd her 
hands and crieil. " Hravo, bravo ! " v^he had concjuered her 
cowardly fear of water in order that her little girl might have 
the healthful exercise of swimming. 

Wlun will we ever learn that it is not what we do for the 
child l)ut what we help him to do for himself which is of 
value to him— that it is not what he has but what he is 

l82 The Watchword of the Present Hozir. 

which brings him happiness ? The bequeathal of a fortune, 
no matter how princelj^ does not compensate for a weak and 
marred character, and the priceless gift of strong, true train- 
ing of heart and will is within the reach of every mother who 
is willing to prepare herself b}' thought and study upon this 
great subject of child-training, it matters not how humble her 
position may be. 

Again, we turn our thoughts to the trade world and see 
the clashes and conflicts which are going on between capital 
and labor. We realize how much higher education is needed 
in this sphere of life. Political economy and social ethics are 
as yet in their infancy. A shock was felt from one end of 
our nation to the other, when the telegraph wires announced 
the terrible Homestead tragedy. Will that sad event, and 
the numerous conflicts which followed it in such rapid succes- 
sion, arouse us to think more deeply upon this great problem 
of labor ? Is it not because industry is not rightly under- 
stood, that so little has yet been attained in the practical 
carrying out of the theories of social ethics ? Does not labor 
•Stand for more than mere monfej^ making, for mere increase of 
physical comfort ? Is it not through work, and through work 
alone, that man is intellectually developed, and does not much 
of his spiritual wholesomeness depend on his having some 
definite dail}^ work to do ? When this is rightly understood, 
we will realize that the man who works is the only man 
worthy of our respect. 

The man or woman who partakes of all the advantages of 
a civilization which have resulted from the toil of millions, 
and who has yet nothing to contribute as his or her share to 
the sum total of the activities of mankind, deserves not to 
look the honest road-digger or char-woman in the face. 
" Why on earth," says Dr. Boj^d, " do people think it fine to 
be idle and useless." Fancy a drone superciliously desiring 
a working bee to stand aside, saying : " Out of the way, you 
miserable drudge, I never made a drop of honey in all my 
life," and yet have we not such drones in society, and is it 
not because they do not realize the developing power of work ? 
There are young women in the community about us whose 

Thf Watchword of the Presnit Hour. 183 

lives are narrow and cramped, because their days are spent in 
idleness and frivolity. vSonietinies they realize this starvation 
of soul which is Koing on within, though they confess it not 
to the outer world. To all such I will say, in the words of 
an old Persian proverb, " Square thyself for use, a stone that 
will fit in the wall is not left in the road." In other words, 
learn something thoroughly and you will find a use for it. 

Again, as we .scan the political h(jrizon, do we not see how 
desperate is the need here of a realization of the spiritual 
significance of government ? On all sides we hear ridicule 
instead of argument. We are given personal anecdotes in- 
stead of presentation of principles. When we see the busy 
wheels of traffic and the gay carriages of pleasure stopped by 
the arm of law, in order that a poor working woman may pass 
in safety across the street, is it not to every looker-on an illus- 
tration of the value and dignity of each individual, of the 
calming sul)tle bond of brotherhood which is slowly making 
us regard the rights of each. 

I ask you to turn with me to Friedrich Froebel. He 
defines education, as that training which leads a man to 
clearness concerning himself, to peace with nature ami to 
unity with God. Who among us has attaine<l unto this 
fonn of education ? How many of us know clearly and defi- 
nitely our own weak points and limitations as well as our 
strength and power ? How many of us are in such harmony 
with nature that we obey her laws without rebellion ? How 
many of us have come itito that unity with G«kI which makes 
us realize that all things work for good— and yet this should 
l)e the result of right education. Froebel dt>es not leave his 
lofty conception of education in an abstract theoretic form. To 
his poetic mind, sympathy with God and all his creatures 
coniprehend the opacjue cloud of facts and he sees ever-living 
principles behind those facts. He realizes G^hI's message in 
the simplest thing he has created. He hears God's voict?, not 
only in the Hook of Revelation, but also in the laws of 
Nature: he sees God's image in the lunnblest villnv;e child 

184 The Watchword of the Present Hour. 

with whom he comes in contact : he realized those words of 
Christ, '' These are ni}^ brothers and my sisters," as but few 
of us have comprehended them. God was to him an ever- 
living, ever-present Friend, not an abstract kind of being to 
be worshiped at stated periods in stated ways, and then to 
be forgotten meantime. The great world poets have under- 
stood the human heart, and have spoken to it even as God 
spake unto the early race, as Christ spake unto the multitude 
by means of parables or sj^mbols. It is thus that Froebel 
would have us teach the little child. 


The rain had fallen, the Poet arose 

He passed b}' the town and out of the street, 
A light wind blew from the gates of the sun 

And waves of shadow went over the wheat ; 
And he sat him down in a lonely place 

And chanted a melody loud anisweet 
That made the wild-swan pause in her cloud, 

And the lark drop down -at his feet. 

The .swallow stopped as he hunted the bee 

The snake .slipped under a spray, 
The wild-hawk stood with the down on his beak 

And stared with his foot on the prey, 
And the nightingale thought, "I have sung many 

But never a one so gay. 
For he sings of what the world will be 

When the years have died away." 


AX oftkial circular has been sent forth by the Inter- 
national Kindergarten Union, which we reprint in 
full, as one of the most important and valuable docu- 
ments ever brought before Kindergartners. It cannot fail 
to inspire an active interest on the part of all connected in 
any way whatsoever with the new educational movement. 
The circular reads : 

The International Kindergarten Union promises to be one of the 
most important movements ever undertaken for the education of little 
children. No department of education is receiving more intelligent 
attention, from the best thinkers in educational circles, than the 
Kindergarten. Its influence permeates every department of schoo! in- 
struction, and promises to be a still more important factor in the 

The principles underlyinjj the Kinderjjarten system are the ground- 
work of modern primary education. .\n intelligent interpretation of 
philosophy and method is being presented by many indepemlent 
workers in various parts of the world ; something like a complete sys- 
tem of primary education is being slowly evolveil from the repeated 
experiments of these investigators. Much of value to the world is 
being lost from the lack of coordinated eflfort and some common chan- 
nel of comnjunication. 

The International Kindergarten I'nion was formed to meet thi« 
need : It seeks to unite in one stream the various Kindergarten activities 
already existing. Its function is to supplement, not to comi)ele with ; 
to co-ordinate, not to supplant, the agencies which are already at work. 
It will combine the advantages of central council and suggestion wuh 
ItKal indepen«lence and control. Its mission is to collect, collate, and 
di.Hscminate the valuable knowle<lge already attained and to inspire 
to greater and more intelligent etTorts in the future. It falls naturally 
into the spirit and method of the tinies, which is no longer that of 
tHolate<l elTorl, but of couceutratetl harmonious action. 

In most of the States the Kindergartens are outsiile of the pul>lic 
school system, in the hamls of private >ocictics. It is obvious that an 
Intern.itionHl Kindergarten I'nion can deal only with large units. It is 
hoped that all of the Kindergarten societies in each State, whether pul>- 

1 86 The Internatio7ial Kindergarten Union. 

lie or private, will unite to form one State organization for representa- 
tion in the Internationa Kindergarten Union. This plan, however, will 
not preclude individual and society memberships in those States, when 
no such organization exists. The great advance which has been made 
in the growth of Kindergartens in the recent past makes it hopeful 
that the time is near when there will be no State without such an 

The International Kindergarten Union is pledged to promote such 
organizations, and to the establishment of Kindergartens. It invites 
co-operation from public and private schools, churches, and benevolent 
societies of every kind and grade, which have for their object the edu- 
cational interests of little children. 

The establishment of a high standard of training for the office of 
Kindergartner has long been felt to be a necessity bj- those most 
intimately connected with the work. It is of the first importance that 
some standard be reached, that shall direct the future action of training 
schools in the preparation of teachers. The time is past when "any- 
body can teach little children." We are no longer in the experimental 
stage. No position calls for more native ability and thorough training. 
The Kindergartner must take her place with other trained professional 
teachers, if she can hope to hold her place in the great arm}- of educa- 
tional progress ; she must be able to see that principles are more than 
method, spirit more than form, and organic relations to other depart- 
ments of education of vital importance to success in her own. 

It will be the work of the International Kindergarten Union to pre- 
pare an outline study, to advise its adoption, and to give aid and 
counsel, whenever they are sought. The Executive committee includes 
the leading Kindergartners of this country and of Europe. Their expe- 
rience and knowledge give ample security that wise counsel will be 
given in all questions of importance to the cause. The International 
Kindergarten Union will be in close touch with the National Educational 
Association. It will receive inspiration and support from that large 
body of eminent educators. The Kindergarten Department of that body 
has already done much valuable work for the cause in this country. 
It contains some of the most experienced and intelligent workers ; and 
to their influence is largely due the rapid progress of the Kindergarten 
cause in America. The International Kindergarten Union seeks to add 
but another round of growth by bringing into co-operation with it, many 
persons and societies who can greatly extend the range of its influence. 

The immediate aim of the International Kindergarten Union for the 
coming year will be to prepare a fitting representation of Kindergarten 
progress at the Columbian Exposition at Chicago in 1893. This time 
will furnish an occasion for an interchange of views and an organization 
of forces for future growth unequaled in the history of the world. An 
International Congress is planned for this time, in which will be dis- 

The International Kindergarten Union. 187 

cussed questions uf vital importance to the cause by the mo6t eminent 
Kitnlerjjartuers of the world. Foreign correspondence is now hein{; 
held to hriii>( together products of the system in countries much older 
than our own. It is hoped that not only finished products may be di»- 
playeil, in well grade<l sequence, but that practical illustrations of 
method may l)e )i;iven with the little children present. 

The International Kinderj^arten Union will co-operate with the 
iirious States in their plans of exhibit, and with those in charge of the 
• Children's Palace," in carrying on the educational department of that 
admirable scheme. This will give an excellent opportunity to present a 
graphic view of a Kindergarten in actual operation. This plan will l>e 
more potent in claiming attention and in giving a knowledge of the 
system than reanjs of written work and finished proilucts. It is true 
that much of the spiritual side of the system cannot be shown in so 
short a time by this or, indeed, by any other method, but the same ob- 
jection can be urged with equal truth in regard to every department of 
the Kxposilion. It is understood that it is only the material and metho<l- 
ical side of every department which is being shown, and each will see 
in the whole, only "that which he has eyes to see." 'The time for 
such propaganda " is not past, the larger numl>er of people who will 
visit the Exposition will know as much of the essential principles and 
method of the Kindergarten as they know of the laws which govern the 
solar system, and while they may not be much more intelligent when 
they leave, they will know more by this than by any other method. This 
can be d(»ne without "making martyrs of children." Experience has 
proven this many times. They will take it as a part of their gala day, 
and rejoice in it, with no thought of any one but themselves and their 

Many practical ditriculties will arise, and much trouble and expense 
will be incurred, but the combined Kindergarten wisdom of the world 
will, no doubt, be able to meet them all, and to present an exhibition of 
progress worthy of the cause and the occasion. 

The time is very short for all that nec«ls to be done. The Union in- 
vites correspondence upon any and all departments of work. It strongly 
urges active and immediate elTorts in forming unions of smaller sinie- 
ties in ditTerent sections, to co-operate as early as jwssible with the 
International Kindergarten Union. Certificates of meml>crship will l>e 
f«»rwariled upon receipt of names, and a full circular of infornu«tion will 
be sent upon application to the corresponding secretary. Miss Caroline 
T. Haven, toq West .s.jth Street, New York, or to the chairman of the 
Ilxecutive Committee, Miss Sarah A. Stewart. 1530 Chestnut Street. 
Philadelphia, Ta. 



In appl^'ing to this particular case, the general principle 
that education shall be a living communion between the child 
and life in society and nature, the educator may keep two 
ends in view. He may aim at either a knowledge of object- 
ive nature itself, or at a thorough development of the facul- 
ties of his pupils. The former aim will be kept in view 
exclusively by him who makes the study of objective nature 
a profession. The educator, on the other hand, will have to 
keep in view the latter aim, /'. e., the evolution of the soul of 
his pupils, which includes the former. 

Neither need any objection be made against the acquisi- 
tion of so useful a knowledge. The educator must keep in 
mind, however, that a knowledge of objective nature is not 
the main end to be pursued. Desirable as such a knowledge 
is, the common school educator should not pursue it as an end 
in itself, but as a means only for achieving the general end 
of developing the faculties of the child. In the conscious 
pursuit of this general end of the perfect evolution of the 
being of the child, the educator will naturally have in mind 
an ideal of the perfect man to be evolved. 

Although this ideal of a perfect human being may never 
be objectively realized, yet it must be the beacon-light 
guiding the educator on his way. The ideal represents a 
man who will enter with the whole of his life-force into 
whatever business he may have to do ; whose being will be 
in full harmony with what he is doing ; who will do every- 
thing he has to do with a clear self-consciousness and a 
knowledge of what is his duty and how it ought to be per- 

Kindergarten and Public School. 189 

formed ; and whose power to do is fully as great as his 
knowledge of duty. 

Amonj( the most important duties of life is that of every 
man to take care of his own temporal well-l)ein>j. " What 
good," says Pestalozzi, " is all knowledge to a man who does 
not know — to use an ancient saying — where l^read comes 
from?" In this world of material needs, a man cannot be 
perfect without knowing where his "bread comes from," 
that is, without being a master of his trade, able to do the 
work of his vocation with proficiency. This practical ability 
is even more essential than a mastery of thought and will, 
because our very life depends upon the satisfaction of the 
needs of the body. The education of perfect men must, 
therefore, render them fit, not only for the general duties of 
life in whatever station circumstances may j)lace them, but 
more particularly for an employment to life. 

This does not necessitate that the common school teach any 
trade whatever. "It is not," says Pestalo/.zi, " the training 
of any kind of particular knowledge, special science, or techni- 
cal skill, but the development of the forces of human nature in 
general, that constitutes the e.ssence of education of all classes, 
from the to the poorest. All men without distinction 
shall be educated to be true men, and it is this general end 
which alone renders rules of education of universal currency 
and efficiency possible and necessary. When diflferences of 
faculty and occui)ations reciuire education, the general rules 
must be modified to be applicable to the individual cases." 

In this world of ours, the general and the individual are 
inseparably connected, and, in the same way, general and 
particular rules of action must always be conjointly applied 
to be true to nature. Children, like men. are imlividuali/a- 
tions of tile general, or universal, force of life; that is to say, 
in every child which we have to educate, the general and the 
individual are combined in one. Or. every child requires that 
the general rules of education should be particularized to suit 
his individual case. The younger a child is. the more of the 
general principle will be fouml applicable. The older he 
grows the more pronouiueil will the individual jKCuliarities 

190 Kiyidergarten and Public School. 

of his being grow, to which the educator must pay attention. 
With younger children, therefore, general rules of education 
suffice. With older pupils, general rules must be modified to 
suit individual cases. 

There are circumstances requiring the modification of gen- 
eral principles, chief among them the conditions of city life 
and those of country life. City children show a natural ten- 
dency to continue in the pursuits of city life and want an 
education taking account of this tendency, as country children 
will tend toward the pursuits of country life and claim an 
education in agreement with this tendency. It could not be 
otherwise, for the parents and friends of children, who are the 
most influential part of that world, in which all the life and 
thought of childhood is comprised, are standing with their 
thoughts and actions wholly within either one or the other of 
these two environments. 

The law of psj'chological development demands such a 
stock of interests firmly rooted in the minds of children as the 
secure foundation upon which his school education is built. If 
the educator has to develop cit}^ children, he will, therefore, 
find it necessary to select objects for his lessons from among 
city circumstances, which would not serve well for educa- 
ting country children, and vice versa. 

The full force of this restriction is applicable to very young 
children only. As they advance in age, their spheres 01 
knowledge and interests expand, and objects for stud)' may be 
oifered with ever increasing freedom of .selection. The teacher 
of a country school may, therefore, appeal to the farm to sup- 
ply him with object-lessons. 

The circumstances can be made to serve two purposes. In 
the first place, it allows a very full application of the Froebelian 
principle to educate through a study of nature. In the second 
place, the farmer needs nothing so much in his business as a 
thorough knowledge of nature. Education b)' virtue of the 
study of nature would, therefore, seem to be the very thing 
which the farming population and the country school children 
most need. 

People may object that the constant occupation with nat- 

Kiyidergarlen and Public School. 191 

urc, which children raised on a farm, will follow from the 
cradle, will \:,\\'*i them all the knowledge of nature they re- 
quire. But this is a mistake. Such a practical course of edu- 
cation will j^ive them all the knowledge which the old farmer, 
commonly the father, is able to communicate. But there will 
be no progress from one generation to the following. This 
stationary home education which has been prevalent in the 
country from time immemorial, has produced that i)eculiar 
condition of mental conservatism, or intellectual stagnation, 
which has made the farming pojmlation of all the countries of 
the world the most reliable support of traditional institutions 
and customs. 

No teacher can follow this out in his work without know- 
ing the law of mental development. For a full discussion of 
this law, the reader must be referred to any good standard 
work on the p.sychology of childhood. All that can here be 
mentioned concerning it, is this, that thought rests upon and 
develops from perceptions, which are obtained through sensu- 
ous impressions. This means to say that it is not book- 
knowledge which will develop the faculty of thought in the 
child. It is not a knowledge of the alphabet, of reading or 
book learning in general, if imparted too early, that will make 
the child a thinker. On the contrary, if the exjwriences 
hitherto made in the business of education can be trusted, the 
A B C with its concomitant studies, taught at a time of life 
when the child is not yet sufficiently developed for its a.ssimi- 
lation. serves to stultify the growing mitid rather than en- 
lighten it, to check the natural growth and retanl the 
development of the mind rather than help it onward. 

(irowth to the mind of the child comes through living 
cxi)erience. But the characters of the A B C are no living 
experiences or perceptions ; they do not carry new sense im- 
pressions to the mind, and cannot be retained. 

When a child receives a new and living impression of an 
actual object, he can assimilate it by comparison, which ser\'es 
to determine and classify the new precept, /. c, to conjprehcnd 
or assimilate it as an athlitional concept. The new concept 
Tmds its place in llie mi ml either as a new njeml>er of an old 

192 Kindergarten and Public School. 

stock of concepts already possessed, or it is found to be of a 
kind different from the stocks of concepts already retained, in 
which case it will form the nucleus of a new stock to be 
formed about it. This activity of comparison is natural to 
very young children and affords them satisfaction and pleas- 
ure. It arouses all the spontaneous zeal ,and interest of the 
child, which will not of itself cease until the concept has been 
fully understood and assimilated. A concept thus appropri- 
ated will be surely remembered without a special or forced 
effort of memor3^ 

We are told of Thomas Chatterton, the boy prodigy of 
England, that he was unable to learn the alphabet and was 
put down by his teacher as a confirmed dunce. But when he 
saw the ornamental inital letters in an old Bible, the strange 
designs and contrasts of colors made such vivid impres.sions 
on his sensory that he learned the whole alphabet immedi- 
ately and remembered it well. His remarkable natural 
capacities were unable, while he was a boy, to assimilate the 
plain, and to him meaningless, ABC. But when these mean- 
ingless signs suddenly assumed new and striking shapes, they 
impressed him forcibly and achieved with ease what a com- 
mon course of teaching had failed to accomplish because it 
was not adapted to child nature. 

An insight into the nature of the child leaches that new 
impressions must be strong enough to call forth a lively 
activity of the faculty of comparison. The degree of liveliness 
of this activity is easily perceived in the outward actions and 
looks of the pupil. The teacher must keep comparison active 
until the new precept has been assimilated, that is, till it is 
well understood. But no thought is well understood until it 
can be well reproduced. The best way of reproduction, 
according to Froebel, consists in the child's working out with 
his hands or limbs — that is, by his spontaneous activity' — the 
ideas which he has in his mind. The well cultured adult is 
satisfied by reproducing his thought in language. To a little 
child language is no more than audible thought, and, there- 
fore, not a reproduction, unless the idea has previously been 
objectively realized, so that in hearing language the previous 

Kindergarten and Public School. 193 

objective reproduction is recalled by memory and recognized 
as an experience previously made. The word experience 
here includes coj^iiitions of our own acts as well as of our 
sensations and feelings. That is why Kroel>el insists that a 
child should learn to understand and know by actually 
exi)criLncing. and, if jiossiblc, by making with his own hands, 
whatever shall be made known to him. 

The object-lessons of the primary school ought, there- 
fore, to include not only active sensory cognition under the 
guidance of the teacher, but also the active making of objects 
so far as it is possible. Many objects can be really made. 
Of many others not UKjre than an image can be made. Such 
an image can either be a drawing of the actual shape as it is 
seen and handled, or a drawing of the name of the object only. 
The former way of representation of objects is known by the 
name of "Drawing," the latter by that of "Writing." In 
the begiiniing of the first primary year. Drawing and writ- 
ing should j)roceed together with cognizing and s|K'aking. 
Or, the object-lessons of the first grade must include obser- 
vation with language, making or forming, drawing, writ- 
ing, and reading. A. H. Hkinkma.n.n. 

N«». 3. 14 


ALL the collections of Kindergarten music which I have 
examined seem open to objection — but some more so 
than others. There is something so ideal in the Kin- 
dergarten conception, something which reaches out in so 
many directions into the later life of the child, for which 
every step in the Kindergarten is to be in some sense a prep- 
aration, that it is hardly to be wondered that composers fail 
when brought face to face with this mighty problem of writing 
music true to the heart of the child, and at the same time 
having in it the prophecy and potency of the ultimate musical 
taste which the grown-up child may be hoped to develop. It 
is a question of perfect naiveti, simplicity, 5''et perfect musical 

The goody-goody book for children has passed into a 
proverb, and now and then a writer appears with the happj- 
balance of faculties, permitting the divine maturity of insight 
combined with transparent simplicity and sincerity which de- 
light the hearts of children of all ages. But in music this is 
not so easy. 

Music is rather a new art, as arts go ; it is also the art 
which lies nearest the heart. The pulsations of music, its 
onward moving, its ever-varying intensities of every sort, ex- 
press the life of the soul with a truth and directness which no 
other art can equal. Even poetry, with the advantage of its 
vocabulary of words, and its accumulations of experience and 
insight, lags behind music, when it comes to representing 
psychical transitions and moods. Words move slowl)', and at 
best are clumsy ; the tone, with rhythm and tonality, with its 
responsive gradations of intensity, speaks immediately to the 
intelligent hearer. The child hears and understands. Un- 
derstands to his limit of experience, helped out not a little by 
his imagination and intuition. 


Kindergarten Songs. 195 

The j^reat trouble with most of the music for children is 
that the composers are neither childlike nor musical. There 
are whole volumes in print for children which have not a 
single line in them projwr to the end intended to have been 
subserved. For music comes into the child-life in two main 
aspects : as an hnii/rntal, a convenient methotl of securing 
pleasant attention and simultaneous utterance, as in marching 
songs, and the like ; and as ediuational, as in devotional 
songs, the songs of home and so on. Now the general im- 
pression would be that it need not matter whether the music 
of the first class possess artistic quality or not, since its prime 
object is merely that of .securing unity in the action. 

Hut here we come upon a deeper principle. There are 
musical forms (artistic songs) which while securing all the 
external ends of the shallow marching songs, at the same 
time have in them seeds of eternal life. So while the child 
sings them his feelings are kindled, and certain musical ex- 
jK'Ctancies form themselves in him — which later find their full 
realization in poetical music, like the .sonatas and .symphonies 
of the great ma.sters. For the great masters are not the in- 
comprehensible composers, but the comprehensible ones — which in the long run appeal to the greatest number,, 
because they have in them.selves more of .soul life. So it is 
not a matter of indifference whether even the more elemen- 
tary forms of childrens music are common in (luality. There 
is an education in merely wearing silken garmetits. Nor is 
it entirely external. 

Hut when it comes to the child-.songs of the etlucational 
class, then it is that quality is of pre-eminent importance. 
In .some of the books that 1 ha'*e examined we fiiul chorales 
antl church tunes of like character, which modulate, and are 
thereft)re l)eyond the proper ken of children's comprehension, 
unless so written that the parts actually sung atul played con- 
tain the modulations entire. This is not the with all of 
them. For instance, in the song, "Can a little chilil like 
me," by H. L. Story, there are many modulations of a cljar- 
ncter not legitimate at the .stage of musical development rep- 
resented by children of from five to ten years of age. 

196 Kindergarten Sotigs. 

I ma}- be a bit old-fashioned, but I believe that Kinder- 
garten songs ought to be diatonic and very refined in melod3\ 
If I were to name two composers who appear to me to have 
written melodies best adapted to educate, interest and refine 
the musical perceptions of children, they would be Mozart 
and Schubert. These two might have been children a thou- 
sand years, so simple, direct, and purely melodious are their 
works. Of all the American writers the one who if he had 
lived a few years later might have written Kindergarten mel- 
odies of quality far above the average was Willian B. Brad- 
bury. He had the knack of the tuneful, and of what a 
German friend of mine calls "the thankful" to sing. His 
music fits the voice, the ear, and the feelings. 

We have entered upon a stage of musical development 
which is unfavorable to the production of music for children 
— except by musicians of the highest class. The lower 
luminaries either know too much and want to tell it ; or else 
they do not know enough. Some of the most charming songs 
for children are those of Reinecke, of theLeipsic conservatory, 
a fine pianist, great composer, and for nearly thirty years 
director of the Gewandhaus concerts. In this country as yet 
the musicians of the higher class have not entered this field. 
Dr. William Mason has written a few songs for children 
which, are both childlike and musical. But there are only 
two or three of them. I believe that from certain German 
composers some very beautiful and refining songs for Kinder- 
garten use might be gathered. Among the names which 
would appear in such a collection would be those of Reinecke, 
Gurlitt, Heller, Mozart, Schubert, and perhaps a bit of Grieg. 

As for the American composers, as yet they are not quite 
poetical enough. In the effort to write takingly and simply 
they do not pass beyond the grade of jingle. Child-life is not 
enongh to them a religion. The standpoint is wrong. The 
musical editor of the future will have to come back to the 
principle of becoming as a little child, in order to discern the 
kingdom of heaven — to manifest which is the great object 
and end of child music. Tone is idealistic in and of itself, 
and tune in its best estate is highly so. The religion, the 

Kindergarten Songs. 197 

poetry and the iina^inalioii of the child may be strengthened 
through the exact use of music to a degree which the most 
advanced educators have but momentarily conceived, and 
never realized — for want of proper material. 

VV. S. B. Matiikws. 

How do you go to liy-lo-land, to Hy-lo-land, to By-lo-land ; 
Over the waves to Nowhere, and to By-lo, By-lo-land ? " 

Across the sea of memory, 

All in a beautiful boat we glide, 
The golden dyes of sunset skies 
On every side, on every side. 
Now we are off to By-lo-land, to By lo-land. to By-lo-land ; 
Over the waves to Nowhere, and to By-lo, By-lo-land. 

The bright hues fade to a sombre shade, 
• And murmuring waters lap our boat ; 
Our sail droops low, more slow we go. 
As over the harbor-bar we float. 
Now we draw near to By-lo-land, to By-lo-lanil, to By-lo- 
land ; 
Into the harbor of Nowhere, and near By-lo. By-lo-land. 

Never a rock our l)ont will slux-k 

On the foggy shore of By lo laml. 
Never a sound as we run aground : 
Our keel glides sofily on the sand. 
Now we have come to By-lo-land. to By lo-land. to By-lo- 
land ; 
Into the harbor of Nowhere and to By-lo. By-lo-land. 

Akcm O. Coddincton. 


To Every Subscriber of the Kindergarten Maga- 
zine we take great pleasure in announcing that we will 
inclose with the December Magazine to each of our sub- 
scribers, the first number of the new ideal children's monthly, 
called, Child-Garden of Story, Song and Play , to be published 
supplementary to the Kindergarten Magazine. It will 
be devoted to child literature of the most wholesome order, 
bringing each month a suppl)- of such fresh and beautiful 
things as every mother and Kindergartner will hail with 
delight. There will be art illustrations, science stories, 
sketches, music, games and lessons, specially prepared to be 
put into the hands of little ones. This will supply a long felt 
need of a true child's periodical, from the highest standpoint 
of modern education ; 3^oung enough for those beginning to 
read for themselves, and true enough to have meaning for the 
older ones. Child-Garden will be supplementary to the Kin- 
dergarten Magazine in the best sense, allowing more 
space in the latter for technical and professional work, with- 
out depriving our readers of the suggestive stories and plays 
so essential in their work. Child-Garden will be edited 
wholly from the Kindergarten standpoint which is also that 
of the child. 

The Symposium on Women's Dress, published in the 
October Arena, presents many sides of this vexed question 
which are of peculiar interest to teachers. Both men and 
women express their personal opinion on this topic and Grace 
Greenwood gives an autobiographical sketch of her own suffer- 
ings and growth out of suicidal dress. The movement is being 
looked upon more and more as a natural, irresistible step in 

Editorial Notes. 199 

progress, rather than of a reform urged by such women as are 
always found preaching some new "right." In the numljer 
referred to above, Mr. H. O. Flower, reviews the stately prog- 
ress of woman in the nineteenth century and proves this next 
step toward rational an inevitable fruit of the past. In 
closing he says : "In behalf of art, grace and beauty, which 
have been so remorselessly outraged by fashion during the 
past generation ; in behalf of thht comfort of body and phys- 
ical development which are absolutely essential to the proiK-r 
unfoldment of the soul life ; and in behalf of the physical life 
and health of the rising generations of womankind, as well as 
the race of the future, let the marching orders be given, and 
let no retrograde step be taken." Teachers and Kinder- 
gartners are everywhere falling into line with this movement 
toward rational dress, since the neces.sary freedom and exer- 
cise of their work demands it. When use, which is the excuse 
for beauty, is clearly defined in the mind of the wearer, her 
apparel will a.ssume form and proportion. A gown made for 
a purpose, to fill certain requirements and conditions, cannot 
be otherwise than a success. Instead of compromising to the 
extent of having a so-called "serviceable dress" which will 
do for all occasions, have several simple, but complete ones, 
each made appropriate to certain distinctive uses, requir- 
ing varied (pialitics. Let us hear from Kindergartners on 
this to them vital subject, either in notes from their own 
experiences, or practical suggestions as to how to make the 
transition from the old to at least a l)etter outer expre.ssion of 
our inner sense of beauty and freedom, a clothing which shall 
more truly express the individual. 

Tm-: leading educators of this country, including the 
state superintemlenls of public instruction, presidents of col- 
leges, and the National Commissioner, met in Chicago early in 
October, to discuss the situation of little or no room for an 
educalit)nal exhibit at the \\\)rlds Fair. A committee of 
twelve was appointed to meet the Columbian Commissioners 
and enter protest against the limitations being placed upon 

200 Editorial Notes. 

this most important exhibit. This hearing resulted in consid- 
eration on the part of the commission favorable to a separate 
building and appropriation for this work. The matter is not 
yet fully decided but will doubtlessly be carried into execution 
according to the best interests of American and foreign edu- 

The announcement of the death of Lord Tennyson has 
sent hundreds of his fond readers back to the old familiar 
poems and passages, all proving the truth that he is not dead, 
but lives among us a testimony of how men live forever in 
their works. We print on another page the " Poet's Song," 
which has ever been a rare and complete picture to those 
with eyes to see, and ears to hear. 

Central Music Hall, Chicago, was the scene of a most 
attractive picture on the Saturday morning of October 15. 
The main auditorium was filled from top to bottom with the 
boys and girls comprising the Children's World's Fair 
Chorus, gathered for a final rehearsal of the music program. 
The boxes were overflowing with friends and chaperones of the 
singers, all filled with the same sv^^eet enthusiasm. Mr. Wm. 
Iv. Tomlins, from the stage, was directing the fifteen hundred 
in his happy, humorous and yet honiespun way, the chil- 
dren responding to everj^ requirement of mood or music in 
the most natural manner. This prelude to their share in the 
great day program, was an index of its success. These 
children fully appreciate the greatness of the occasion, and 
are masters of it, for they pour out the sweetest, purest and 
surest volume of tone that master has ever sought to call 
forth. In their rendering of a certain passage of the Colum- 
bian ode, " Love shall reign supreme," their voices sounded 
in a melody of benediction to every part of the room, and to 
every heart of the listeners. The actual happiness, joy and 
love which these children put into their music fulfills it 
mission to the fullness. 

Editorial Notes. 201 

TiiK teacher in the rural district has an opportunity to re- 
tain the family atmosphere in her school room, as is impos- 
sihle in the city graded schools. The older and younger 
children mingled together retain that helpful and informal 
spirit vvhicli should pervade every assembly of fellow-men. 
The more advanced pupils can help those younger and behind 
them in work, and the teacher finds herself developing a won- 
derful capacity to utilize every child in his own individual 
way. If she but realizes the opportunity before her. she can 
become an actual mother to the whole community, and shed 
a broad, sweet influence over her large family. 

Tmk many friends and students of Miss vSusan Blow will 
be glad to learn of her imjiroved condition, and of her con- 
tinued zealous interest in the growth of the work. Miss 
Blow was elected to .serve not as is generally sui>po.sed tluring 
the year 1.S93, but for 1S94, since the N. IC. A. gives way to 
a special Educational Congress called under the manage- 
ment of the Columbian Auxiliary Congress. This spt-cial 
organization will have full charge of all matters pertain- 
ing to education during the Columbian Exposition. In 
the true modesty of greatness Miss Blow says in a recent 
letter : " I am very grateful not to be <iuite forgotten, and am 
only .sorry that I am not able to work for the cause I love. I 
rejoice in the thought that so many able and earnest women 
are now devoting their energies to the Kindergarten." 

" Mv daughter has been reading a little on 'Kindergar- 
ten.' She likes it but is going to learn to be a typewriter. 
That ])ays pretty well, you know." The sj^eaker was an in- 
telligent woman well-advanced in years, well-to-tlo in money 
respects. She had an only grown daughter and her comment 
alH>ve only reflects the thought of .st> many similarly situate<i. 
Yet. what a mistake to choose for a chilil on the basis of 
"what will pay best " when the only question a parent should 
ask is " What will best and most develop my child ?" 


Mail}' Kindergartners have reported to us successful and 
happy work with their children and Columbus. A fervor of 
the deepest nature has been expressed voluntarily by the 
children, and has seemed to envelop all their every-day work. 
The beneficent results of this feeling can scarcel}^ be measured. 
The teachers of this entire country, and they number many 
thousands, are filled with unwonted patriotism, which cannot 
do other than lift their schools up and out of all old ruts and 
limitations. They have had an unprecedented occasion to feel 
the current of universal thought and follow with it. 

Traditionalism has been forced far out of sight in school 
work b}^ the national enthusiasm generated by the special 
commemorations of the present 3'ear. 

The Thanksgiving season follows closel}^ upon all this, and 
we prophesy that an unusual sense of gratitude and loving ten- 
derness will be felt throughout the Kindergartens. We do 
not present any extended Thanksgiving suggestions in this 
number mainly on this account, feeling that the special work 
of this holiday will grow most naturally and strongly out of the 
preceding celebration. 

Interesting comparisons can be made between the aims, 
voyages, experiences and hardships of the Puritans and Colum- 
bus, which the children will carry forward themselves, by their 
natural energy. It is not necessary to drop the Columbus 
work, if the children are not finished with it, until their 
eagerness to possess all is satisfied. 

The faith which brought Columbus to discover America, 
brought also the Puritans. 

Practice Work. 203 


Children, would you like to know about tin.- greatest 
mother there is, — greater than all the other mothers put to- 
gether? She lives in the big Hrown-house, which is larger 
than all other houses in the world, where she makes a home 
for all Mother Nature's children. 

She has such a l)ig lap that all her children can get into 
it and keep warm, when Mr. Northwind blows a cold breath. 

Her children are so many that we cannot count them all — 
but she looks after even the very smallest. 

Mother Nature loves the color fairies and they love her, 
and whenever she wants new dresses for herself or her chil- 
dren she looks up to the great, warm Sun and he sends his 
Rainbow fairies with red, blue, yellow and every color you can 
think of, for the dresses of Mother Nature's children. 

In the Spring she generally asks for green, and in 
the Sununer every color she likes. Then in the Autumn. 
Oh ! then is the time that retl, yellow and purple, brown and 
orange are the favorites. 

What happens do you think in the great Brown-house 
every Fall? Mother Nature has a Thanksgiving party. It 
always takes a year to get ready for it, even though she has a 
great deal of help. 

The warm Sun and all his fairy rays, Lady Moon and her 
little Heams, Mr. Wind and the little Hreezes and the great 
Storm-cloud wiih thousands of Snowrtakes. all of these are her 
helpers working with her for a whole year to make ready. It 
is such a large party, for all her children with all their families 
are regularly invited. 

Little Jack Frost helps too,— he carries the invitations. He 
is just the one to do it for he is so (juick and quiet, and never 
forgets what Mother Nature tells him to do. He will run up 
the trees, will whisper to the nuts and the leaves, " Put on 
your brightest dresses for this is the tinie to get ready for 
Mother Nature's Thanksgiving party — she sends her love, 
and says to come as .soon as you hear Mr. Wind begin to play 
the march." Then d(nvn he .slips to the jx)tatoes, beneath 

204 Practice Work. 

the ground, and tells them to come to the party in their brown 

Then he hurries to the orchard and gives the Apple families 
their invitation. The Red Apple family and the Greens and 
Russets all are to come in their shiniest coats. 

He is so nimble that he can climb a grape-vine better than 
a squirrel, so he is up to the grapes before you can count, and 
to them he says : " Mother Nature sends her love and wants 
all of your family to be at the Thanksgiving party." And 
this same thing he said to the yellow Pumpkins and their 
cousins, the orange Squashes. The Corn family and the tall 
3^ellow Wheat he also invited. 

After the invitations are out Jack Frost hurries away to 
tell Mr. Wind that he must be on hand to make the music. 

" Mr. Wind, Mother Nature wants loud and soft music, 
fast and slow, and plenty of it. So be there early, to play the 
first march." At last everything is ready. Mr. Wind gives 
his call, and down come the Leaves in their yellow, red and 
brown dresses. The Walnuts and Acorns, too, hurry down — 
the Pumpkins and Squashes with all the Apple families and 
Potatoes come rolling in. Slowly across the field come the 
Cows with their milk and the Sheep with their wool. Mr. 
Frisky, the Squirrel, sits up in his tree, and enjoys it all, fcr 
he knows that his turn will come after a while. 

You ought to hear the music of Mr. Wind's band and. see 
the merry time they all have. Mr. Robin sings his best 
" Cheer-up " song and flies south — but Mr. and Mrs. Sparrow 
stay until it is out, enjoying everything along with Mr. 
Frisky. • 

When everybody is truly happy, and Mr. Wind stops for 
a little rest. Mother Nature smiles kindly on her large family, 
and says to them, " Now my dear children we have had such 
a busy year, and such a happy party, I wish you would tell 
the great, warm Sun why you are thankful to-day." Thus 
bowing her head, she .says so softly, " He is up so high that 
he can tell the Heavenly Father what you say." She beck- 
oned to the tall Wheat first and .said, " Why are you so -glad 

Practice Work. 205 

The Wheat made answer, " Because I make such wliite 
flour, and I kiunv the children of the earth love sweet bread." 
The yellow Pumpkinscame next, and said: "We are happy 
because we are so round and yellow, and make good pies for 
Thanksgiving dinners." " Of course you do," said Mother 
Nature. " Now my Red Apples why are you hajipy ? ' " Oh ! 
because children love us so, " tliey said together. It took a 
time long for them all to give their thanks. At last when all 
were finished, Mr. Wind played the Thankful Hymn, and all 
the children went on to their winter homes for a quiet rest. 
Mother Nature put all the seed babies to sleep in their little 
shell cradles, and then l)egan again to get ready for the next 
year's Thanksgiving party. 

Thoughts for the Story -Teller. — Before choosing a stor>' 
would it not be well for us, .story -telling Kindergartners, to 
ask of ourselves ami our stories a few questions? Xanjely: 

Does this story illustrate a thought, an idea, a fact ? Will 
it give to a child's mind a presentiment of a truth, which we 
hope his thought will some day wholly grasp, — his heart ap- 
prove- and his will perform ? Does it help the mind to gain 
a habjt which shall be upbuilding in its thinking- that is, 
a positive habit ; or has it that negative element which feeds 
the tearing-down, destructive habit of mind ? Does it appeal 
to his highest imagination, through the medium of correct 
facts? Will it enlarge his sympathy with nature. With hu- 
manity, and will it help him to know Gotl as his Father ? 

Ivvery story should be linked to the child's experience, 
should l)e told for childish ears, in childish language. One 
idea is enough for one story, and should be made clear by the 
dramatic action of one or two i>ersons. or by a simple and ju- 
dicious personification of Nature. 

Let us not make common what God has made mysterious, 
or we caniuU maintain true reverence. There is need to make 
Nature live anil act before the child's fancy in order to arouse 
that sympathy which precedes knowledge, — namely, tnie feel- 

If we wish to arouse an interest in any fact or idea, we 
have but to center this fact iii the action of a child, and the 

2o6 Practice Work. 

attention of our little listeners is gained and their interest is 

In this very simple story of " Mother Nature's Thanksgiv- 
ing. " we wish to introduce, upon the physical or natural 
plane, the idea of Thanksgiving Day. We also wish to give a 
feeling of that spiritual thought which should be back of this 
home festival in the hearts of each and all of us. 

What material things have I to be thankful for this 3^ear, 
is not the onlj' self-question ; but what have I gained that is of 
the highest use to my highest self, that is worth giving in 
gratitude to humanity and to my Heavenly Father ? 

Incidentally, and of value in the definite working out of the 
story in the Kindergarten is the color, form, position, size, 
distinctions in sound, etc. 

This story should be followed by a story of a home Thanks- 
giving party, for instance at Grandma's, then the "Real 
Thanksgiving" comes, the historical story of the Pilgrims' 
first Thanksgiving at Plymouth. — Mary E. McDoivell, 
Evans ton, III. 


The carpenters employed by the St. Paul Board of Educa- 
tion, were busily engaged during the months of July and 
August, making furniture for the Kindergartens that now 
render more complete and cheerful twenty of the public 
schools of this city. 

The children of the Pioneer Kindergarten, as the Sibley 
School Kindergarten is termed, never tire in expressing their 
thanks and praise to the carpenters for the pretty little tables, 
neat cupboard, dainty .screen, and the many favors he has 
rendered them. 

This Fall the little people of the Kindergarten have taken 
especial delight in being carpenters themselves, making 
miniature chairs and tables, from the Third and Fourth 
Gifts, gay circles from the lentils, and folding cupboards, 
pianos, etc., for the new Kindergartens of the other schools, 
thus aiding the carpenter in spirit, at least. 

Practice Work. 207 

Our school building is conveniently near a Ijeautiful little 
grove, :iiul the children are continually hriiiKing a variety of 
autumn leaves ; speciniens of \voo<l and bark from the elm, 
oak, box elder, birch, maple and linden trees, thus enabling 
us to blend with this industry the nature observation most 
nearly related to it, for labor is indeed elevated by the study 
of nature. 

Columbus day coming in the month of October, we have 
been enabled to connect laljor, history and intlustry. The 
following program will give an idea of the daily sequence, 
but the enthusiasm of the children can only be imagined. 

First Week: 

Conversation. Apple tree in front of carpenter's house. 

(iijt. First Gift, red ball. One child selected for tree, 
red balls representing apples. 

(iames. Children go into the grove to play games — 
" Busy Children," Buying and Selling. 

Occupation . Model apple in clay. 

Conversation. Story of carpenter taking his little boy for 
a walk in the };n)ve. They find a wild crabap])Ie tree. Lit- 
tle boy gathers apples, and names the tree. Under another 
tree he finds some acorns and is led to observe the oak tree. 

Cijt. Make grove of trees from sticks. The lentils 
repre.senting leaves and aconis. 

Occupation. Model acorns from .some which they have 

Talk of lumber regions. Men go into woods to chop 
trees. Logs left on ice, float in the spring ilown to the mill. 

lii/t. .Second Gift cylintler repre.setits log ; cube, labor- 
ers' huts ; and sphere, the nuister logger. 

(iatnes. The stream, wind and bird ganies. 

Occupation. Draw hut, men and logs. 


Talk of saw mill. 

Cfi/t. Triangular tablet.s — make circular .saw. 
(iames. "Sawyer." " (live said the little stream." 
Occupation. Reproduce circular saw i«i parquetry. 

Talk of lumber and for what the carpenter uses it. 
Cift. Third Gift— Carpenter builds himself a shop. 

2o8 Practice Work. 

Games. Carpenter and sawyer. 
Occupation. Fold house. 

Monday. Second Week: 

Children bring variety of autumn leaves. Talk of leaves 
and different kinds of wood carpenter used. 

Gift. Fourth. Begin interior of carpenter shop, making 
bench and plane. 

Games. "Carpenter," "joiner," and "Come little leaves." 

Occupation. Sew oak leaf. 

Continue talk of leaves especially, of oak tree in front of 
carpenter's house. 

Gift. Fourth. Repeat carpenter's bench — Add saw and 
saw-horse from three-inch sticks. Nails made from one- inch 
sticks and lentils. 

Games. Carpenter, Sawyer, Joiner and Nailer. 

Occupation. Weave mat for carpenter's threshold. 

Conversation, concerning what carpenter makes for Kin- 

Gift. Third and Fourth. Make chairs and tables. 

Games. Children play appropriate games in the grove. 
Gather autumn leaves and caterpillars. 

Talk of different articles of furniture in Kindergarten, and 
the wood from which they are made. 

Gift. Third and Fourth. Repeat chairs and tables, add 
two circles of colored lentils, for children's games. Make 
easel for Froebel's picture with three-inch sticks. 

Games. "Come little leaves," "When we're playing 
together," "Carpenter." 

Occupation. Fold piano, and frame for Froebel's picture. 

Complete Kindergarten by adding Second Gift beads for 
children. We have endeavored each day to add a new article 
of furniture until the miniature room was furnished in exact 
imitation of the Sibley Kindergarten. 

In this sequence the children have unconsciously received 
a correct impression of drafting and geography, as the cardi- 
nal points were playfully emphasized by associating each 
direction by an article of furniture. 

Games. Children go into grove to give the carpenter a 
party. We very fortunately found some thorn-apple bushes, 
which suggested a happy introduction to the story of Col- 
umbus. — Juliette Pulver, St. Paul. 

Practice Work. 


Fnjin the Ijeginning of time, even 
before the legend of the Golden Fleece, 
a wonderful symbolism has lx*en associ- 
ated with the thought of sheep and 
shepherds, green pastures and snowy 
white wool. There is a meaning in this, 
for the pastoral instincts of the early 
peoples were as true and expressive of 
their inner being as are those of little 
children to this day. 

A tendency far from that of the mild 
shepherds of old, is said to be growing 
upon the modern child. He is de- 
scribed in many instances as high- 
strung, nervous, fitful in temperament 
and not easily guided. The Kinder- 
>;artner finds many ways and means for 
antidoting and displacing this tendency, 
and has often turned back to the shep- 
herd and his sheep for her inspiration. 
Searching out all the many beautiful pictures in which the 
fleecy, gentle lambs are ji^ra/.ing, gambolling, or quietly at rest, 
— reading and telling the stories so full of that pastoral ele- 
ment of simplest nature, (such as the stories of Moses on the 
mountain-side, David, the Shepherd King, and the shepherds 
who followed the Star in the Ivast. ) or a more nuHlern l>ot»k of 
George McDonald's, which is permeated with the same spirit, 
— "SirGibbe," — will bring us into this atmosphere. 

The great reflective mood which comes over the children 
through the consideration of these word and sight pictures, 
will soon (kinand action, — for it is in itself creative. There 
are .songs through which they may express the inner current 
of feeling, such as Reinecke's, "Spinning Song. " not neces- 
sarily worded about the sheep, but full of simple mehKly and 
fond pictures. There is a paintitig by one of the old masters, 
representing the boy St. John leading a lamb, which is a bene- 

voL. v.— NO. 3. 15 

2IO Practice Work. 

diction in its sweetness, the figure and face of the child fully 
embodying and radiating with pastoral peace. 

To bring to the children of to-day in any degree, that depth 
of feeling which flooded the shepherd out alone, in the past- 
ures, under the blue or starry sky, with the silent and peace- 
ful companions over whom he keeps watch, cannot fail to touch 
that nature which marks every child as akin to prophet and 
poet. Sir Edwin Arnold has tliemed this thought in "The 
Ught of the World,"— 

"Souls that are quiet and still. 
Hear the first music of this 
Far off, infinite bliss. " 

The true normal child mood is not only receptive; but re- 
flective, and action flows and grows out of it invariabl5^ The 
industries associated with the shepherd period in history, were 
not only primitive, but representative of that unquestioned 
true sense of labor, like the spinning-wheel, which turns ever 
on and on, accumulating its slender threads little b}^ little into 
beautiful though homespun fabrics. 

As a child, no story made a deeper or more reverential 
impression upon me, than that of the grandmother spinning 
through the long winter evening, — and keeping time to the busy 
wheel with her thought. George Eliot has embodied this al- 
most mysterious feeling in the story ' ' Silas Marner, the Weaver 
of Raveloe," whose shuttle's constant coming and going weaves 
a background, as it were, to the life of the child playing 
about him. 

The spinning-wheel and weaving loom have come to stand 'J 
as emblems of industry and thrift. 

If the Kindergartner or the teacher, or the mother can 
bring her children back to this primitive of labor which 
takes no account of the effort or the comparative result, but 
works on and on in its appointed way, there would be more 
joy and gladness woven into the world's work. Having such 
an end in view, let your children play at being shepherds; let 
them watch their flocks tenderly; let them build stalls and 
barns, and gather the harvest of wool, to be cleaned, carded 

Practice Work. 211 

and spun, — let them see the processes of all this transforming 
of raw materials through loving industry, into the useful and 
beautiful. To have a purpose back of all this detailed out- 
working of a topic, is the key to true Kindergarten effort. It 
then ceases to be an accumulation of facts or even experiences 
for their own sakes, and begins to make unto righteousness, — 
placing the child where he feels, and desires to express that 
feeling in holy works. Our frontispiece is a reproduction of a 
Study by Jules Breton, which typifies the serene industry of 
peasant life. — Amalic Ilofcr. 

Ali, active, busy Kindergartners are invited to send in 
notes of their December work, for our Christmas pot-pourri 
Practice Department. Short outlines, suggestions, songs or 
new rhymes, will be appropriate and helpful. All items must 
be in our hands by the 15th of November, giving us time to 
illustrate and arrange to the best advantage. The Practice 
Department belongs to Kindergartners, and the voluntar>' 
contributions are of mutual advantage to the writer and the 
reader. This is the World's Fair \'olume of the Ki.nder- 
GARTEN Magazine, which will be of peculiar value for all 
future reference. Let it be stamped as eminently practical, 
and representative of the workings behind the scenes, the 
results of which will be exhibited in '93. 

Wii.i. some one who is much wiser than I, and more ex- 
perienced, tell me how to get over the fear of program work ? 
Every time I sit down to plan my work, and put my thoughts 
and ideas in order, I find how little I have, and become utterly 
discouraged. Are all Kindergartners successful in working 
out their programs after they have beautifully arranged them ? 
Thanksgiving is coming, and I dread to think of the jumble 
of gifts and occupations that will stare me in the face, when 
I try, for I do try, to bring the .so-called spiritual truth to the 
surface through them. 1 have had what is considered good 
training, but now that I am thrown upon my own resources, I 
am entirely at sea.— /a/w/V FJlis, lirocton. 


Practice Work. 


Tuesda}' is another S2ich a long day ! 

There are all those clothes in the basket that must be 
looked after. How man}^ many things our mammas do have 
to think about in order to keep us neat and tidy. Who can 
show me something that has been ironed so smoothly, and 
folded so carefully ? How many clean handkerchiefs we have 
this morning! The children will ask to sing " My handker- 
chief I brought to-day," and "This is the mother so good and 
dear." Let us try to think of some of the things of which 
mamma has to think Tuesday morning. 

What is the very first thing ? The stove, then the irons, 
ironing board, stand and holder, covering for table, wax and 
so on. 

Mabel would you like to show us how to iron and then we 
can all try ? Yes, forward and backward, to and fro, till the 
wrinkles are all gone. Listen to the piano tell you about it. 
(" Ironing Song," E. Poulsson.) 

" Hot irons ! hot irons ! all ready to use. 
Hot irons ! which one will j^ou choose ? 
As forward and backward, we move them about 
The wrinkles and crinkles are quickly smoothed out. 

" Hot irons ! hot irons ! must never stand still ; 
So rubbing and pressing we work with a will, 
Thus all the long morning the irons we guide, 
Then fold the clothes neatly, and hang them aside. 

Let us play we were all busy little housekeepers and iron 
and sing — .singing makes the irons go smoother and faster 
and helps a great deal. 

Jennie wants to tell us how she truly irons ; this starts 

Practice Work. 


others, and those little children tell how they can and nctmilly 
do iron, handkerchiefs, napkins and towels. 

Mothers, why do yon not give the children more chance 
to help you ? 

It may take a little time and patience at first, but it will 
assist you in the end, and give the child a feeling of u:>eful- 
ness and j)leasurc in the thought that he is really your little 

After the thumbs and fingers have had a little dance to 
prepare them for work, we go to our tables, and find so many 
things to do. 

The stove can be made with the Second. Third, Fourth 
and Fifth Gifts, as shown in work for Monday, and the children 
will improve on the ones they made then, working quite as 
heartily for ironing day. 

Next we will get the table or ironing board ready. Here 
is one made with the Fourth Gift — a 
paper or handkerchief, could be 
u.sed nicely, at the children's sug- 
gestion, for a blanket and sheet. 
We will use. the series of triangular 

folding to fashion our iron and stand, giving 
a clear dictation for the children to follow. 
Small pieces of paper cut and pasted will 
serve for the handles, and give quite a real- 
istic efTect. After the older children have 
I am sure they would 
iron, "all by them- 
tlie younger children, 
with the corners 
in. makes the stand. 

completed the dictation 

like to make another 

selves" to present to 

The same dictation 

folded out, instead of 

With the triangular tablets for irons, number 

lessons can be plaiuied. The neces.sary iron 

holder can be made any pattern desired, by ft^'w 

using the weaving mats. And now we are 

ready to smooth out the "wrinkles and crinkles." 

Now for the clothes. Our little ones could use the balls 
to get the forward and backwanl motion, and afterward 


Practice "Work. 

fold their own little "handkers," making 
the corner touch. The older children could 
have folding lessons ; squares, for napkins, 
sheets and table-cloths, and oblongs, for 
towels and pillow-cases to fold neatly and 
hang on the bar or pile away in baskets. 
The towels could be - ^ . . - v' fringed by cutting 
edges with s c i s- '^;Ji.^^^ ^°^^- Free-hand cut- 
ting of articles of ^^ clothing require just 
as much care and are just as much fun as making doll 
patterns. As for the games, put 
them in the hands of the children 
and they will use chairs for stoves 
and benches, children for baskets, 
blocks for irons and many things of which a "grown up" 
person would never think. 

Teachers and mothers, do not worry and think this work 
is only for the girls. Try the boys once and you will find they 
are equally interested and quite as good helpers as the girls. 
It will enable them to realize what a woman's home duties 
are and help to make them better men. We all know 
the value of a "handy" man about the house. — Mary E. 
Ely, Chicago. 

Practice Work. 215 


About thirty of the directors of Kindergartens connected 
with the Chicago Kindergarten Collej^e met, with Miss Har- 
rison on the first Tuesday in October, to discuss, informally, 
methods of the opening week of Kindergarten work. 

vSeveral of the older directors j^ave an outline of their gen- 
eral program for first week of work with the children. Some 
was the work arranged for the Kindergartens recently 
adopted by the public .schools of Chicago ; .some was for the 
Kindergartens in the more destitute districts, which are still 
supported by the churches and benevolent societies, and .some 
illustrated work as carried on in the smaller private Kindergar- 
tens under more favorable circumstances, (^uite a variety of 
work was thus brought out, the underlying principles and 
aim of each being, however, the .same for these l^eginning 
days ; namely, to win the confidence and sympathy of the 
children, to aid them in the use of their own bodies and to 
give them conscious power over their sense j^erceptions. 
"Why," asked Miss Harrison, "do you give first games for the 
development of the muscles and, before you introduce 
your dramatic games? " Instantly half a do/en hands were 
raised and the class decided that the mental powers were more 
readily awakened by the direct impressions made through the 
guessing games, in which the senses one after the other were 
called upon to recognize objects, aiid by the marches, gym- 
nastics and ball games which exercised consciously and defi- 
nitely the muscles, than by the dramatic games, which called 
more upon the imagination. 

"When would you introduce the dramatic games ? " was 
asked. "From the very beginning." was the reply, "but 
they should not be emphasi/.eil until the children have l)ecome 
somewhat used to their teachers and have acquired a definite 
cointnaiul over their own bodies." One of the directors then 
told of a little game invented by her in which the dramatic 
element was unconsciously introduced. It consisted of a 
march in which half of the children walked .slowly along 
while the (Ulier half sang, "See our childretj walk, sec our 
children walk, see our children walk slowly along : " the first 

2 1 6 Practice Work. 

half then became the singers, and the second half ran, and 
the words of the songs were changed into, " See our children 
run, see our children run, see our children run swiftly along," 
again, the second half took up the chorus and the first half 
became the performers, skipping gaily around the room in 
line. The words of the song now became, ' ' See our children 
skip, see our children skip, see our children skip gaily 
along ; " this was followed by a change of parts again, the 
first part becoming the singers and the second part the actors, 
and the words of the song were, " See our children fly, see 
our children fly, see our children fly freely along." This 
was easily connected with a bird story when the children 
again took their places at the table, which in turn was fol- 
lowed up by one of the bird games of the first gift. " Could 
not this game be changed," asked another director," so that 
all the children would take part in it at the same time ? " 
"Yes," replied the leader, "provided the director and her 
assistants become the musicians. We must guard against 
having the children sing while taking violent exercise. 
Which would be the higher form of the game?" "The 
first." "Why?" "Because the children not only learn to 
do but to particitpate in the doing of others, or, in other 
words," said one bright-faced girl, " they begin to learn that 
to wait is sometimes as great as to do." 

"What is the easiest way of introducing the dramatic 
games?" asked Miss Harrison. " Usually through pla^dng 
them with the balls at the tables," was the reph% "and then 
reproducing them by the children playing the part at the circle 
taken by the balls at the table." One director told of having 
drawn the children into fine and unconscious dramatic action 
by teaching them Froebel's little finger game of "What's 
this, what's this," and then allowing the children to play at 
the circle that they were the fingers upon a giant's hand, each 
one bowing or skipping as his turn came. 

Another director gave a very amusing account of her ex- 
perience upon the opening day, when through a mistake in 
the address, her materials had not reached the place. " A set 
of children, a Kindergartner and natural mother-wit, ought to 

Practice Work. 217 

be enough," said Miss Harrison, " to bridge over any such 
emergency. What did you do?" "While I was teaching 
the children a song." said the director, " I sent my assistant 
out in the neighborhood to purchase a rubber ball. We then 
played bouncing the ball, catching it and rolling it back and 
forth. We next went to the play circle, had a march, replayed 
the ball games and came back to the seats when a story of 
Charlotte and the ten little dwarfs was told to the children 
and they were dismissed." ' What were you attempting to 
do?" asked Miss Harrison. " To win the sympathy of the 
children in the first place, and to occupy them with some 
pleasing activity, so as to prevent restless disorder, as there 
Were nearly forty of them there." 

The second meeting of the Program Class occurred October 
II. The subject of Columbus, and how the story of his life 
was to be woven into the week's program was the first ques- 
tion asked. A lively discussion ensued, some of the directors 
arguing that to break into the continuity of thought which 
they were just beginning to establish, by introducing an en- 
tirely new subject, would be harmful rather than healthful to 
the children. Others rea.soned that the gorgeous pageant 
which was soon to fill all eyes and minds must necessarily be- 
corae a part of the children's lives, and that seme connection 
or explanation must be made, else they would not be follow- 
ing the fuiulaniciital law of the Kindergarten; namely, to have 
all impressions in the child's mind related one to another. 
" Besides." exclaimed one of the most enthusiastic Kinder- 
gartners, "think of what a wealth of opportunity the great 
prcKession oflfers us for all .sorts of vivid impressions'. "What re- 
lationship are you trying to make real to the children?" asked 
Miss Harrison. "The family life." answered the class. "What 
relationship does the story of Columbus most emphasize?" 
asked she. Here followed a discu.ssion. It was finally settled 
that Columbus .slcmd as a tyj>e of the heroic class who sacrificed 
personal and family life for the benefit of the State, and 
that the chief emphasis to be j^laced upon his life would come 
logically nuich later in the year, after the meaning of patriot- 
ism had been given to the children. " Hut, ' said one young 

2 1 8 Practice Work. 

director, with a troubled, perplexed look upon her face, " The 
show is here, what are we going to do about it ? " One or 
two of the more experience directors were called upon to give 
their outline of work ; one suggested the introducing of the 
story by the telling of Columbus' earl}^ home life, of his own 
happy family relationship, and thus lead up to his leaving 
home and countrj'' for the sake of his great idea. Another 
suggested that the story could be introduced while dwelling on 
the bird life, which symbolizes family life, and connection 
could be made by beginning to tell of the help and encourage- 
ment which some birds had once given to a great man, and 
the story of Columbus could thus be woven into the program 
of thought without any great interruption. A third suggested 
that it might be introduced by showing the contrast between 
the happy home life of the birds and flowers and children with 
whom we are acquainted, and the wild, savage life which 
Columbus found in the newl)^ discovered world. Miss Harri- 
son remarked that it would be well to treat the storj' now in 
some such fashion as this and recall it later in the year when 
emphasis would be placed upon the heroic and patriotic nature 
of Columbus' enterprise. 

The story of Columbus as it was told in the October num- 
ber of the Kindergarten Magazine was then read aloud by 
one of the directors. Comments were made and various sug- 
gestions of slight alterations, which would give to the story a 
little deeper inner meaning. Miss Harrison suggested that 
the handsomely colored pictures of the World's Fair buildings 
should in some way be woven into the story of the celebra- 
tion, and then hung upon the walls of the Kindergarten, as 
they were fine illustrations of beautiful architectural effects, 
and would aid in the art education of the children. 

Before closing, one director from the suburbs generously 
distributed some green walnuts and yellow and orange- 
colored goiirds among her town-imprisoned colleagues as 
good illustrations of the green and yellow balls which Mother 
Nature makes. 

The field class in science, which meets on Saturda}- morn- 
ings has taken up the fall preparation of plans for winter. 


A father of two bright Pacific Coast boys, writes: " We 
are bringing no pressure to bear on our children — none what- 
ever. They enjoy great freedom. I liave no theories to 
advance about them. We let them run with the rest of our 
neighbors' youth, read good things to them, try to act right. 
feed them well, and do all that we are able — as we are 
promi)ted by love — to have them develop naturally and 
normally. The rest you know. They are beautiful, intelli- 
gent, and physically far in advance of any we know of. We 
take our rambles in the woods every Sunday, even though it 
does rain." 


Babykin sat lookinj; at her four pink fingers and her little 
fat thumb. 

" I wonder what they are for," thought Babykin. 

Then she looked at her hand with the dear little dimples ; 
at her round, smooth wrist, and her wliite, lovely arm. 

She stretched out her foot on the soft, lambs'-wool nig and 
studied the five rosy toes. 

Hy and by the l)lack kitten came up and stood by Babykin. 
She was a l)right, wide-awake kitten and her name was Frolic. 
Frolic had no hands and feet ; she had only paws. She could 
not j^rasp a rattle or a doll, or dear mamma's finger. 

While Frolic stood looking at Babykin up came Watch, 
the dog. Watch was tall and .strong. He had long, droop- 
ing, silky ears. Babykin liked to pull those smooth cars, 
and Watch was very patient with Babykin. But Watch had 
no hands. He had paws something; like Frolic's. Babykin 
looked at the do^'s paw ami then at her own fingers. What 
did it all mean. Why did not Frolic and Watch have fingers? 

220 Mothers ' Department. 

Babykin could talk a little. She could say papa, mamma, 
sister, brother, dog, cat, dinner, water, bed, tired, cold, warm. 
When mamma came to take Baby on her lap and talk to her 
and kiss her, she held up her hand and said : 

" Baby fingers. Watch no fingers. Frolic no fingers." 

And mamma said : 

" Baby's fingers are made for helping mamma, and papa, 
and brother and Baby's self." 

Babykin can pick up her toys and put them in their place; 
she can do little errands for everybody" in the house. 

Then mamma took Babykin' s right hand in hers and 
counted one, two, three, four, five little helpers. 

Then she took the left hand and counted five more little 

O, how many things Babykin ought to do with ten little 
helpers ! — Mary F. Butts. 


We gathered these facts regarding this w^onderful little 
creature and they have proved of interest to our little people 
at Kindergarten so may serve as suggestions for a lesson on 
this subject. If possible, have children see a spider under 
the microscope, talking of its form, eyes, number of its legs, 
each furnished with its little brush, etc., until the looks of 
the common spider has become familiar to them. Then lead 
them to understand that the spider family are not all like the 
brown or gray ones that we see about our gardens or houses. 
There is a great variety of color among them, some being of 
a very brilliant hue. Their size ranges from the merest dot, 
to the giant crab spider whose body is two or three inches 
long, and legs at least five. He does his hunting at night 
and is not dependent on a net to catch his pre3\ The spider 
of this large variety puts her eggs in a silken bag and always 
carries them with her. Because this spider hunts its prey 
like a wolf, it is called the Wolf Spider. 

The trap-door spider makes for itself a wonderful house. 
It digs a hole in the ground and lines it with beautiful white 

Mothers'" Department. 221 

silk of its own spinning, covering it with a little round door. 
This trap-door is made of silk, stiffened with a kind of K'ue. 
Tliere is a hinge of silk to the door, and if the spider sits in 
the doorway and anything frightens her, she slams the trap- 
door down and is quite safe in her house, for the entrance is 
well concealed by sticks and dry leaves. A naturalist often 
searches in vain to find it, on seeing its occupant disai)pear 
into its home at a certain place. The raft spider lives over the 
water on a little raft of sticks and leaves, held together by 
silk. In this strange boat, Mr. Spider floats about, and even 
without it, is said to be able to walk with on the water. 

Spiders use the little fine combs we find on each of their 
feet, to brush their bodies and to keep their webs from dust. 

Most spiders have eight eyes placed on the head in different 
ways, some in a square on the forehead and others more 

Spiders do not live together in large families or colonies, 
like the ants, bees and birds, but each by it.self. 

These odd little creatures are active and industrious, and 
when resting always hang the head downward. 

The spider babies are usually carried about on the body 
of the mother and are so tiny, one can hardly see them. One 
kind of spider makes a cradle of a leaf lined with silk. After 
she fills it with eggs, she covers the hole with mud to conceal 
it from insects that feed on these eggs. Another house is 
made by fastening .seed pods together with silk. One very 
odd little home is made of silk the shape and size of a thimble. 
It is constructed by the spider mother under water, attached 
to weetis, and filled by herself with air. Here she lives with 
her little ones. 

The geometric spider is the only one whose snare has been 
carefully studied. First it .spins a diagonal line across the 
circumference intended for the web. The .spider then runs 
along its silken roi>e, to the center, and spins a line to the 
margin, fixing it a short distance from the first. So it works 
till the space is filled, always retuniing to the center to begin 
the new thread. After the wheel is complete, the spider be- 
gins at the center and spins the feather-like lines that connect 

222 Mothers'' Department. 

the radii. The line is glued to the radii by the little spider. 
A short ways from the center of the web, this line stops and 
another begins of a different silken material intended to cap- 
ture its prey. 

A garden spider wove a web, 

To hang from a rose leaf fair, 
From up to down and round and round 

It swung in the autumn air. 

Many a slanting line it made 

And oblongs also great and small 

With angles too of every kind 

Right well did it fashion them all. 

So when the shining dew-drops came 

To visit the rose that night 
They silvered o'er the little web 

To gleam in the morning light. 

In connection with the talk on spiders, the story might be 
told of a young prince of long ago. This prince wished again 
and again that he could destroy all the spiders in the world 
because he thought them so ugly and of so little account. 
At last he was brought to see their worth. After his father 
was defeated in a great battle, the prince was hiding in a cave 
to evade his enemies. During the night a spider wove a 
beautiful web across the entrance of the cave. When a com- 
pany of armed men came there in search for the prince, he 
heard them say "There is no use looking in that cave, no 
one could have passed into it and left that spider web un- 
broken." So the .soldiers passed on and the trembling prince 
found that a little despised spider was of enough account to 
save his life. — Sopha S. Bixby, Norwich, N. Y. 


The following stories, adapted as well as original, are 
published to illustrate the outline for a plan of Fall stories 
given in the October number. We are glad to bring this little 

^f others' Department. 223 

series to the home as well as Kindergarten workers, for it 
emphasi/es many of the most important points to \x. con- 
sidered in educational story-telling. It illustrates ideal home 
life, the continuity in daily experiences, and the unity under- 
lying all these — the fellowship lx;tween parent and child, 
nature and God. It is of the greatest importance that the 
impressions and experiences of children be constantly linked 
to that which has gone before. Through this they learn of 
an everywhere present Power, and feel the force of the logical 
following of events. 

If all the stories and work given the children have pointed 
toward unity instead of diversity, they will speedily learn to 
see the undercurrent of good in all things. The immediate 
aim of these stories is to give the children pictures of ideal 
home life, where all combine in effort and work. The story 
of the Birthday is a little sketch that has grown out of a de- 
sire to emboily Froebel's Mother Play Song of the Limbs, in a 
simple lesson for our children. The picture in the Mother 
Play book is full of life and interest, and this is but one way 
of helping the children to .see its full beauty. These stories 
are written by Miss Anna H. Littell, of Buffalo. 

The Birthday : 

Krnest and Ruth livc(l in one of the happiest of happy homes. It 
was hapj)y to them because they trieil to ilo so many kind thoU){htful 
things for papa and uiauiuia antl baby Roy. They were all glad together. 
One day in Octol)er, just when Jack I'rost was tapping at the cradles of 
the chestnuts to wake them up and take off their brown blankets, and 
dressinji the leaves in bright colors -then came I\rnest's birthday. He 
was seven years old. Mamma sai«l we will have a little birthdav picnic 
out under the trees by the brook. You may write Fredtlie to come to 
enjoy it with us. I will make you a birthday cake and papa will come 
honie early to be with us too. lamest and Ruth loved to gather flowers 
that grew in the fields and garden near their home. In the spring they 
had many a happy time g.ithering buttercups and violets, and later ou 
in the sununer they gathered daisies and roses. Now the autumn had 
come and they were busy gatliering gohlen rod and asters. 

The morning of the birthday was bright and sunny. Bmest and 
Ruth were out in the garden early to gather flowers for the breakfast 
table. When papa came in he said, "What is my little man going to 
do to-day?" •' I'm going to try to do a great many things to help to- 

224 Mothers' Department. 

day. I'd like to help someone." While tuamma was busy making the 
birthday cake Ernest took baby Roy out in his cab for a ride in the 
bright sunshine. A little bird flew down from the tree and stood for an 
instant by Roy's side. Roy clapped his hands and gave a happy laugh 
to see birdie. Then Mr. Wind blew some leaves off the tree, and they 
came flying down into baby's lap — and again baby laughed — he thought 
the leaves had come to visit him. Then the little sunbeams came danc- 
ing through the leaves on the tree and kissed baby, and made him 
laugh again. Ernest picked a purple and gold pansy and gave it to 
baby. It looked like a little face smiling at him, and he smiled back at 
it. When Ernest took Roy back to mamma, she was glad to see them 
both look so happy, and said, " What did you do to make baby so 
glad?" " Oh mamma," said Roy, " it was the birds and leaves and the 
sunshine and the pansies that helped to make baby Roj' so happy. The 
birdie flew down by him, and the wind blew down so many bright leaves 
and the sunbeams and the pansies smiled at him all the time. I would 
like to be a helper like the golden sunbeam in the story you told us. It 
did so manj- kind things and made so many people glad." Ruth helped 
mamma in making the cake, and when it was in the oven said, " I wish 
you would let me bake a cake all by myself, when your birthday comes, 
mamma. I'm sure I know how, and I would like to do it all by myself 
with no one to help me." Mamma said, "You may try but I want you 
to think it all over carefully ; I know of a little girl who thought she 
could make a cake all alone, but found she needed a great many help- 
ers. I will tell you that story to-night. In the afternoon mamma and 
baby Roy and Ernest, Ruth, and little Freddie went out by the brook to 
have a birthday play. Ernest took his water-wheel and fastened it so 
that the water made it turn around. Ruth waded with bare feet into the 
water, she wanted to help Ernest. Freddie was so pleased to see the 
wheel go round that he sat on the bank watching and thinking how he 
could make a wheel and what he could do with it. He loved to watch 
the sparkling running water^ it seemed to sing all the time and to say so 
many things. Sometimes it said, " I'm so very busy and I have so many 
things to do, I must run on very fast. I must give a drink to all the 
grass and flowers that live by my banks, and I must not stand still, idle, 
for I would get .so warm I could not give them a cool fresh drink, and 
the little fishes would not grow strong unless they had pure fresh water. 
So many things the stream would say to the children, they loved to 
watch it and listen to it. Even baby Roy laughed and cooed as he sat 
on mamma's lap watching them. 

When papa came home Ruth ran to meet him and to hang up his hat. 
Ernest brought his slippers and Freddie brought a chair for him. When 
mamma put the birthday cake on the table and every one was seated in 
their chairs, they thanked God for their happy day. 

In the evening Ernest sat on papa's knee and told him all about his 

Molhers ' Department. 225 

busy happy day. " Papa," said Hrnest, " I've seen so many helpers to- 
day. This morninji when I took Roy out for a ride the birdie and the 
leaves, flowers and sunbeams helped to make him >;lad. Thibafteruoon, 
out in the woods we saw the brook so busy, giving the ^rass a drink, and 
it helped nie turn my wheel and it was sinking all the time. 
I think it was so busy helping, it was glad all the time. Mamma 
said, if I tried to l>e a busy helper like the brook, I would 
feel like sinj.;ing too, for it would help me to l»e happy, if I 
tried to helj) some one else. It kept pure and strong by being 
so busy and giving away the water-drops. Mamma showed me my 
pictures taken when I was a baby like Roy. I <li<ln't rememljer when I 
was so liltlt. I'm glad I'm bigger now so I can help her, and I'm go- 
ing to try to be strong like you, papa. I saw such a busy s<]uirrel gather- 
ing nuts up in a tree to-day. Mamma said he had a little family of 
M|uirrels up in the tree. Out by the wheat-fiehl I saw a little family of 
mice ; and where I'reddie and I played in the barn we saw so many sheep 
and lambs, and an old mamma hen and her family of chickens. She 
talked so fast to the little chickens I wondered what she was saying. 
Then up in the apj)le tree we saw a whole family of birds. I womler 
what they were saying and to where they were going to fly." 

Then Krnest'^ sleepy eyes closed and be was fast asleep on papa's 

/iinliis' J/iniii in the . lf>f>le-'liti . 

Five birdies were up in the apple-tree saying good-bye to their empty 
nest. ICrnest wondered what these were saying and this is what they 
said : 

Listen, the big birdie is talking to the mamma bird — 

" Ho you remember the lime when you first came to this tree last 
and chose this tree in which to build our nest. It was a warm sunnv 
day and this tree was so near the garden you said it wouhl be a goo<l 
place to build. "Yes," said mamma bird 'what busy tinies we had 
building the nest. We were so near the barn we got some pieces of 
horse hair an<l pieces of straw and bits of wool to line the nest. It wa^ 
so soft and warm for the little birdies. How pretty the eggs looked as 
they lay in the nest and I did love to take care of them and keep them 
warm, although n>y feet «lid get tired sometimes keeping still so long. 
But how glatl we were when the little birdies were hatched; what hun- 
gry l>irdies they were. Yes, indeed, papu bird was kept very bus»v 
bringing llieni something to eat," 

At first the birdies lookeil so ipieer without any feathers. When the 
feathers began to grow what happy little birtlies they were, and what a 
hurry they were in to learn to fly. 

One sunny day in the summertime, when the birdies' wings bad 
grown stronger -papa bir«l came home and said " I think my little 
birdies may learn to fly to-morrow." The little birds were vcrv glad 

vol.. v.— NO. \. 16 

226 Mothers ' Departvicnt. 

and talked so fast about the nice times they would have in the morning, 
learning to fly. 

" How many things we can find down in the green grass under the 
tree," thej* said. "It will be such fun to fly down by the bushes and 
awaj' ofl" by the garden." They were so happy they did n't feel sleep)' 
when bedtime came. 

The next morning they woke and found it raining, and the clouds 
looked like a big curtain hiding the sunshine. But the birdies did not 
fret and cry ; they said, " We will make it pleasant for manmia today 
and perhaps to-morrow will be sunny, then we can fly. The rain-drops 
sound as if they were trying to sing. They pitter, patter on the ground 
and I think the flowers are glad to get a drink. It will help ihem grow 
strong." The birdies had a happy day and went to sleep, thinking 
what a glad time they would have the next day. They woke early the next 
morning — the sun was shining bright : " How glad everything looks," 
said all the birdies. "I think they've had a nice shower bath." Then papa 
bird showed them how to fly. Dicky bird, the strongest, tried first : he 
went carefully along the limb of the tree and tried to spread out hi& 
wings as papa did. But he tumbled right over on the ground ; then he 
jumped up to watch Daisy bird try to fly. He said, " I'm not afraid, I 
won't fall." But he tried to go too fast and got a tumble, too. Then 
the baby bird, little Dot, said, " I will be careful and let papa and 
mamma help me ; " and she did, so she did not fall at all. 

How happy they all were and how many things they found. They 
had a lesson in flying every day after this — and their wings grew stronger 
when they used them. 

By Harvest-time they were able to fly as far as papa could. When 
Jack Frost came to visit the apple-tree, the birdies began to get ready to- 
fly away to the Southland where they were to stay all through the 

When Krnest and Ruth went out in the orchard that day in October 
and wondered what the birds were saying, these same birds were up in 
the tree saying good-bye to their dear home nest. The}' had been sa 
happy in it, they wanted to bid it good-bye before they left it. Then 
they all flew away far off" to the warm vSouthland, where so many other 
birds lived. 

Apple-Tree Party : 

Away up in the branches of the tree where the birds lived was a 
little red apple that wanted to make some one glad. One day as it 
danced in the sunshine it thought, " I am such a little apple — I wonder 
what I can do to make some one glad. All summer long I've tried to 
grow and be the very best apple I could be." Then it said to the 
mother tree, "What can such a little red apple as I am do to make 
some one glad ? " 

The mother tree said, "Next week we are to have a party. The 

MotluTs ' Dipartnient. 227 

gardener is cotninji^ and I want him In see what ]{o<k1 a|){>Ii-s have grown 
here, for lie has taken such kind care of us. So little apple if you wdl 
clo your part well, be smiling and rosy and be ready to let jjo when 
Mr. Wind comes to take us to the party, you will help to make U4 all 

Then the little apple was very glad. 

Mother tree sent little messengers all over the tree to tell the 
apples to be reaily when Mr. Wind came. One bright <lay papa and 
I'^rnest and Ruth and mamma and baby Roy all came to the apple-tree 
party. Mr. Wind came, too, aiul blew all the trees: How fast the 
ipples tumbled to the ground. The children ran to pick them up. 
::.iby Roy said 1 wish some apple would fall into my little red basket. 
Then the little red apple that wanted to make some one glad fell right 
into his basket. He clapped his hands and said. "I'm so glad a little 
red apple fell right into my basket." Then how glad the little apple 

After the apples ha<l all lieen picked up and put into the cellar, the 
leaves had their party. 

They had been very busy getting ready. Kach little leaf had a 
baby bud to care for and wrap up warm for the winter. Mother tree 
kept busy sending up things for the baby buds to eat an<l blankets to 
r.eep them warm for their winter's sleep. Mother tree said when each 
..ale leaf has its work all done then it may go down to the party. So 
every little leaf worked busily taking care to wrap sunshine too among 
the blankets, for mother tree had said. -'Catch ail the snnlK-ams you 
'•an to help ketp the babies warm." When all the work was done 
tnniher tree said, "Now, :ny dear little leaves, Jack Frost is coming to- 
night to ch.inge your green work <lresses for bright-colored party 
dresses. I am glad I can tell him that everv leaf has done its work 

The next morning when the leaves waketl up they were so sur- 
prised to see yellow and brown and re<l dresses. " We did not see Jack 
Frost, yet he must have been here, for last night we ha<l green dresses. 
an<l now we have these bright party dresses." 

Then Mr. Wind came Hying along so fast and singing among the- 

Mother tree said. " This in.tkes nu- think of the party we had Inst 
spring. It was a birthday party. The little l)nils wore just waking up 
and the leaves had new green : every baby apple had a new- 
white dress. We ha<l a happy time. 

" The Iwes came to visit us and sang so sweetly and kisse«l the 
babies and they flew to their home with sweets to help to make honey. 
They came very often to visit us and were always busy and happy. 

" The robin came to us that week and found a nice place to budd a 
nest, i: very day Mr. Wind cnine to sing and rockeil the little ones in 
their cradles. 

.228 Mothers' Department. 

" Wheu the party was over Mr. Wiud took off all the baby apples' 
white dresses aud they had on green working dresses ; for they had 
grown large enough to work. The birdies worked, too, gathering sticks 
and straw and string aud hair to build their nest. 

" Then all Ihicugh llie vaini svimnier days the birds gitw ard the 
apples grew larger, until autumn came, and now the birds have flown 
away and the apples have gone into the warm house ; aud now the 
leaves, too, have put on their bright dresses and are going to play and 
then to sleep. 

" But I will stay here all through the winter alone and take care of 
the baby buds. I wonder if they hear the Wind singing." 

" Then Mr. Wind said, " Come with me, little leaves, this is thewaj-.'' 
Then every little leaf let go the tree and flew away with Mr. Wind say- 
ing, " Good-bye, dear mother tree." They had a happy play and then 
went fast asleep in their warm bed. 


(This story is too concise for use as it stands, but suggests a way in 
which to bring home to the children the struggles of the Pilgrims, by 
picturing the life of aPuritan child with his joys and sorrows, just as it 
must have been. Only as we live, in imagination, with those men and 
women and sympathize with them can we be thankful enough for what 
they have done for our country aud us, and realize by comparison some- 
what of our own advantages.) 

Do yoit want to hear about a little boy named Edward and 
his sister Mary who lived a long time ago, in far-away Eng- 
land ? They had a pretty little home covered with ivy- vine 
and they were as happy as j^ou are in your dear home. 
Edward was five years old and Mary was seven, and they had 
a good mamma and a brave papa, and they loved to play with 
their little friends, and work in their flower garden, and go to 
the sea-.shore to gather shells and pretty pebbles and pink 
sea-weed, and to watch the waves rolling in, and the .sea-gulls 
and clouds flying past. 

One day their papa came home very sad and said, " Marj'' 
and Edward, come here and listen. Mamma is packing up 
your best clothes and the dishes we shall need most, and you 
may go and pick out a few of the treasures you care the most 
for to pack in the box which mamma is filling, because to- 
night we must go in the .ship, which you saw come into the 

Mothers ' Pt-partment. 229 

harbor, ami sail away to Holland. We cannot live here any 

Kdward aiul Mary could not understand what was the 
matter, but they went t<j say good-bye to their pet chickens 
which had been growing so finely that Spring that they were 
already as large as doves, and Mary took two strings of l>eau- 
tiful shells which she hail gathered, and IC<lward took a tiny 
wooden boat which his kind papa had carved, and they carried 
them to their mother to pack in the box with her things. 
She looked as if she had been crying, but she >i>oke cheerfully 
to the children and smiled as she packed away the boat and 
shells. .She told them that they were going away to another 
country where they could build a church and worship God in 
the way that they thought was right, which was a thing they 
could not do in Knghuul, for the king did not believe as they 
did and he would not let them do what the\ thought was 
right, so they were going that night to leave dear old Eng- 
land, never to come back again. Then the children felt sad, 
too, for they remembereil all the g*)od times they had had in 
the fields and by the sea and at their grandfather's house, and 
they asked if their grandfather and grandmother and cousins 
were going too, l)ul mamma toUl them, "No. perhaps they 
should not see them again, but they must ])e patieat and 
cheerful and very brave." 

vSoon they were reaily and a sailor from the ship came in a 
row boat and took them and their box, or chest, which had in 
it their clothes and ilishes and their Bible, and rowed them to 
the ship. Tluy U)und there some other families who had 
hurried off in the same way, and just at sunset they left Kng- 
laml behind them ami sailed off tm the ocean to Holland, a 
country not very far away, though it seemed very far to the 
children. Then they landed and lived for awhile with some 
other Ivn^lish i>eople who had been driven out of Hnglatid. 
But they could not live there always, though the Hollanders 
were very kind to them, so they said they would all work 
together and get money to start off in a ship to the new coun- 
try which Columbus had found, and there they would make a 
home. You remember, don't you, about Columbus and 

230 Mothers ' DcpartDunt. 

America and the Indians ? Edward's father and mother 
thought they would rather Xxy to sail clear across the ocean to 
this new land, and live with the Indians in this strange, wild 
country, and worship God in the way that they thought wa^ 
right, than to live in dear old England and do what they 
thought was wrong. 

So these people fitted out a ship, named the May Flower, 
and once more they packed up their things, said good-bye to 
their new friends in Holland and went to the ship to sail much 
farther than the}- did before, away across the wide ocean to 

Oh, what a long voyage that was ! They were on the 
ocean September, October, November and nearly all of 
December, and some were sick, and the}- did not have very 
good food, and the weather grew cold, and many times Mary 
and Edward thought they should never see land again. They 
spent hours and hours watching the blue water, the blue sky, 
the white clouds, and white sea-birds flying around, and talk- 
ing about their flowers, chickens and doves, and the little dor- 
mice and hedgehogs in the garden at home, and the children 
they used to play with. 

When thej' reached America they spent a long time on 
shipboard looking for a good place to land. At last one bit- 
terly cold December day, when the trees were all covered with 
ice, not long before Christmas, a small row boat began to take 
the people from the ship, the May Flower, to the land. And 
who do 3^ou think was the first person to step from the row 
boat to the large rock which was lying so solid and firm on 
the shore ? It was our own little Mary, Mary Chilton. 

vSometime I will tell you more about how they slept on 
the ground that night with only blankets between them and 
the snow, and how they all went to work to build some log- 
houses ; we will see some pictures of log-houses and build 
some with our blocks. And I will tell you about their first 
church and al)out the kind Indians and about the Indians who 
tried to fight them, and about the heap of corn they found 
buried under the snow, and what they did with it and who 

Mothers' Department. 231 

put it there. But now you want to hear the end of my 
Thanksgiving story. 

The winter was very cold atul si mu limes ihe> almost froze, 
and they had not enough food so that some of them were very 
.sick and died, and many would have starved if some Indians 
had not been good to them and brought them corn to eat and 
helped them hunt deer for food. Hut at last Spring came and 
Edward and Mary went out in the first fine days to help dig 
the ground and plant corn and other .seeds, and they helped 
drive away the blackhirils that wanted to pull up the young 
corn to eat it, and they helped to gather the ripe corn in the 
fall, and carry tlie pumpkins into the cellar and pick up the 
potatoes which their father dug. They were all so busy they 
had no time to be .sad thinking of dear old Kngland and their 
friends over there. Hut in the evenings when they sat around 
the fireplace, where the large logs were burning so brightly 
that lhe\ had no need of candles to give light, they often 
talked about the old times in Kngland, and they were very 
thankful that (iod had cared for them through all that long 
journey across the ocean, and through all the long, cold win- 
ter in that strange land with nothing around them but tossing 
ocean, and fields covered with snow and ice, and woods where 
the Indians lived, and that He had given them rain and sun- 
shine and a good harvest. The other people who came in the 
ship with tlieni, and who had been cared for just in the .>anie 
way, thought it would be well for them all to go to church 
together antl have a day of i)rayer and thanksgiving — sonie 
other da> besiiles Sunday. So one Autumn the governor, 
who was their captain, told them to keep from all work one 
<lay and make it a day for giving thanks to God, and that was 
the beginning of our Thanksgiving Day. So now every 
Autumn when the corti and wheat and hay are in the barn, 
the pears and grapes have been gathered, and the apples, 
potatoes, beets ami carrots are in the cellar, we try to show 
our thankfulness by our prayers antl .songs and by inviting 
our friends to come and rejoice with us and eat a thanksgiv- 
ing dinner with us. We show our thanks also by remember- 
ing to semi a turkey, or a good basket of fruit, or bread and 

232 Mother's ' Department. 

cakes, or something nice to those who are poor or sick or in 
trouble, so that they can have a thanksgiving dinner, too. 

Every year when Thanksgiving Day comes again we not 
only think about how many things there are to make us 
thankful but we remember the true, good, brave men and 
women and children who came over the wide ocean and made 
their homes in this new land so that the}^ could be free to do 
what was right, and make a free, happy country for us to live 
in, a country which has good laws, good schools, good 
churches and happy homes. Shall we not alwaj's try to keep 
it a free, happy country ? Indeed we will. — Susan P. Clement, 
Racine, Wis. 

(The suggestions for work during "Columbus week" are also in place 
here. The compass, Mayflower, the turkey and fall fruits, the church? 
log-houses, Indian wigwams, tools, etc., are among the most convenient 
objects, and the talks on the ripening and gathering of fruits and vege- 
tables for winter, the preparations which animals make for winter, etc., 
are most delightful, second only to the Spring talks. — 5". P. C.) 


Tmk Louisville I'ree Kimlergarteu Association have established the 
a^e of twenty years or over for applicants to the training class, arguing 
that there are few under twenty who are mature enough to realize the 
principles of Kindergartninj^, as every one should who <loes true work. 

Miss Ivi,i/.aiij:tm Van Ani»a, of Indianapolis training, has charge 
of the training class under the New Albany Free Kindergartt-n .\ssocia- 
tion which opened two free Kindergartens Oct. 3. 

Thk Des Moines Froebel Association has recently been organized in 
Dcs Moines, Iowa. Many of the active and energetic Kindcrgartners of 
that city have banded themselves together with the determination to 
further all interests of the Kintlergarteu in the public schools, and by 
stirring and inspiring meetings, lectures and readings, bring vividly 
before the public the great value of the Kindergarten training for the 
little ones. 

Tmk Kindkkg.\rtbn Magazinr acknowledges the cordial con- 
i;ratnlations and hearty good wishes of many fellow -workers, represen- 
t.itive educators and friemls to the cause at large, .\mong others we 
may name Prof. \V. N. Ilailtnann.Mrs. Iludora Ilailtnann, I,a Torte; Miss 
Xoni Sinilli, San Francisco ; Mr. atul Mrs. J. U. Hughes, Toronto : Miss 
Caroline Haven, Miss .X. Hrooks, New York City ; Mrs. L. W. Treat, 
i.rajid Rapids; Miss .Susan K. Hlow, Ca/enovia, N. Y.; Miss Lucy 
Wheelock. Boston : Miss McCullough, St. Louis ; Miss i:iiza)>eth Harri- 
•<on, Chicago; .Mr. Irwin Shepanl, Winona : Wui. T. Harris, Washing- 

Frkvji'Hnt calls for subscriptions to the KiNDKRr.AkTEX Maca/ink 
I ouie from public libraries I')ast ami West, which shows a «lecide«l 

ncrcase of interest in this work on the part of the general reading pub- 
lic. The Dcs Moines, Iowa, public library has a complete set of Ik>uu«1 
volumes of the Magazinh from the first uuinl>er down. Kiudergartaem 

■in further the cause in a substantial way by urging librarians of both 
jublic and school libraries to add the Maga/ink to their lists of 
perimlical literature. 

234 Field Notes, 

TiiK year's course of meetings of the Philadelphia Society of Froe- 
bel Kiudergartners opened .Saturday, Oct. 8, with a cordial greeting 
and prophecj- of earnest work, from its president, Mrs. M. L. Van Kirk. 
We caught from Miss Anna Williams her enthusiasm over the meetings 
of the Kindergarten department of the N. E. A. at Saratoga, and fol- 
lowed the practical eye and clear thought of Miss H. A. Fox, in her 
account of the exhibit of manual work at the same convention ; later, 
our hearts thrilled, first with sadness, then with wonder and gladness as 
Mrs. K. T. Bingham reminded us of " What the deaf do not hear," 
giving us a realization of " What they ma)- hear," " if they receive such 
intelligent education as the .skill, the science, and the loving-kindness 
of the age should give to them." — M. Gay, Sec'y. 

Therk are ten bands of King's Daughters in Peoria, which meet 
quarterl}- in union meetings, monthly meetings of each circle being held 
also. Eight of them are working in the interest of Kindergartens and 
a day nursery. The first Kindergarten established by them was named 
for the president of the order, Mrs. Margaret Bottome, and rooms have 
been rented in Bacon Memorial Mission in which to conduct this branch 
of the work, which is entirely supported by the Kindergarten band com- 
posed of ladies from various churches. A second Kindergarten has 
been established in Lee school, the school board kindlj* giving the band 
the free use of a room in that building. This Kindergarten was named 
in honor of Mrs. Lucie B. Tyng. These Kindergartens are supported bj- 
monthly contributions. The Bacon Mission school is conducted by Miss 
Elizabeth Bass, from the Chicago Kindergarten College. 

DuKiNC, the past month Mrs. Lncretia Willard Treat, Principal of 
the training school of Grand Rapid.s, spent a week at Columbus, Ohio, 
in the interest of the Columbus Training vSchool. The Columbus 
school is so fortunate as to have received ten free scholarships this 3'ear. 
The work is opening successfull)-. The work of the training school at 
Grand Rapids is progressing, forty-five students being in attendance, 
including those of both first and second year classes. Mrs. Treat will 
also give a series of lessons at Detroit and Muskegon during the winter,, 
lecturing before the Detroit Normal School, Oct. 15th, besides organiz- 
ing a mothers' meeting at the same time. 

Tiiic following report of successful work comes from San Diego, 
California, where the Kindergartens are under the charge of Misses 
Parker and Porter : — 

" When we came here four years ago there was but one Kinder- 
garten, a private school, numbering ten pupils. To-day, in both city 
and countr)-, there are a number of prosperous private Kindergartens, 
and best of all, one year ago last August, the Kindergarten was incor- 

Field Notes. 235 

1)orate<l into our piihlir bchool systi-iii. We have at present one in con- 
nection with each of our five largest schools, with an allen«lance of 
:ibout two hun(lre«l and seventy-five little cues. The results of the fir»t 
year's work gave complete satisfaction, and the Kindergarten has come 
into our pnljlic schools lo slay. National City, four miles from San 
Diego, has also a public Kindergarten. 

" All of our Kiudcrgarlners here, numbering about thirtv. ha\e 
been members of the training class conducted by Misses I'arker ami 
Porter, and are earnest, faithful workers in our noble cause. 

" To teach in our rul)lic Kindergartens teachers are require*! to 
hohl i>rimary certificates so that the stamlanl of excellence is a high one, 
although such a re(|uirement does not seeuj altogether a just one." 

Akt Talks. -The classes held cluring the winter of '91 '92, in Chi- 
cago, studying the classified collections of the Art Institute, will l>e 
reorganized for the first Satunlay in November, the 5th, giving a course 
of six classes before the holidays. .Application should Ije made immedi- 
ately, since the classes must be limitetl. Mr. (reorge L. S<;hreil)er, who 
gave the interpretations last season has been secured again, and under 
his leadershij) the enthusiasm of last year's classes will, uniloubtetily, 
be continued. Tor circulars and terms, address Mr. G. A. Schreil>er 'hj 
Dearborn St., Chicago. 

.\ M.vNDSOME Kindergarten building has been presented as a gift to 
the .\sheville ( N. C. ) h'ree Kindergarten Association, by Mr. Geo. W. 
Pack. It will be known as "The Sara Garrison Kiiulergarteu." in 
honor <>f Miss Garrison wliotaTight the first Kindergarten in .\shevillr. 
It is said that " the building is not only a UKnlel of architectural beauty, 
but is in every way suite<l to the object for which it was erecte<l. There 
are three rooms, the play roonj, the occui)ation room and the cloak 
room, each finislie<l in North Carolina pine, with high wainscoting. The 
floors were thoroughly oiled and a full set of chairs an«l tables provitled 
before it was presented. .\ neat marble lavatory for the children, and 
ample closets and hooks for wraps were not forgotten. Substantial 
plank walks have been constructed to and ar«>und the buihling, and a 
coal bin filletl to overflowing awaits the coming <>f cold weather. In 
fact, the building is thoroughly fitted up to the minutest detail, at a co«l 
of |t3,o<xi. " Miss (^larrison is a young woman of rare (|ua!tlies, and has 
been pronounced by those associated with her in the Kindergarten 
work, as possessing gilts amounting to an " ideal Kindergartner. " Mis'" 
Garrison is at present in Huflalo, N. Y., where she was the pnst 
connecteil with the Free Kindergarten Association. 

Thk H'efk/y Sehttol Journal recently conunenle<l on it* i»a»t year's 
work in a strong editorial, setting forth its aim-i and iileals. .\mong 
other worth V statements it makes the followin • 

236 Field Notes. 

" But the Jo /in/ a/ does not rest its claim to the attention of the edu- 
cational public on its pages, printing or illustrations ; if it had none but 
these it would not have attained, nor held, its present standing. The 
attempt has been made to state in/t/t in rd/icalion. There is such a 
thing as an idea in the mind of the Creator according to which human 
development was designed to proceed. Can we get at this idea? That 
is the problem to be solved. 

" When one takes up a book like Barker's 'Chemistry,' or Fiske's 
' America,' he becomes conscious that there is a Power working out an 
idea. The study of philosophy forces us to conclude that human beings 
are moving along lines devised by a beneficieut Influence. The children 
must walk in the pattern of the race. The school-room must exhibit the 
beneficent ideas of the great Father of All. To know and practice this 
aright is education. 

"TheJounialha.s attempted, and this is its main effort, unabated as 
the years roll on, to lift the school-room up to, and on to, the planes of 
life ; it must have a parallelism with life. The school-room methods 
in its pages are not models, they are glimpse-lessons ; they portray more 
or less the mode by which human evolution ma}' be effected. Often- 
times the hint or glimpse thus given will suggest to the teacher a mode 
far superior to that portrayed." 

The Colorado Kindergarten Normal School established in Denver b}- 
Mr. William Church, is beginning the 3'ear's work with the brightest of 
prospects. There are now between thirty and fort}- young ladies taking 
the two years' course. The curriculum is a broad one, including the His- 
tory of Education, the " Mother Play," Froebel's Philosophy and Remi- 
niscences of Froebel, Physical Culture, Psychology and a thorough course 
in Pedagogy proper, using Spencer's " Education" as a text-book. Occa- 
sional lessons are given in Literature and the Sciences and a course of 
Art Lectures is contemplated. The training school is in charge of four 
teachers. There are three Kindergarten schools connected with the 
Normal in which the young ladies under competent directors do practi- 
cal work each day. These different schools are pleasantl}' located and 
lack absolutely nothing to make the practical work a success in every 

The "New Education " in Parana, Argentine Republic. Through 
the favor of Miss vS. C. Eccleston, Parana, Argentine Republic, we pub- 
lish the following translation of a characteristic paper written by Justa 
Gomez, an Argentine Kindergarten graduate, who, possessed of all the 
lawful enthusiasm of a grateful Kindergartner, appeals to her home 
people ; " The city of Parana, has only one Kindergarten ; the number 
of children which it can accommodate is very small in proportion to th« 
population. Why is it that there are not more institutions of that kind ? 

Field Notes. 237 

Is it because there is opposition to the system of Froebel ? By no means 
— as can be readily proved by tlie mimlKrr of parents who solicit in vain 
at the opening of eaih school year, places for their children. What 
then is the rea;>on that in a city which nuinl>ers more than twenty 
thousand inhal>itants there are but forty children who receive the t^enefit 
of the Kindergarten— only forty can be educated according to the true 
principles and nietho<ls of I'roebel ? There can be but one reason, which 
is evident l<> all who understand the system the complete ignorance of 
its object on the part of the great njajority. and the lack of study of and 
attention to the nature of children. Can this be because there are no 
affectionate and anxious mothers.' Oh no, all are solicitous, but l>elievc 
that the best means of showing their affection, is to satisfy without 
limit the wishes of their children. Perhaps some may think that such 
indulgence will make a child capricious and cause him to fj)rui bad 
habits, but that there will be plenty of time to correct these tendencies 
when he is obler, forgetting that this must be prevente<l very earlv, or 
it will be accomplished with much more dirticulty. Those of us who 
have had the privilege of studying this grand system with special 
teachers, who leaving their own country, homes and everything dearest 
to them, have come to us over thousands of miles of ocean, with no 
greater ambition than to be disciples of its great author, and preach bis 
gospel of peace to the women of our dear land, we owe a great, moral 
oblig.ition ; to those teachers Miss Kccleston, Miss Choate and Miss 
Dooliitle -for having opene<l our eyes, as it were, and called our atten- 
tion to the ^)hysical, moral and mental necessities of our j>oor children 
and heretofore have not received the consideration they merit. To clay- 
thanks to their efforts, this Rej)ublic has thirteen teachers especially 
prepared for this work, and we are pleased to give this public testimo- 
nial of our gratitude. The city of Parana has the honor of having 
established the first society in this Republic, which has for its object the 
study and extension of the I'roelielian system. The ' Argentine 
Froebel Union * was definitely and solidly constituted on the iist of 
April, 1893, a date well known and celebrated by all teachers of the 
Kindergarten. Although the society has had but three months of 
existence, consideral)le ground has already been gained. The idea has 
reverberateil all over the Republic, and the I'nion wliich was foundetl 
with only ten members, now numbers mon' than seventy. Now that 
we have taken the first steps, ' Forward ! ' is our watchword. Lei at 
dedicate ourselves earnestly to the work and with all our slrrnglh - 
aim to rpach our ideal." 


Child's Christ-Tai.ks, By Andrea Hofer, is just out for the holi- 
<lays. It renders the stories of the Christ (both the prophecj' and the 
fulfillment), for child readers, in pure, sincere stylC; and in short storj- 
form. Nothing could be of more value to the Kindergartner for the 
December work, and the stories may be easily read to the youngest 
members of the family. The book is finished exquisitely, and placed in 
the hands of the children themselves would be an inspiration, for the 
pages and illustrations are of the finest artistic workmanship. List 
price $1.25. For sale by Kindergarten Magazine, Woman's Tem- 
ple, Chicago. 

There is no broader line of study for teachers and Kiudergartners 
than the history of Pedagogy. This is made one of the most important 
branches in the German Kindergarten training schools. Robert Herbert 
Quick's little volume on Educational Reformers, is a compact and com- 
prehensive study in this direction, and might be u.sed as the basis, the 
skeleton for a more elaborate study. The introduction opens with the 
following words from Dr. Arnold, " It is clear that in whatever it is our 
duty to act, those matters it is our duty to study." The essays outline 
educational history from the Jesuits in 1540 — down to moderfi reformers- 
and it is most interesting to note how one and the same thread runs 
through the efforts of all alike, — growing broader and stronger and 
more clearly defined with each epoch until we reach the present state of 
a magnificent universal public education, its aim, broadened out into 
the truest development of manliness and character. Three important 
matters were made the basis of the early schools under the Jesuits in 
the sixteenth century; — industry, the spur to youthful talent, oral 
teaching rather than the use of school books which were even then 
numerous, and the teacher beginning with a certain class of students 
should grow up and on with them, not transferring them each year to 

C/iild-Li/c, the London Kindergarten journal appeared under the 
date of October with a pleasant and profitable variety in its reading 
program. The Kiudergartners of London are broadening their lines tO' 
include mothers, teachers and public lectures. 

The Statue of the Boy Columbus, the frontispiece to our September 
number, is the work of Giulio Monteverde and is in the" Museum of 
Fine Arts in Boston. 

Literary Notes. 239 

A HKAi Tii'i I. holiilay gift is proinisetl called -'CUiM'si Art I'ort- 
folio, " containiiiv; twenty-five reproductions from the In'st masters. 
They will jjive the elT'ct of the finest etrhinj^s and half tones, ami l)e 
prinleil on aiilii|iic and finished papers, all in a handsome portfolio. The 
rfi)ro<luctions are made froni the pen of George L. Sehrcilnrr and from 
riginal photographs, .\ddress George L. Schreiber, 69 IX-arboni St., 
Chicago. Price, $1.00. 


Wc promised otir readers for their convenience to menlion 
the suitable books for holiday ptirchasing (from the Kinder- 
garten standpoint). We ^ivc below a cla.ssified list with 
prices and will undoubtedly be able to add to it in our I)e*ceni- 
her issue, when more of the season's books are on the market. 


Child's C/irist-Vo/ts, by Andrea Hofer, :J*i -> 

IClegantly bound aiul illustrated. Just out for iSi),2. 
Ci>/itnihi(s and W'/iat lie I'ouud, by Mary H. Hull. i.<x.> 

The 400th Colunilnan Hirthd;i>- Ho<>k for boys and 

The Bird's Christmas Carol, b\ Kale D. Wiggin, .50 

/;/ the Vide I.o\^' s Clo'w, by Harri.son S. Morris. Three 

\'ols. 5.00 


Mother Play atid A'ursery Songs, by Freidrich Froebel, 

Translated by Jarvis, 52.<v> 

A^nrserv Songs and lunger /*/a\s, by Hmilie Poulsson 

Set to music and illustrated. i.:5 

Songs /or /kittle Children, by ICleanor Smith. 1.25 
Songs, Gaines and Rhymes, by Mrs. Kutlora I.. Hail- 

maun, 1.75 

Merry Songs and Games, by Clara Ik-eson Hubbard. 2.00 

Kindergarten Chimes, by Kate Douglas Wiggin. 1.50 
Songs and (iames for Little Ihits, by (icrtrude Walker 

and Harriet S. Jenks, >.oo 

Stories in Song, by Misses Kmerson and Brown, .75 

240 Kindergarten a?id Gift Books. 


The Story Hoin\ by Kate D. Wiggin, $1.00 
Kindergaricn Stories and Morning Talks, by Sara E. 

Wiltse, 1. 00 
Stories for K'i)idergarten and Primary Schools, by Sara 

E. Wiltse, .40 

Timothy's Quest, by Kate Douglas Wiggin, i.oo 

The Story of Patsy, " " " 5q 
The I 'isio?i of Dante, by Elizabeth Harrison. lUus. by 

Walter Crane. 2.50 


Silver Dells and Cockle Shells, by Mary F. Butts. Col- 
lection, $1.00 

Child's Garden of I'erses, by Robert Louis Stevenson, 1.25 

Ballads for Little Folks, by Alice and Phoebe Cary, 

lUus. 1.50 

Little Folks Lyrics, by Frank Dempster Sherman, 1.00 


Fdncation of A/an, by Freidrich Froebel. Trans, by 

Hailmann. $i-50 
Kindergarten and Child Culture, by Dr. Henry Barnard, 3.50 
Jl/yths and Myth-Makers, by John Fiske, 2.00 
A Pot of Green Feathers, by T. G. Rooper, a psycholog- 
ical treatise. .50 
A Study of Child Nature, by Elizabeth Harrison, i.oo 
Song of Life, by Margaret W. Morley, 1.25 
/?t7?<«fl' Kindergarten Magazine, Vol. IV., 2.25 
Mothers' Portfolio, of Kindergarten stories, songs, helps 

and essa3S. 2.25 

Power Through Repose, by Anna Payson Call, i.oo 

Children' s Rights, by Kate Douglas Wiggin, 1.25 


A New Magazine.— Child-Garden, of Story, Song and Play, which 
is to appear in Decemlier, supplementing Kindergarten work, will 
be mailed to all the readers of the KiNOKRG.VKTKN Ma<;azink as a 
sample. The suhc-rsiption price is ^i.oo per year in advance. Send in 
lists of mothers with young children who would l>e glad to receive this 
magazine for their little ones. 

A yer.r's subscription to either Klndkroarthn M.\g.vzini-: or 
Child-Garden will be given for acceptable short stories, verses, games 
and songs. Or, choice between a volume of " Child's Christ-Tales" by 
Andrea Hofer, and "Columbus and What He I'ouiid," by Mary 11. Hull. 
Address Ki.\i>i;k(;artj:n MAf.A/iNi:, Woman's Temple, Chicago, 111. 

Forcit^u Subscriptions.— On all subscriptions outside of the States, 
British Columbia, Canada and Mexico, ad<l forty cents (.jo cents i for 
postage, save in case of .\frica, which amounts to So cents extra on tin- 
year's numbers. 

The pages of the KiXDKRGARTEN Magazixk will no longer he cut 
by machine since the majority of readers save their files for binding and 
])refer not to have them trimmed twice. Vol. V. will l)e more hand- 
somely bound than ever, and no niaga/ines will l>e exchanged at theend 
of the year that have been cut by machine. Our readers will please 
take notice. 

.'Ml offers of premiums and special rates made to June. 1S92, no longer 
hold good. 

liusiness Corres/>o»dc-nre.—. Wway^ send your subscription ilt.50) 
made payable to the Kindkkgartkn Magazixk. Woman's Temple. 
Chicago, 111., either by money onli-r, express order, postal note or 
draft. (No foreign stamps receive«l.) .Always send your subscriptions 
dirt'ct to us and avoid delay. 

.Ml inquiries concerning training schools, supplies, litermture, song 
books, lecturers, trained Kindcrgartners, etc., will l)c freely answerv<I bv 
corrcspotulence or by the advertising columns of the Kim>i;rgartkx 
VOL. V. xo. 3. 17 

242 Publishers' Notes 

All subscriptions are stopped on expiration — the last number being 
marked, "With this number your subscription expires." 

There is great demand for all back numbers of the Kindergarten 
Magazine, by many who wish to possess the complete file. This 
shows a growing appreciation of the practical value of the magazine. 
There is repeated call for Volume I. The substance of this volume can 
be secured in the compilation, Mothers' Portfolio. Price $2.25. Vol. II. 
is entirely out of print, and onlj-.a very limited number of bound Vol. 
III. are in the market, at I3.00 each. Vol. IV., in cloth, can still be 
had for I2.25. Address, Kindergarten Magazine, Woman's Tem- 
ple, Chicago. 

Wanted. — We need February 1S92 Magazines. If you have one 
to spare send it, and we will give you any other number in exchange. 
Kindergarten Magazine, Woman's Temple, Chicago. 

Bound Voltmies. — Exchange your files for '9i-'92 (Vol. IV.) for a 
bound volume of same ; it will cost you only 75 cents to have a hand- 
some book made of your numbers. 

The offer made in the June number, granting a year's subscription to 
any one sending in three new subscribers and I4.50 was limited to date 
of June 10, and no longer holds good. 

If you want to spread the work send for a bunch of our new circulars 
to distribute. 

In requesting change of address always state both the new and old 
location. It saves us time and trouble. 

Send us one dollar for the new child's book of " Columbus and What 
He Found." It is authentic, detailed, and full of inspiration and sug- 
gestion to the teacher and parent. 

Samples of the Kindergarten Magazine will be sent free to any 
address sent us before January ist. Send in lists of lukewarm believers 
in Kindergarten, mothers with children, and primary teachers. 



■■k V M 

mS[^ ^H 


^^^^^■~ if M 






kini)KR(;artkn magazixe 

Vol. V. -DI'lCIiMIU' k. 1892. X...4. 

{From Poem of Motherhood.) 

II, the depth and tender sweetness 
Of tlie wonderful Madonnas. 
Love in its surprerae completeness, 

Child and mother crowned with honors 
Raphael Sanzio's holy faces 
Lighting into divinest places! 

Rapt Murillo's vision painted 

Bahy rej^al, calm pacific ; 
Mother-brows all halo-sainted 

Rai.sed in rapture beatific : 
Grand Correpjgio's revelation, 
Motherhood's Annunciation. 

Galleries of all the masters 

From the generations olden, 
Safe from wreck of Time's disasters, 

Fadeless in their glory golden, 
Greet the child and mother kneeling 
In our midst with love appealing. 

And the Christmas shrine unveiling 
The inunortal babe and manger 

Witnesseth the love unfailing 

Welcoming each heavenly stranger. 

In each home the child and mother. 

Light of this world and the other. 


[HIS is a vision of light and love. The father, the 
mother and the child, that is home. No matter 
for the surroundings ; they may be rich and attract- 
ive or bare and rude ; it is all one, it does not affect the 
identity of the home ; but take away one of the three bound 
together in love, and the home is destroyed. 

Imagine for a moment a richly furnished house, rooms 
hung with pictures, halls adorned with works of art, rooms 
arranged for every luxur}^ libraries of books, tables spread 
for feasting and instruments of music, but no group of joy in 
the center, no child or no mother, is that a home ? If you 
who have made one of such a joyous center have lost the 
others, and if you could wander far and wide bereft of all 
your material possessions until one day you suddenlj- caught 
sight of those others, and flew to them, and you were again 
clasped in one embrace, would you not feel that you had all 
you wanted ? The place might be a stable, the cradle a 
manger, but if you were all there — father, mother and little 
child — you would be satisfied and know that home is where 
the heart is, the same radiant place whatever its accessories, 
because inclosed by a circle of love and illuminated with the 
divine light of childhood. 

It is a bright, beautiful vision and the halo above the little 
child is the light of it all. Every mother knows that her child 
conies from God. He is the "wonderful " to her, — the prince 
of peace to her heart and life. She loves, almost to worship- 
ing, that little being over whom she leans with fond solici- 
tude ; her face is shining with the glory which comes from her 
babe ; the helplessness, the trust, the sympathy, all make the 
home a holy place ; the father and the mother are lifted up 
jnto a nobler feeling and purpose as they look upon the child ; 

The Child in tlu Jfomi . 245 

home is hallowed, child-life is hallowed, the better self is 
evoked and we begin to live again. 

Or let us imagine a dwelling rude and bare, — a tent, a 
wigwam, a barn, and in it a mother and a child, the father 
standing by ; no details confuse the unity of the picture ; no 
accidents of surrounding divert the gaze, yet it is all there ; 
the sovereignty of love, the expression of an inseparable 
union, the family, the nucleus of the world's growth and 
germ of its highest development. 

And this is because wherever this human germ is in active 
ojjeration it involves the divine. No such group ever exi.sted 
but God was the atmosphere of it and in His light and love 
its light and love were centered. It is true always of the 
mother and child in the home as it is of the Madonna and 
Child in the pictures, that a halo is over the child and a radi- 
ant light in the mother's face, though we may not wa\t to 
observe it or be clear enough in our spiritual sight torecogni/e 
its glory. I am glad that it .stands in its es.sence in the Gos- 
pel story with only the mute and reverent beasts around it 
and the angels looking down ; more would be an intrusion 
and spoil the charm. 

If we hhd lost the integrity of the home, and after long 
and wild .search could find it again, only to find these its real 
elements, would make us weep with joy. Think of it and 
draw the picture, draw it as if you loved it, make the child 
like one of your own, paint the divine light if you see it ; it 
is always there whether you see it or not. For 

"Trailing cloud.s of K^^O" '^^ we come 
Prom Ciod who is our home." 

Draw the picture as you see it ami know it ; aye, draw it as 
you live it. the child linking you to God, the home an eternal 
type of complete human growth and satisfaction. 

The little child is divine. Christ came to tell us that by 
his birth, by his childhood, by his words and by his typical 
object-lesson of setting the child in the midst — while he for- 
mulated his relations to mankind. Let us leani divine les.sous 
from thf child in our midst. Let the children be our teach- 

246 The Child in the Home. 

ers ; thej^ c^n love and trust so much more truly, so much 
more full}'' than we. They are so simple and direct, so confi- 
dent of our better nature as to help us to believe in ourselves, 
— our better selves — and lead us more easily to nobler living. 

One of the finest lessons of the influence of a trusting 
child is the storj^ of Little Lord Fauntleroj" in his uncon- 
scious toning up and restoration of the character of the 
earl, his grandfather. 

Again Wordsworth says : 

" O dearest, dearest boj' ! my heart 

For better lore would seldom yearn. 
Could I but touch the huudredth part 
Of what from thee I learn." 

For our own part then let us learn not to hinder and 
obstruct the training God has set at work for the child in the 
home. Give him a response for all his joy, all his love', all 
his trust in us. Feed his ideals with sympathy, faith, purity 
and truth : do not disappoint him and lower his standards 
by duplicity, by vulgarity, by irreverence or by any low 
standard of action. 

Study the temperament and constitution of the child, his 
inherited traits, his dangers and possibilities and furnish him 
with the atmosphere and the aliment suited to his peculiar 
conditions. Do not excite and stimulate the child most sen- 
sitive and leave the dull one to his apathy. Consider ever}' 
factor in the case. 

Above all, lead the child to love his home and feel that 
he is a part of it ; let him be helpful and minister to those 
who minister to him. Remember that the exercise of home- 
love is the best preservative of it. The child who gives to 
his home and feels responsible for its comfort and happiness 
is the one who loves it best, not he who is pampered and re- 
ceives onlv. Let the child have his own part of work in the 
home, and learn to be held accountable for doing it well and 
serviceably. Let the children help themselves and each- 
other, and help the mother and father in all practicable ways, 

Tilt Child in llu I loin, . 247 

so they are knit together in a way that time nor space can 

Bring all the culture you can into the home-life. Books, 
pictures, mu.sic, to be enjoyed by all together, each one Ixar- 
ing a part and getting mental growth and satisfaction therein. 
Hallowed be the home-circle where music unites the hearts at 
mornin;^ or evening in the sacred song or prayer. Joyous 
aspiration is the atmosphere of a l>eautiful home and 
breathes itself eternally into the lives of the children who 
cluster there. 

Begin the training of the heart and soul with the begin- 
ning of life. Never think it too soon to appeal to the soul. 
Teach the child faith in a Heavenly Feather; teach him to 
listen to conscience, to do his duty, to be brave and true, to 
be docile and yet resolute. Never try to break his will : he 
will need all its native force, but lead him to self-control as 
well as to submi.ssion to his rightful guides. 

But after all. it is the prevailing atmosi)here of the home 
that shajjes the de.stiny of the child. Noble thoughts and 
actions, high ideals of duty, loving relation with all and 
sympathy binding all in one, will act as a constant corrective 
and incentive and will last as long as life. 

How vivid is the recollection of the home of our child- 
hood ! father, mother and many children gathered about the 
bright hearth, reading the Bible verses, singing the gi>od 
old hymns ; every Sunday for many years the scene recur- 
ring etches its beautiful lines ujH)n the life-volumes of those 
who have a part in its inspiration. verses and hymns, 
those voices and quiet faces, those sweet and noble characters 
we love, rise before us as we wander away from that happy 
hearth, and us ; they come to us as we sit in other 
homes with our own children gathered about us; they linger 
with us and they usher us in to our heavenly home. 

I.orisi: P.VKSDNs Hopkins. 


ARE to find is the first need, for it lies out- 
side of the Kindergarten, and I fear will not 
be rapidl}^ supplied until the Kindergarten 
idea shall have more potentlj' permeated the 
thought of those who have in charge the 
development of the material with which to 
supply this need. 
A first need is musicians — thinking, feeling musicians ; 
music thinking, music feeling, childlike men and women. 
Not men and women of ordinary gush and feeling, but with 
poetic insight into music as music, with its wealth of music- 
ideas, music-feeling ; power of mental stimulus and capacity 
to reflect the infinite harmony of Being in its simplest forms. 
Notice, I say music-ideas, not musical ideas. Poetrj^ may 
express and all true and high poetry does reflect its innate 
musical ideas. Architecture — how musical it may truh' be, 
and who has not felt the symphonic qualities of Guido Reni's 
Aurora or Correggio's Night ! All that this means is that Art 
is one in essence, and transfer of terms from one form of Art 
manifestation, expression or reflection, to another is perfectly 
legitimate. In fact, this community of terms is one of the 
evidences of the unity of all her man expressions of Art in Art 
as idea of Beauty. 

Music ideas are, however, distinctiveh' in and of that indi- 
vidual form of Art reflection which we term music, and can 
only be realized in music perception and conception. What 
the Kindergarten needs is men and women who realize music, 
think music, feel music. 

Pardon this reiteration, but meeting dail}- with so large a 
number of those who, while called musicians, do not think 
and feel music, but live in an atmosphere of mere tone, or are 
the bond-.servants of so-called physical law and its products, 
I realize keenlj' the necessity of pointing out a clear-cut dis- 

Musical Needs of the Kindergarten. 249 

tinction between executants on the one hand and emotional 
inaninity on the other. 

True music thinking, music feeling always does and al- 
ways must carry with it an atmosphere of poetic thought 
and feeling, but this is the effluence of Beauty consciously 
realized in music concepts. 

Many Kindergartens are casting the piano out of their 
synagogues. Why ? because musicians are not to Inr found. 
Kindergarten teachers feel the need of music, pure music, and 
the piano seems to stand right in the way. As commonly 
used, it is as if one .should stand before the Angelus with 
a screen of more or less ugly colors and ask you to see the pict- 
ure behind it. The trouble is not in the piano, but in the 
screen the " player " makes out of it. What is now needed is a 
musician, one who can realize music as idea, and transform the 
piano into an instrument 0/ music, not forjmusic— one who 
can dissolve the piano in tone and tone in idea. What is 
wanted is not piano-music but nuisic-pianos, not voice-music 
but music-voices. 

There should not be any distinction made between vocal- 
music and piano-music such as is being made, but these 
should disappear in music until the voice and piano are voices 
of music. Hut in order that this may be true there is needed 
such a study on the part of those who are to l)ear the name 
musicians, as will develop in them a conscious capacity for 
understanding music, a .strong, healthy power for conceiving 
music, and such a consciousness of the relation of activity as 
will be indeed the incarnation, the expression of music 
thinking and feeling. 

This kind of a musician must also be able to enter into the 
child thought, child life, child exjierience so keenly, in such 
an utterly childlike manner as to realize the child music, and 
understand the childlike interpretation of it. 

This is to me the first great want of the Kindergarten, and 
while I wish to point out in another pa|)er two or three others. 
I presuppose mu.sicians who will not only know what material 
will meet these needs but lu)W to use it. H. Cady. 


,3; T IS necessary that the historian of education 
on the Pacific Coast begin with the mission 
schools into which the Spanish padres gath- 
ered their Indian converts, more than a 
centur}' ago. From that time till the estab- 
lishment of the first public school in Yerba 
Buena, the infant city of San Francisco, in 
1849, is a long step. Then came the founding of the college 
which in 1868 was chartered as the University of California. 
Thus for the children of the State over six years of age, gen- 
erous provision was made. 

With the same carelessness, perhaps rather, dullness, that 
has characterized so many teachers and even parents, nothing 
was planned for the little ones, and the first six years, " the 
most important period of childhood for formative purposes," 
were left unused and wasted. 

As the years passed, however, here and there appeared 
private Kindergartens, so that gradually the leaven of appreci- 
ation of this valuable time worked among thinking people. 
Then came the visit to San Francisco in 1878, of Prof. Felix 
Adler, a man whose name is well-known because of his belief 
in the elevation of working men and women by education and 
the practical demonstration of that belief through his school 
for workingmen in New York city with its many opportunities 
for students of all ages and both sexes. By his influence, 
men and women of prominence, both intellectually and socially, 
were interested in this the most beautiful and perfect form of 
infant education, and the San Francisco Public Kindergarten 
Society was organized, followed in a .short time by the estab- 
lishment of the first free Kindergarten west of the Rocky 

Early Kindergarten Work in California. 251 

The first day of last September saw, as fourteen September 
firsts had seen before, troops of little feet hopping, skipping, 
dancing, walking, or running up the little Silver Street hill 
from Third and down from Second, but in 1878 there were but 
forty little folks to enter the old gate, and some may have 
been brought thither by "unwilling feet." for the Kinder- 
garten was then an unknown quantity. In 1S92, there were 
two hundred and twenty-five and not a reluctant pair among 
them. What a proce.ssion it would lie, could all the tiny 
soldiers who have marched within those walls, be gathered 
and drawn up at "attention ! " PVom the youths and maid- 
ens just leaving their teens down to the three-year-olds oi the 
pre.sent baby-classes, all ages would be represented, and a 
cosmopolitan army it would be, for almost every nation and 
tribe under the sun has had at least one son or daughter 
there. Occasionally whole families of brother and sisters 
would appear. There were the Isaacs -who that has known 
the Silver Street Kindergarten intimately, but has also known 
at least one member of that large and interesting family ? 
There were Jakey and Selina and Cicsar and Rosa and Abra- 
ham and Sir Moses Montefiore (more usuallv ;uUlre>sed as 
Monty ) and Flora, a goodly array ! 

The forty who formed the first class were galhercil in one 
of the smaller rooms of a l)uilding which now is none to© 
large to meet the demands made upon it. Here are three 
classes, the Ivaton doubling, the Crocker trebling the num- 
ber.'? of that first one. Here too are special to 
which a division may retire when about to wrestle with an 
intricate dictation in sticks and rings, or enjoy a group work 
building-play, or .solve .some one or other of those coujplex 
problems which confront these infant philosophers at the 
Kindergartner stage of their education. Near the main 
entrance is the plea.sant rtK)m of the California Kindergarten 
Training School. A part of the groutid flix)r is occupied by 
the matron of the institution, who is thus always at hand in of special neeil and gives valuable help at all limes ; the 
remainder is given up to the " Boys' Library," an outgrowth 
of the same spirit that has always inspired the directors of 

252 Early Kindergarten Work in California. 

Silver Street. Its purpose is to help educate the boys of the 
neighborhood by giving them good literature, instructive 
games, music, pleasant surroundings and friendly intercourse 
with refined people. 

Turning again to the early days of Kindergarten work in 
California — or in San Francisco, since from that city as a 
center (with the exception of Miss Marwedel's earlier and 
comparatively brief private Kindergarten work in Los An- 
geles) has circled out to other parts of the coast the Kin- 
dergarten spirit and method — one finds much of interest in 
the printed reports which have told from time to time the 
progress of this work. 

In the first one, which was indeed the first report ever 
written of free Kindergarten work in the West, the keen- 
witted reader may find a suggestion of the hand that sketched 
for our fascinated gaze Patsy and Carlotty Griggs, Carol and 
the other Birds and the Ruggles family, Timothy and Lady 
Gay and Rags, for, as "Miss Kate," Mrs. Wiggin was the 
presiding genius of this "little one" which, in due time, 
" shall become a thousand " of which the sixty-five free Kin- 
dergartens now flourishing in San Francisco and its neighbor 
city across the bay are but the advance-guard. She tells us 
that " the general plan or idea of the societ}^ was to dissemi- 
nate the tenets of the New Education as widel)- as possible 
throughout the city, " and its bj^-laws give as its purpose the 
establishment of free Kindergartens" with a view of conferring 
the benefit of Kindergarten education upon the children of the 
poor, of rescuing them from the vicious examples of the 
street, saving them from the cruel consequences of neglect 
and so to develop in them the elements of skill that they may 
become useful and honorable members of society in later 
years ; " in short, to educate mentally, morally, physically and 
industrially, the children who came within its influence. 

One more quotation must be given from the same report as 
emphasizing this purpose ; it begins an appeal for help to con- 
tinue the work already well begun, and indicates the reasons 
upon which the right to make such an appeal for help were 
based. " The Kindergarten system is now considered by all 

Early hundcr gar ten Work in California. 253 

educators and philanthropists as the only rational bej^nning 
of child education, and the purest and most healthful instru- 
mentality for accomplishing that moral development which is 
the absolute aim of all true education, all other aims l>eing 
relative. As the beginning gives a bias to the whole after 
development, so the early beginnings of education are of 
vital imp<jrtancc. Is there a solitary blossom or outcome of 
human thought, feeling or relation that does not send its tap- 
root down into the subsoil of early years ? The Kinder- 
garten is not for the poor child alone — i.e., a charity ; neither 
is it for the rich child alone — i.e., a corrective or antidote ; 
but it is the i)roper atmosphere and birthright of <':rn' child." 

From the second report issued in 1 883, the first after the reor- 
gani/.ation of the association before mentioned into the New 
Silver Street Kindergarten Society, which has since conducted 
all the work at Silver Street, the temptation is strong tocjuote 
some indorsements of this work, contained in letters from well- 
known educators in San Francisco. In the others that have 
been issued since, there is much more to the .same point, and 
further evidence that the ideal held up to all Kindergart- 
ners on the Pacific Coast has been nothing short of i>erfection. 

Many of these same Kintlergartners are graduates of the 
California Kindergarten Training School already mentioned. 
This was founded by Mrs. Kate Douglas Wiggin, then Miss 
Kate I). vSmith, ami graduated its first class in 18S1. The 
demands of life and of literature have gradually withdrawn 
Mrs. Wiggin from the training-school, but all who know her 
sister. Miss Nora vSmith, must surely feel that its standard of 
excellence will be maintained, if intellectual ability, sincerity 
and devotion have any force and value in this world. It has 
in the twelve years since its organization sent out three hun- 
dred and eight graduates to carry on, here and there over the 
State and outside its borders, this work which is for little 
children the true art of education and for the Kindergartners 
themselves, a source of sincere happiness and of real develop- 

At more than thirty places in California outside of San 
Francisco Kindergartens are conducted by graduates of this 

254 Early Kindergarten Work in California. 

training school, and even into Arizona, Utah, Oregon, Texas, 
Washington, Nevada, British Columbia and the Hawaiian 
Islands have others gone to introduce this new education. 
In addition, the California Kindergarten Training School is 
the mother of five other training schools, one in Portland, 
Oregon ; the second in San Diego, California ; the third in 
Denver, Colorado ; the fourth in San Jose, California, and 
the fifth in Oakland, California. 

After the second class had been graduatad, the Kinder- 
gartners began to feel the need of the inspiration and the 
pleasure which come from interchange of thought upon topics 
of common interest to all, and so in March, 1883, they organ- 
ized the California Froebel Society. This society is now 
Hearing its tenth birthday and the anniversary should certainly 
be celebrated. Only those who have attended its meetings 
faithfully from the beginning can know the tender care 
bestowed on the infant society when its members were few 
and diffident, nor understand the corresponding joy with 
which its promoters view it now. To many, it has been a 
source of comfort when days were dark as days will be, of 
encouragement when footsteps faltered, of inspiration when 
ideals seemed unattainable, and of pleasure always. 

This is but a part of the free Kindergarten work on the 
Pacific Coast, but of such work Silver Street was the pioneer. 
It has been followed by a noble band from San Diego to Vic- 
toria, from the ocean eastward to the Rocky Mountains. May 
the historian of the rise and progress of education on the 
Pacific Coast soon appear to tell of this and all the other 
work which has been born and sheltered at Silver Street, 
the three Kindergarten classes, the training school, Froebel 
Society, the Little Housekeepers' Class and the Boys' Library, 
as well as of all other kindred institutions up and down this 
western .shore of our country. 

Martha L. Sanford. 
Worcester, Mass. 


CHRISTMAS is coining. The birthday of the children's 
best Friend — of him who said, as he reached onl his 
loving arms : 

" Suffer the litth- ihiUiren lo come unto me and forbid them 
not, for of such is the kingdom of God. ' ' 

"And he took them up in his arms and blessed them." 

Truly, it is well that children celebrate this day, and be 
like the shepherds not only glad and joyous over the "good 
tidings," but spread it abroad that others may be made 
happy too. 

Down through the hundreds of years since that Babe was 
cradled in the manger, jHiople have been learning ways to 
spread this happiness more and more. One of these ways to 
make faces lighten with smiles and give a glad ring to the 
voice is the 


Come, let us go among the hills where these trees flourish 
and see them as they grow I 

What lessons have they for us ?^- 

How fresh and green they look against the browni leaves 
of the oaks ! 

See! The frost cannot hurt their leaves, which are fit em- 
blems of that perennial life which always has beauty and 
freshness for the chilillike heart. 

Look at the gracefully tapering top, rising till it seems to 
vanish in the blue sky ! So the Christ-child came to {)oint us 
heavenward. Our church spires are moileled on this. 

What a huge tree that one is I Are any trees larger ? No. 
The cedar of Lebanon was a type, in Bible times, of l)cauty, 
strength and majesty ; but the redwoo<ls of California are 
greater still, and the grandest trees which gr«»w. Some of 
these were thirty feet or more through, over one hundred feet 

•lu whnl follows I «hnll refer to conc-bcaring evergreco* in gvneral. 

256 The Symbolism of the Evergreen. 

around and four hundred feet high ! Once these giants were 
tiny little seedlings. 

So the reign of the Christ-child has grown to be the 
mightiest force on earth and the promise is that it shall ' ' fill 
the whole earth " with " peace and good- will to men." 

But see ! It is one single, tremendous shaft from bottom 
to top. Of the many encircling branches, not one rivals the 
stem in size ! True — and how symbolical of that incompar- 
able life which began to unfold on Christmas-day. One 
steady purpose ran through it all, which turned not "to the 
right hand nor to the left," and the encircling branches, 
raised into the helpful light and air by the truth, remind us 
of the unity of his church, with its "many members, but 
one body." 

See these dead, fallen branches around the base ! How 
eloquently the}' remind us that " If a man abide not in me, he 
is cast forth as a branch and is withered." 

Now, close at hand, we hear the musical singing of the 
wind, as it only can sing among the needles of these trees. 
No wonder the wood, vibrating as it grows to grand strains, 
is so excellent for such musical instruments as the organ, 
piano and violin, which aid us to take up the song which the 
angels sang on that glad night. 

We also notice the refreshing fragrance and see the amber 
drops of gum upon the trunk. Whittier says, " Our pines 
are trees of healing," and truly there seems almost life-giv- 
ing power in their balsamic odors. The "frankincense" 
brought by the wise men may have been the gum from some 
kind of Christmas-tree. Since the Saviour came there has 
been, for us, a " balm in Gilead " and leaves " for the healing 
of the nations." 

As we proceed, we notice that these trees are social and 
grow in groups. That where one has stood apart and ex- 
posed, it has lost its symmetry and shows the scars of its 
solitary struggle with the elements. 

How this fact illustrates the use of our family, school, 
social and church life ! 

Truly, it is well for the growing of upright, symmetrical 

The Symbolism of the Evergreen. 257 

characters that we be surrounded by others; that the united 
strength of all be opposed to the trials which might cver- 
throw, or at least render us one-sided. 

Nor is slurdincss sacrificed thereby ; for as we now come 
to where Nature's order has been interfered with by this 
cleariiij^ and the winds have had full sweep, the prostrate 
trunks present their circular masses of upturned, wicker-like 
roots for our study. 

How shallow they ran; but how many and how fibrous. 
Interlacing below the surface with those of their neighl>ors, 
Ihey had a mighty power of resistance and were able to stand 
secure ; while the energies, which in a solitar>' tree must have 
been expended in driving a huge tap-root, arc economized to 
rear the stately shaft. 

Shall ii'c build earthward or heavenward ? 

Shall we rejoice and flourish in the mutual interchange of 
helj^fulness or arrogate an independence which comjx^ls our 
attachments to be so largely earthward and unprofitable I 

Here is the woodsman at work on one of these fallen 
trees. How thick the protecting bark ! Hidden in its cells 
lie chemicals which can convert the corruptible skin into the 
durable leather. 

What whiteness and fragrance to the wood. Every fiber, 
under the lens, shows a characteristic beauty, and its origin 
can be recognized from the minutest fragment. 

Let us examine the beautiful rings of growth : 

These tiny rings at the center were all it could do when 
young and small, but having been built, served as the basis 
for greater and greater achievements. 

So the Christ-child "increased in wisdom and stature, 
and in favor with God and man." 

Are we improving the small beginnings ? 

Does each day, and week ami year lea\e its " rings of 
growth " in our characters. 

Are -iCe pressing on to greater ami greater things ? 

Here are the cones. The many .scales, acting together. 
have folded the growing genus securely while they matured. 
When the winged seed — in f>ahs at the base of each scale — 
were ripe. provisit)n was made for their escape. 

258 The Symbolism of the Evergreen. 

Falling — the wing kept each seed in the best possible posi- 
tion to penetrate through leaves and moss to the moist earth. 
Within each is a tree in embryo, snugly packed away with 
the store of food it must have to sprout. 

This food is insoluble oil or starch — well fitted to keep 
but useless in that state to the germ ; so with it is packed a 
little of a substance which at the proper time will convert 
this insoluble food into soluable sugar. 

Thus cunningly devised is the cone and its seed. 

Now hear the words of its Creator : "If God so clothe 
the grass of the field, . . . shall he not clothe you ?" What a 
holy spirit of restful faith these Christmas-trees should bring ! 

But what would a Christmas-tree be without its gifts ! 

The most precious thing about these gifts is something 
which cannot be weighed or measured or seen, and yet is 
very, very real. It is LovE. 

Jesus said, "Greater love hath no man than this, that a 
man lay down his life for his friends." 

Truly his was a great love ; and our gifts will be of value 
in proportion as they have some of oicr selves ; our work or 
thought in them. The gift may be very plain and of little 
cost, only so plenty of this love go with it. Hence our gifts 
should represent our attempt to follow him. 

And the candles ! They too have a meaning. 

Each, as its flame mounts upward, is like the star which 
heralded him — the guiding-star of mankind. ' ' I am the way. ' ' 

Together they brightly illuminate the room, and so are 
like that "Light" which " lighteth every man." 

Best of all, let each remember that ive are to be a "light," 
and that no matter how feeble, we shall have a part in the 
grand whole, and as we shine, may we so reveal Jesus to the 
world as to hasten the time when, like the beautiful tree with 
its gifts, all eyes and hearts may be drawn to him. 

Edward G. Howe. 

[Mr. Howe in this article gives us an illustration of the true science of nature, — 
that knowledge of the pine tree which generates strong feeling, sweet thoughts and 
a seeking into its hidden meaning. It is this which makes the true scientist,— 
the poet— the Kindergartner, Froebel was such an one.— Kditor.] 


REAT interest is being shown by the anny 
of Kindergartners all over the land in the 
protniiience to be given their cause in the 
Kducational Dci)artinents and exhibits of 
the Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 

Besides the model Kindergarten in the 
Illinois State Building, the promised departments of actual 
Kindergarten work in the Children's Home will give Kinder- 
mariners excellent opportunity to demonstrate to the World's 
pul)lic the importance of child education and the system 
which most truly handles it. 

The objections to these public exhibits of children are well 
answered in the announcement of the International Kinder- 
garten Union, which indorses this plan. The same appeared 
in our Xoveipber issue. 


.Vllhoujih the worUl has known many larj^e expositions al various 
tiujes in its history, in none of these have the interests of chiMren 
received the full representation they have deserved. Such j^reat prog- 
res* haviu)^ been made duriuj^ the present rentury in the metho<ls of 
educating, nmusing and cariiifj for the physical well-being of the com- 
ijig men and women, it seems «lesirable that an illustration of the 
best methods should be so groupeil that they may l>e easily assimilated 
by, and made useful to, the vast number of people who will visit the 

In many cases it will he impossible for the mothers to visit Ihe 
World's I'air without taking their children, and in so doing they will 
wish the little ones, as well as themselves, to take the fullest advantJige 
of the educational facilities there ofTered. With these enils in view, the 
Children's Home has been desigiietl, which will give to mothers the 
vol.. V. — NO. 4. 19 

26o The Children 's Home at the World' s Fair. 

freedom of the Exposition while the children themselves are enjoying 
the best of care and attention. 

No plan having been made by the Board of Directors for a Chil- 
dren's Building, and no funds having been appropriated for this pur- 
pose, the Board of Lady Managers feels it necessary to take up the work 
of building and equipping a beautiful structure which shall be devoted 
entirely to children and their interests. The Board has secured a 
desirable location adjoining the Woman's Building on which to build 
the Children's Home, but only on the condition that the necessary 
funds for erecting it be provided within sixty days. 

In the Children's Home will be presented the best thought on sani- 
tation, diet, education, and amusements for children. A series of 
manikins will be so dressed as to represent the manner of clothing in- 
fants in the different countries of the world, and a demonstration will be 
made of the most healthful, comfortable, and rational system of dressing 
and caring for children according to modern scientific theories ; while 
their sleeping accommodations and everything touching their physical 
interests, will be discussed. Lectures will also be given upon the 
development of the child's mental and moral nature by improved 
methods of home training. 

The building will have an assembly-room containing rows of little 
chairs, and a platform from which stereopticon lectures will be given to 
the older boys and girls, about foreign countries, their languages, 
manners and customs, and important facts connected with their his- 
tory. These talks will be given by Kindergartners, who will then take 
the groups of children to see the exhibits from the countries about 
which they have just heard. This audience-room will also be available 
for musical, dramatic and literary entertainments, which will be care- 
fully planned to suit the intelligence of children of varying ages. 

Kindergarten teachers will supervise the amusements of these 
children who are unused to Kindergarten training. They welcome 
this opportunity of showing that their theories are so practical, and 
have made them so familiar with child-life in all its phases, that they 
can make these little ones perfectly happy, and yet give them instruc- 
tion which is none the less valuable because received unconsciously, 
and without the coercion of the ordinary class-room. 

One of the numerous associations interested in such work will prob- 
ably conduct a creche where young children can be left in the care of 
experienced nurses, who will provide for all their wants while their 
mothers are visiting the various departments of the Exposition. 

On the ground floor of this building there will be a large square 
court which will serve as a playground for the children ; and here no 
grown people save attendants will be allowed to enter, although visitors 
can watch the little folks at play from a concealed gallery which will 
overlook the court at the second story, and which will also serve as a 

The Children ' s Home at thi World' s Fair. 261 

screen for musicians. About the edge of thU square will be gaily 
trimmed booths, where the toys of all nations can be obtaine<l for the 
amusement of the children. 

Mo<leI toys, the inventions of mechanics and scientist, will also be 
furnished, by means of which, after a child has finished playing; with 
his steam-engine or photographic or telegraphic instrument, he will not 
only liave received great amusement, but will have at his command the 
principles of science, which may be useful to him during bis entire life. 

In the center of the court it is intended to have a fountain, the wide 
shallow basin of which will be fdled with fish, and afford a place for 
the sailing of toy boats. 

The building is to be two stories in height, and the flat roof will 
probably form another playground, .\bout the edge it is proposed to 
have flowers, trees, and vines, while the even surface will form an ad- 
mirable space for the flying of kites and balloons. .\ strong wire net- 
ting will cover this garden at a height of fifteen feet, so that the little 
ones cannot lose their toys, and, moreover, will lie in no danger of 
falling. Birds and butterflies will flutter about in this lovely inclosure 
uuconfined, among the flowers and children, as the netting will render 
cages unnecessary. 

One room will be furnished as a library and reading-room, and here 
will be found all the children's peri<Klicals, as well as the best booka 
written for them, with portraits of their authors. 




RIEDRICH FROEBEL, the founder of the 
Kindergarten, was born April 21, 1782. His 
mother lived but nine months after his birth. 
His father was a country pastor, active and 
stirring, earnest in his church duties, but 
apparently knowing little of the waj- in which 
' his motherless child was growing up. Fried- 
rich was left to the servant and to the older 
brothers and sisters. After a time his father married again, 
but the marriage brought motherly care only a little while 
to the four-year-old boy. He soon found himself neglected, 
misunderstood and severely blamed. He saj's himself, " I 
had really no more a father than a mother." 

He took comfort, however, in watching work going on 
about him. The impressions of the clear sky of the mount- 
ain region and of the pure fresh air of his childhood home 
remained with him through life. He learned, too, to know 
and love nature. He went to church and listened to the old 
orthodoxy of his father. He went to school and into his 
simple child-soul received during his first week there, the 
passage which became his constant companion and inspiration : 
" Seek first the kingdom of God." 

Left alone and repelled, he tried to solve problems in his 
little mind ; he learned that there was an outer and inner life, 
and he resolved to be noble and good. He looked, however, 
with wondering eyes at the dissensions of family and church 

Art Principles of I he Kindergarten. 263 

and sorrowed. Nevertheless, in the sacred church songs he 
found his little existence pictured ; they were songs of life to 
him and he took courage. 

But with all this inner life of aspiration, his outer life was 
at v'ariance. 

He was active and full of spirits. Being untrained he had 
many bad habits. He was careless and many times destruc- 
tive, for he wanted to know how things were made. He 
liked to be busy and often took the wrong time, the wrong 
place and the wrong material. He was repressed, repri- 
manded and punished and finally he learned to conceal and 
deceive and he i)assed as a bad boy. 

When he was ten years old (a hundred years ago) there 
came a great change for him. An uncle, gentle and kind, 
visited them. He saw how the life of the boy was being 
dwarfed and warped and twisted, and he took Friedrich to 
liis quiet and peaceful home. A new life now opened. In 
place of constraint, distrust and neglect, came confidence 
faith and love. The boy's nature expanded, he felt within 
him.self the influence of free activity and a true balance came 
into his life ; and ).,'uided by gentle human friendship and love 
he learned to think more deeply, to act more freely - he was 
emancipated and inspired. His school was a delight ; he 
especially enjoyed the religious instruction and mathematics. 
One of his two teachers, however, was pedantically severe, 
the other humane and gentle. The former never effected 
anything with the class ; the latter, whatever he wished. 
These results the boy stored away in his mind, calling them 
forth when afterward he came to his great vocation. 

His life (luring this jieriod of five years had three j^ositive 
directions ; religious thought, the unfolding and establishing 
of what was expressed in his boyish play, and the quietly 
active ideas gained in his uncle's peaceful home. To this 
life he devoted himself fervently. Thus his iinier and outer 
life developed through freedom, thought and action. 

What I have said of these two jH-ritKls I have taken from 
I'roehel's own exj>ressions in his autobiography. He there 
dwelt long upon theni as they appeared to him the key to the 

264 A?-t Principles of the Kindergarten. 

struggles and developments of his later days. As we con- 
sider his life in these two periods, in the first neglected, 
repressed, shut in, yet with high aspirations, in the second 
welcomed, set free and inspired, we can see how these expe- 
riences made it possible for him, in later years, to enter so 
fully into the longings and delights of the little child. 

After this his life was much varied. He was successivel}- 
forester's assistant, student at Jena, clerk, survej'or's assistant, 
draughtsman, bookkeeper, secretary, and then having re- 
ceived a small legacy he decided, at the age of twenty-three, 
to become an architect. But Griiner, an able teacher of a 
model school at Frankfort, saw in him what Froebel himself 
had not as yet clearly seen, that he should be a teacher and 
offered him a position in the model school. 

Froebel accepted it and thus speaks of his work : "It 
seems to me as if I had found something not known and yet 
long desired, long missed — as if I had found my native ele- 
ment. I was like a fish in the water, a bird in the air." He 
had found his home. 

After a season of teaching he came to be dissatisfied with 
his own attainments and went to be a student with Pestalozzi 
at Yverdun where he remained for two years. In 181 1 he 
went to Gottingen to study, and to Berlin in 18 12. His studies 
were mainly on the side of the sciences, botany, mineralogy, 
physics, chemistry, natural history, crystallography, — all 
leading him on in his study of the laws of the universe. He 
served in the war of 1813. In 1815, being thirty-four 3^ears 
old, he began to form more definitely his plans of education 
and thenceforward he worked for the education of man. In 
this work he found himself turning more and more towards 
the children, and he felt that for the elevation of all education 
it was necessary to begin at the earliest childhood as the most 
important time for human development. In 1840 he decided 
to give his work the name of Kindergarten, and for the cause 
of the Kindergarten he worked till his death in 1852, at the 
age of seventy-one. 

Froebel based his work upon great principles, — the rela- 
tion of 'man to himself, to nature and to God. He believed 

Art Prindplt's oj the Kindergarten. 265 

that education .should not only be intellectual, it should be 
physical, intellectual and spiritual. He l>elieved that the 
laws of the universe are one and that all life, material or spir- 
itual, conforms to these laws ; that as the plant develops 
throu}(h the action of its own nature, so the child should de- 
velop through his own activity. 

He says : " Neither man nor mankind should be regarded 
as already a finished, perfected, stereotyped being ; but as ever- 
lastingly growing, developing, living, moving onward to the 
goal which is hidden in eternity." 

And again he says : " Man is destined to rise out of him- 
self by means of his own activity, to attain to a continually 
higher stage of self-knowledge." 

" Man should by education be raised into free conscious 
obedience to the divine principle that lives within him and to 
a free representation of this principle in his life." This he 
felt could be done only through .self-activity, through making 
the external internal ; by perception of his environment ; and 
through making the internal external, by expression of his 

The begitmings for these conclusions were made in Froe- 
bet's early childhood, and they gathered strength as the years 
went on. He studied and thought with increasing earnest-, he studied especially child-nature and gave to the world 
his great discovery, — what Mr. Clark has .so often called " the 
discovery of the child." He found that the self-activity of the 
child was developed first through the play, as play revealed 
himself to himself, and was the true activity of the child. 
Diesterweg said of him. "The man is actually a seer. He 
looks into the ijinermost nature of the child as no one else 
has done." 

This is the great principle which Froel)el enunciated and 
developed step bj- step. 

The development of man through his bo<.ly, mind and 
spirit to a knowledge of his relation tt> man, to nature, and to 
God can be reached only according to the laws of the growth 
of the universe through selt-activity. Self-activity must first 
make the external internal and then the internal extenial. 

266 ■ Art Principles of the Kindergarten. 

Having stated this principle I wish particularly to dwell 
on self-activit}' as showing the way in which the highest aes- 
thetic development of man is to be reached. Self-activity in 
the child demands that he shall acquaint himself with what 
may be around him ; thus making the external internal, and 
still farther demands that having acquainted himself with 
what is around him he shall in some way express his thoughts 
about what he has discovered, shall make his thought mani- 
fest, shall make the internal external. 

The term creative self-activity is sometimes a stumbling- 
block to beginners in the study of the Kindergarten. Wh}^ 
self-activity, and why creative? Why not simpl^^ activity? 
Because the idea has been too prevalent in education, in deed, 
if not in word, that the child should be a passive recipient and 
that any activity, especially physical activity, which he might 
show should be instantly suppressed. The new gospel, how- 
ever, is that the child must be allowed — nay, even trained to 
be active and that true activity is that which comes from 
within, which is directly prompted by his own nature, hence 
the term self-activity. Moreover it is believed that true self- 
activity consists not merely in motion or action, but that in 
obedience to the great law of life true self-activity will be 

The unconscious creativeness of instinct in the animal 
world as in the human world proceeds according to this same 
law of formation ; the childish instinct bears the same law 
within itself as that by which the spider weaves and the silk- 
worm spins and the bee makes its cell. Therefore as this 
activity exercises all the powers and tendencies, free obedi- 
ence is not onl}^ secured but follows itself; for every being 
strives, must strive, for his own development, how uncon- 
scious soever this striving may be. This then is the wonder- 
ful outcome of this doctrine, that whether we consciously will 
or not, we are according to the laws of our being constantly 
developing through self-activity to the extent we are allowed 
free pla)\ It will be seen that this is simply the doctrine of 
evolution, now to be studied that it may be applied to the 
education of man. 

Art /*//na'p/ts of the k'indergartfii. 267 

Froebel says that "the triie origin of man's activity and 
creativencss lies in his unceasing impulse to emb^xly outside 
himself the divine and spiritual elemeiit within him." He- 
lieving in this most devoutly, he could conceive of no greater 
missifjn than to promote this activity through education. 
After long consideration he concluded that in early childhood 
the outward form of this activity can only be that of play, 
and therefore, he oljserved children at play most carefully, to 
discover how they manifested themselves in this freedom, and 
then studied still farther that he might .see a way to convert 
this play into creative action. For if this were done, if the 
play were led to creative action, this action would offer to the 
development of the whole being from the very beginning a 
support and guide toward the right. 

In pursuance of these ideas he found that his first educa- 
tional task was to make the child acquainted with the things 
of the material world which constitute the basis of the 
abstract. Knowledge of material things can only be had by 
handling them, and the formation and transformation of 
material is therefore the best mode of gaining this knowledge 
from childhood. His plays and occupations show the possi- 
bility «f doing this, for they show how he must begin to give 
activity to the powers of childhood in order that they shall 
neither rust and be lost for want of use. nor be strained by 

Hut physical activity and skill gained by the formation 
and transformation of material was not the goal which Froe- 
bel was striving to reach. He could not l)C satistietl without 
spiritual activity and he felt that only by the mediation of 
the agreeable could the germs of the spiritual l)e awakened. 
The child must be knit to what is pleasant, and that in his 
own action. He must lie gained over through his own effort 
and that ideal l)e awakened which waits for the incentive 
from without to burst forth ; for some sense of the ideal 
dwells in every child's soul. If this were not so. human life 
would never be enlightened by rays of the ideal. Nothing 
can cotne forth from the conscious human l>eing that did not 
lie germinating in the unconscious soul of the child. 

268 Art Principles of the Kindergarten. 

But, the expression of the ideal is art, and thus Froebel 
reached the conclusion that the highest outcome of creative 
activity is art, as expressive of the highest thoughts of which 
the human soul is capable. "Indeed, ' ' he says, ' ' art alone can 
truly be called free activity." Again, "The beautiful is 
the best means of education for childhood, as it has been the 
best means for the education of the human race." And 
again, " For the religious education of the childhood and 
youth, the beautiful, above all things, art must co-operate." 

And finally he makes this appeal: "Do you know how 
you can awaken the divine spark in your child ? Let him 
behold the beautiful in form and color, in tone and gesture, 
whenever the spiritual element in him threatens to sink away 
in the satisfaction of bodily wants, or desires threaten to 
draw him into the animal sphere. Then awaken in him the 
impulse of activity and exercise it to a degree of effort which 
will steel the will, even in the nursling, while he is playing 
with his limbs, exercising his lisping organs of speech, and 
while his ear is taking the cradle song into his soul." 

Mary Dana Hicks. 

(7(7 be contimied.') 


(^ LL festival occasions when rightly used, 
have a unifying effect upon the family, 
neighborhood, Sunday-school, church, 
state or nation, in that they direct all 
minds, for the time being, in one direction 
- — toward one central thought outside of self. 

The family festival is an enormous power in the hands of the 
mother who knows how to use it wisely. By means of the 
birthday atniiversarics. Fourth of July, Thanksgiving, and 
al)ove all, Christmas, she can direct her children's activities 
into channels of unselfish endeavor. 

Of all festivals of tlie year the Christmas festival is j^er- 
haps the least understood ; that is, if one judges by the gen- 
eral observations of the day. H'/iy do we celebrate Christmas f 
What are wc celfbratini^ * Is it not the greatest manifestation 
of love, unselfish love, that has ever been revealed to man } 
And how, as a rule, are chiUlren taught to obser\'e it ? Usu- 
ally by exi)ecting an undue amount of attention, an unlim- 
ited amount of injuiiicious feeding and a .selfish exactit>n of 
unneeded presents ; thus egotism, greed, and selfishness are 

The Christmas season .should be the .season in which the 
joy of giving is so much greater than that of receiving, that 
the child, thnuigh his own e.xperiences, is preparetl to receive 
the great trulli that " God so loved the world that he gave 
his only begotten wSon." For weeks beforehand the mother 
can lay her plans by which each child in the family may make 
st)methiny, may tlo without .s«)melhing, or in some way may 

* SuKgntion* Kivcii hy Kli(ol>c(h HnrrivMi (o the ni>>(hc-r« <>r Ihr Mxthrr-*' Drfuirt. 
mcut of the Chicago Kiii(lert«rtrn Con«g«. 

270 Christmas aiid Hoiv to Celebrate It. 

earn money for the purchase of something, which is to add to 
his Christmas joy by enabling him to give to those he loves, 
and also to the unfortunate who, but for his thoughtfulness, 
would be without a Christmas "cheer." In this, of course, 
the mother must join with heart and soul, else the giving will 
become a mere formal obligation. 

Little children, when rightly trained, enjoy the putting of 
themselves into preparations by which they are to surprise and 
please others, fully as much, if not more, than they do the 
receiving of presents. So near as yet are they to the hand of 
God that unselfish love is an easy thing to inculcate. Let 
me contrast two preparations for Christmas which have passed 
under m}- own eye. In the one case I chanced to be in one of crowded toy shops where hurried, tired women are try- 
ing to fill out their, lists of supposed obligations for the Christ- 
mas season. All was confusion and hurry, impatience and 
more or less ill-humor. My attention was directed towards a 
handsomely dressed mother, leading by the hand an over- 
dressed little girl of about eight years of age. The tones of 
the mother's voice struck like a discord through my soul. 
Come on ! " said she petulantly to the child, who had 
stopped for a moment to admire some new toy. " Come on, 
we have got to give her something, and we may as well buy 
her a couple of dolls. They'll be broken to pieces in three 
weeks' time, but that's no matter to us. Come on, I've no 
time to wait." This last was accompanied by an impatient 
jerk of the loitering child's arm. Thus, what should have 
been the jo}^ of Christmas-giving, was made to that child a 
disagreeable, unwilling and u.seless expenditure of money. 
What part of the real Christmas spirit, the God spirit "which 
so loved the world," could possibl}' come to a child from .such 
a preparation for Christmas as this ? Nor is this an unusual 
instance. Go into any of our large stores or shops just 
before Christmas and you will see scores of women checking 
off their li.sts in a way which shows the relief of having " one 
more present .settled." All the great, true, beautiful .spirit of 
Christmas joy is gone and a mere commercial transaction, 
oftentimes a vulgar display, has taken its place. 

Christinas and I low lo Celebrate It. 271 

On the other hand, go with me into one of our quiet Kin- 
dergartens wliere tlic snnshine without is rivaled by the sun- 
shine within. See the white-aproncd teacher seat herself and 
gather around her the group of eager children. Listen to the 
tones of her voice when she .says, "Oh, children, children ! 
You don't know what a happy time I am going to let you 
have this Christmas. Just guess each one of you what we are 
going to do to make this the gladdest, brightest, happiest 
Christmas that ever was ! " Look into the eager little faces 
anticipating a new joy, knowing from past experience that 
the joy means effort, endeavor, self-control and .self-denial ; 
nevertheless, that it means happiness, too. Listen to the 
eager questions and plans of the children and then hear the 
announcement, "No, better than that!" "Better than 
that ! " "I am going to let each one of you be a little Santa 
Clans. I am going to let each one of you make not only 
manmia and papa happy, but some dear little child who 
might not have a happy Christmas unless we do for him." 
Listen, as I have listened, to*the clapj)ing of hands after such 
an announcement. Look at the light which comes into the 
eyes. Notice the eager look of interest upon eaoh face as all 
seat .thera.selves at the work-table and the plan of work is 
more definitely laid out. Go as I have gone, moniing after 
morning and see these same children working patiently, 
earnestly and continuously upon the little gifts which are to 
make Christmas happier for some one Will you then 
need to ask the ([uestion as to which is the truer way of cele- 
brating the holy Christmas time ? 

Not that I woukl have you deprived of the pleasure of 
giving to your children, any more than I would have the 
children robbed of their pleasure of giving to others, but let 
me beseech you that yt)ur gifts be not gifts of u.seless profu- 
sion, of such articles as cultivate self-indulgence, vanity or 
indolence. Give to your children few and simple gifts, such 
as are suggestive and will aid them in the future drawing out 
of their own inner thoughts or ideals. Give to your little 
ones building blocks, dolls to dress and undress and take care 
■of, horses and wagons with which they can imitate the traffic 

272 Christmas and How to Celebrate It. 

world about them. Let the toys be simple, strong and dura- 
ble that your child may not gain habits of reckless extrava- 
gance and destruction, which flimsy toys always engender. 

Remember a few good toys, like a few good books, are far 
better than many poor toys. Toys in which the child's own 
creative instinct has full play are far better than the finished 
toys from the French manufactures. In fact, too complex a 
toy is like too highly seasoned food, too elaborately written 
books, too old society or any other mature thing forced upon 
the immature mind. Your choice should be based not so 
much upon what the to}^ is, as what the child can do with it. 
Give to your older children paint boxes, chalk, crayon, scroll- 
saws, cabinets in which are arranged the beginnings of vari- 
ous collections. 

The instinctive delight of putting his own thought into 
his plaything rather than accepting the thought of the manu- 
facturer, is why most boys delight in presents of tool chests. 
Books of course, when wisely selected, are always good pres- 
ents for children. Each well selected book gives a child a 
glimpse of some other part of the great world which he has not 
yet entered-. Various games in which all the children maj' 
take part, in which good-humored competition comes into 
play, are also judicious presents for the older children, but 
above all things else, let that joy of having given of his best 
to some poor and needier life, be the chief thought of Christ- 
mas time. Such stories as Dickens' " Tin}^ Tim" will be 
well for you yourself to read as preparation for this Christ- 
mas season. 




^^. ^=^^^^ ^ i=^^^^^ 

1. (!reen liol - ly bon^jhs bring, till the bells clin^ And 
Christ - trt'cs heiul With giftn for ejuh frifiid, While 





swet't car - n\^ rimr For the an - geU sing. Our Christ is 
switt soiiirs as -ti-nd With the an-<;t'ls to blend. Our Christ is 

^S -i 

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born to - (lav! 



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IN approaching Greek art from the standpoint of to-daj', 
there are many things which puzzle us. Especially is 
this true if we do not look upon it wholly and abstractly 
as art, but as having a reality and we ourselves related to 
this reality. 

As we look at the wonderful figures of this art, the}' seem 
to speak to us in a language which once we knew, even at 
times with an accent so familiar, that for an instant there 
shines over to us from out a half-forgotten past the radiance 
of something which once we were. As their full beauty 
begins to dawn upon us, we long to be that again. 

Following the childhood fancy of trying to think one's re- 
lationship back to Adam, let us stop off at the halfway 
landing of Greek history. What new and strange impres- 
sions of ourselves come to us, do you think ? 

What woman who in an exhilarated moment of freedom, 
of completeness, has not felt that she could be, j'-es, that — 
she was beautiful — that it was her divine right to be beauti- 

Art Studit's in Life. 275 

ful? Has there not come to her who dared, even for a 
moment, to think thus, a sense of keetier activity and 
a stronj^er power of expression ? 

Let us join for a few moments the glorious train of 
humanity with which Phidias enwreathed the Parthenon. 
Let us turn l>ack, not only the years of our own lives, but 
beyond into the history of the races, to that time when man 
looked out from the sincere and wonderin>( eyes of childhood. 
happy and undisturbed in the unity of himself. 

We see Phidias carving out the soul-life of the Greeks, 
bequeathing to us a picture of most beautiful, must |)erfect 
Man. Ls it diflicult for us to understand this jHrrfected man ? 
We feel his beauty. We go to him and could almost place 
our hand in his. We long to be like him, — but there seems 
to be an impas.sable gulf between us. Have we then lost the 
key which will unlock to us the mystery of his sincerity, the 
great and purposeful, yet ab.solutely childlike character of his 
nature ? 

It is the honesty of these figures that awes us, the God- 
power that 1>reathes from them that startles us. It is the 
earnestness and sincerity that puzzles us. 

In the large untroubled brows we read the childish out- 
look of faith and unspoiled hope and love. The trusting, 
open gaze asks no troublesome nuestions, seeks no unre- 
vealed wonders. 

These beings so beautifully poised and adjusted to them- 
selves seem to say to us: "to the soul that is self- revealed, 
there is no mystery — no need of revelation." The great / 
knoxv seems to dwell in the bo.som of each one and in this self- 
recognition they look serenely out upon the wiile world about 
them, reflecting themselves in everything and everything in 

In this honest embodying of the child in man, Phidias 
has marked the time in history and art when nature's man, 
the individual, the God-man reigned. When he car\ed his 
Zeus, it was as though the soul of the niaster-artist for all 
time .stamped unity ui>on man, — in an eternal declaration told 
what art is, — namely, the unity of body and soul. 
VOL. v.— NO. 4. 20 

276 Art Studies in Life. 

He wrought out into one noble expression, not only what 
man then was, but that which he aspired to become, and that 
from which he came. All these, balanced against each other 
and knit together, demanded embodiment, beautiful, har- 
monious, poised. Here no one member may war against an- 
other, head may not be at the expense of heart, or either 
at the sacrifice of true body. If we read the story of its whole- 
ness, we will find that body is mind and feeling expressed, — 
the trinity or triunity as one. 

It is truly an experience for an ordinary nineteenth cent- 
ury woman to stand before one of those human goddesses of 
the past and let the repose, the calm m.ajesty of that presence 
speak to her. 

Take one of the group of Caryatides, those colossal figures 
which support the Temple of Pallas Athena, the Wisdom- 
mother of the Greeks. Come near to them and view them 
candidl}^ in all their heroic balance of power. Here is 
strength, dedicated to blessed service, and embodied in the 
completeness of womanhood. 

Here is no indication of the femininely beautiful — the 
pretty of that womanhood — which characterizes much of the 
later Greek period and particularly the art of modern times. 
These are modeled after women as we see them, not after the 
ideal which every woman holds in her heart. The same 
comparison holds good in the Venuses grouped about the 
Milo in the I,ouvre. 

The Venus as she stands in her majesty, is a t3"pe that in- 
spires every man with wholesome awe and respect, while she 
towers above her modern sister with a suggestion of strength 
and rounded power which is calculated to produce a moral 
shock. She is so large and honest, so serene of heart and 
mind ; she is so open and entirely without the finesse of the 
modern woman. In her breadth of body and affection she 
seems to have nothing to fear and nothing to conceal — simply 
to live and let herself be. 

Imagine, you her sisters, the absolute luxury of letting 
ourselves down out of the tension of much of our vain striv- 
ings, to cut the lacing strings of false customs and to actually 

Art S Indies in Life. 277 

live ami be. Do you not think that we too might grow 
rounded and stately as our prototyi)e ? Let us hope that the 
contemplation of this breadth and freedom may plant more 
deeply the desire to have it in our midst. 

But to return to our Greek woman. From our agitated 
standpoint of art and life, she .seems almost unemotional, 
almost lacking in expression. If we are accustomed to think 
of expression as exaggeration, almost contortion, then can we 
ably criticise upon this point. But do we not feel beneath the 
surface of all her slow grace and smooth-flowing lines the 
warmth and nurture of true womanhood ? 

It is not the absence of expression, but the absence of pre- 
tense and fuss that is wholly inexplicable to us and strikes us 
dumb in her presence. It is this quality of repose which 
fairly makes her a creature of another kind. 

It was a wonderful birth moment which simultaneously 
produced a Pericles and an Aspasia in histor>', a Socrates in 
philosophy, a Phidias and a Parthenon in art. A moment so 
fraught with greatness is great for all time. We. in our rapid 
rushing nineteenth century life, are beginning to feel the 
need for some such backgronnd and solidity with which to 
steady our ever-increasing momentum. We are beginning to 
incinire who are our predecessors. 

The Greek with all his art is ours to-day. The great liv- 
ing art of Phidias once projected into the world contimies to 
live even as we are the children and heirs of all past genera- 
tions of men and art. What is this royal anccstr>- from 
which we are descended ? The Greek woman was not the 
whole woman. She was the beginning of what we are, — of 
which we should be the fulfillment. She was jiot only goodly 
and great in her poise of self, she was expansive and con- 
stant. When once we realize ourselves as we are in truth, 
self-poised, governed only by a steady current of stability 
expressed in our daily won!, act and thought, we. too, will 
cease to burn ourselves out like rush-lights. Wcjnay Icam 
this lesson to-day. Let me formulate it for you as I have for 
myself : 

I-'irst, be yourself. Find out what you are. not by a pro- 


Art Studies in Life. 

cess of articulation and specualtion, but by holding still long 
enough to see what you are thus seek out normal being. 
Second, let yourself be all you are. Be in the fullness of 
the measure God has given you. Be great and be a great 
deal. Be in many ways, be in everything you touch or do. 

Third, have faith in yourself; rejoice in the opportunity 
to be much because you live out what you are. The now is 
yours in which to do and be and be beautiful. 

Mari Ruef Hofer. 


We send as a greeting to our readers the Christmas Child- 
Garden, the new magazine of Story, Son^ and Play for little 
ones. There has been an expressed desire by many for a 
child's magazine after the Kindergarten idea. This is now to 
be satisfied. The Kindkkgaktkn M.\f;.\ziNK comes leading 
this cliild of the new .school as it were by the hand, and says 
its aim in life is to be pure and simple, sweet and delightful ; 
it is just the comfort for mothers and teachers, from which 
either to read aloud or to give into the hands of their little 
readers, who, while spelling out the words for themselves, may 
spell out an ever-deeper meaning. The Kinderg.\RTKN 
Mag.\zine aims to present the fundamentals of educational 
work, and the application of these in the daily .school-n>ora. 
It is sent out to its readers, in appropriate, professional style, 
with a shining through all its pages of an ever- 
growing, widening influence. It is the property of Kinder- 
gartners, whose bles.scd privilege it is to bring the leaven of 
practical idealism into the home and the school. 

A I'k.vcTiCAi. newspaj^er man, whose years of public ex- 
perience have taught him the Ix-'st methoti of pushing a new 
cause, makes the following practical suggestion which we 
could most heartily wish Kiiulergartners to adopt : "There 
is a good field for unlimiled work, to speed your cause through 
the newspapers of the land. I believe Kindergartners ought 
to do this very thing, in a systematic way, if fortiothing more 
than the good it will do .some of the suffering mothers who 
may chance to read such articles. I sincerely beliex'e that a 
few years of such work would fully double the interest in the 
subject all over the laml. Vou will touch the magic button 
which will set millions to thinking." One of the editors of 
this magazine opened such a campaign several years ago. in a 

28o Editorial Notes. 

certain western district. It demanded great personal effort to 
send out bright, readable and intelligent articles on the Kin- 
dergarten and its aims, to at least one local paper each week. 
This was carried on for nearly two j^ears, and to-day there is 
no section of that western state better informed or more active 
in the work than this one. We cite this as a proof of what 
has been, and therefore of what can be done again. This 
work, however, must for a time be philanthropic. There are 
scores of ready journals waiting for " the right thing " to pub- 
lish in this line, which are not warranted in offering remunera- 
tion for the same. 

The Kindergarten Magazine is copied from extensively 
wherever editors or their wives are personally interested in the 
work. But the time has come when Kindergartners them- 
selves may improve the opportunity and give through the 
common press of that which has been the bread of their own 
broadening, and which may become the means of their serving, 
enlightening, enlarging and beautifying many, many others. 

A Kindergartner was chatting gaily about her work, 
describing this and the other incident in the most graphic 
manner, and enthusiastically declaring that there was posi- 
tively no other work to compare with it, when she was inter- 
rupted with the exclamation: "Why don't you write that 
down, just as you have told it ? It would compel people to be 
interested and oh! it would be such a boon to hundreds of 
women who sincerely wish to know about it." 

Any articles appropriate for general newspaper use will be 
most gladly received at this office and intelligently placed in 
the best papers East or West, with name of writer credited in 
full or as preferred. 

Correction. — In the article "Kindergarten and Public 
School," in the November issue of the Kindergarten Maga- 
zine, the first sentence was rendered unintelligible by a 
printer's error ; it should read as follows : " In applying to his 
particular case the general principle that education shall be a 
living communion between the child and life in society and 
nature, the educator may keep two ends in view." 

Editorial Notes. 281 

The last communication of George William Curtis, to the 
readers of the old Kasy Chair in Harper s Mai^azine, appeared 
in the November number. It is a plea for the sweet old-time 
Christmas spirit, which has seemed to so sadly evajKjrate from 
year to year. We cull a few paragraphs from this character- 
istic sermon of the man who has preached many a truer 
thought into the place of thoughtlessness. Kindergartners in 
memory of its author can repeat the sentiments here expressed : 

" Christmas has a deeper hold and a humaner significance 
than the old Dutch Xew-Vear. But how much of its charm 
as we feel it in English literature and tradition, how much of 
the sweet and hallowed associaticjn with which it is invested, 
are we retaining, and what are we substituting for it? Ir- 
ving's " Christmas," is his most delightful pajHrr. There is a 
peacefulness, a freshness, a simplicity, a domesticity in his 
treatment which breathe the very spirit of the day. It is the 
very Christmas he describes, whether in the Skttihliook or in 
DraabridiTc Hall. It is a .soft, idyllic picture, blended of the 
spirit of Christmas and of Ivngland. 

" But what is the substance of the picture ? Is it vast and 
ostentatious expense, a lavish display, a toilsome and exhaust- 
ing endeavor to give something to all your acquaintances, a 
wearisome antici])ation, and a painful suspicion that .somebody 
has been omitted ? Thackeray describes a little dinner at 
Timmins's. A modest couple make themselves miserable and 
spend all their little earnings in order to give a dinner to 
people for whom they do not care and who do not care for 
them. Christmas is made miserable to the Timminses l>e- they feel that they must spend lavishly to !)uy gifts like 
their richer neighbors. They thank God with warmth that 
Christmas comes but once a year. Are not the Timminst-s legion! 
Is llR-re nt)t reason in their dread of Christmas because of 
the sordid and mercenary standards by which it is measured ? 

"The same good sense that sees the folly of Timmins's 
little diinier ami avoids it can stay the and regenerate 
Christmas. It is essentially a day of human g«>od-will. It 
commemorates the spirit of the i)rotherhood of men. You 
cannot buy Christmas at the shops, ami a sign of friendly 
sympathy co.sts little. If the extravagance of funerals is 
such that a great .society is organized to withstand it. should 
not the extravagance t)f Christmas cause every honest man 
and woman practically to protest by refusing to yield to the 
extravagance ? " 

We were able to carry out successfully so main' of the 
suggestions of the Columbus program provided by the maga- 
zines. Our youngest children were most responsive. The 
good woman who comes to do our cleaning told us, with tears 
in her eyes, how her little girl came home and told them all 
about the great Columbus and the new country he found, — 
and to think her little four-year-old knew more of these won- 
derful things than she had ever heard. We had some diflBi- 
culty, however, when we sent our older children home to look 
up the history in reference books. The}' found so much that 
was irreconcilable with their ideal of this courageous, noble 
man. One of the girls was quite excited over the "wrong 
stories" the encyclopedia had told. I find so few reference 
books safe for the children to go to. Not that I would have 
historical facts to the detriment of an)'' one, avoided, but 
would wish them to be clearly and logically handled. — M. C. 

[The book, "Columbus aud What He Found," by Mary H. Hull, admirably solves 
these problems for the children.-^ED.] 


No. I . — The principals of the Kindergartens under the 
charge of the Chicago Free Association meet regularly with 
Miss Mari Hofer, to discuss the practical use of music in 
their work. At a recent meeting they took up the subject of 
the piano and its place in the Kindergarten. 

A well-known difficulty presented itself at once when one 
of the principals pleaded, "We are not all plaj^ers, nor have 
we any time for practice." This brought out the question : 
"What is the customary attitude toward the piano — of the 
one wholly untrained to the one who plays by ear and the 
so-called player who can accompany anything? " 

Even if a director does not play herself she may have 
excellent ideas of how the accompanying should be done, 

Practice Work. 283 

and by a little intelligent co-operi.cion may help the assistant 
to overcome lier stumblings. By carefully and patiently 
explaining how the idea involved in the music should \y*t ex- 
pressed she can often secure passable results from even indif- 
ferent technical players. 

One Kiiidergartner .said that in her ex|K.Tience she had 
failed to get as good results from the assistant who came 
recommended as a good player and technical musician, as 
from the less pretentious one who was more sympathetic as 
to the needs of the occasion. Various comparisons brought 
out the thought that what we need- for the present at least — 
is not so much music as music, but music as tnood, respon- 
siveness to mood antl creative of mood. This would call forth 
the life and joy expressive of the Kindergarten e.ssence and 
atmos])liere. " We need artists to do this." 

"What is an artist? One who expresses. We express 
with our voices, why not with the piano? We do this in 
our use of signals." 

" What do you express, what do you seek to convey to tlie 
the child ? Will one of the teachers go to the piano and express 
acommanil ? " A timid ttme heard from the instrument. " But 
you have not said anything like a command. Try again." 
After several attemi>ts a clear tone rings out for control. 

" Which does the work in sending out such a command, 
the piano or the person at the piano? Then why blame the 
piano for the poor music in our Kindergartens. It can be- 
come your best friend." 

Various chords were tested and discus.sed. and the equal- 
ity of tone found to carry great meaning. If a single tone or 
group can be made to say so much, what meaning may not 
be put into a .song or march ! Let your songs sing the story 
and the marclies show the spirit for which they are intendeil. 

If eacli one of us tletermined never to play a meaningless 
tone, wlial do you think the result would be? 

All our wi)rk for the few weeks precetling Christmas-day 
will cluster around a few of bVoebcl's " Mi>lhcr Play " picl- 

284 Practice Work. 

ures, and a picture of the Christ-child. I feel sure they will 
be of as valuable aid in impressing the Christmas thought and 
developing right feeling which will culminate in doing, as in 
leading up to an appreciation of the Thanksgiving thought. 
This preparation work will be simply a further development 
of the Thanksgiving thought, viz.: After studying how the 
farmer, miller, baker, carpenter, and other busy workers 
serve us, we in turn become busy workers, copying the spirit 
of service that these workers manifested. 

With Thanksgiving time came the special opportunity of 
impressing the thought of how these busy workers give 
thanks to the Father of all by rendering some service to His 
children. Applying the thought, the children were helped to 
prove their thankfulness by service for other children who 
were in want, learning the truth of the "Inasmuch .... ye 
did it unto me." 

Froebel's pictures of families, page 67 and 79 of the 
Mother Play, where all seem desirous of doing ' ' something 
for some one, making somebody glad," seemed to have a 
special fascination for the children. This same thought of 
unity in the family, we shall endeavor to carry on, up to the 
supreme thought of the Christmas time. The picture studies 
of the ' ' Mother Play ' ' book that we have selected for 
special Christmas study are those of the toyman, and the 
church door and window, with the Christmas bells ringing. 

We shall live out the story of these pictures in our daily 
experiences in Kindergarten ; singing our Christmas hymns, 
listening to the messages of the Christmas bells and, through 
service, letting their music come home to our hearts. The 
children quickly catch the spirit of the gay, festive side from 
their elders. In the stories we bring Christmas truths to 
the children ; and the loving thoughts as seeds in their 
hearts, allowed to grow and to blossom into kind acts, will 
plant seeds of loving thoughts in other hearts and love again 
be born to bless others. Thus from the externals of Christ- 
mas time, may the children be led to realize something of its 
inner truth, as illustrated in the German legend of the Christ- 
child. — A?ina H. Littell. 

Practice Work. 285 


There is only one way for a Kindergartner to do 
her work and that is the ri^ht way. Before any 
work is attempted, be it washing clothes or paint- 
ing a picture, preparation is necessary. 

Plan your work definitely and logically and 
you will l)e surpri.sed how it will lighten your 
burdens and ease your minds ; this, to lx)th 
teachers and mothers. 
After the washing and ironing is finished, look over the 
articles of clothing before putting away, to see if they are 
wearable or in need of doctoring with buttons, patches and 
darns. Put the ones together, then those that 
need patches and those that have rips. Have ' '^ 

things "handy" in your work-basket — plenty ot 
needles, cotton, buttons and a bag containing ^, 

patches, a«d we are ready for work. Can the J 

children help us ? Not all at once, but in time, 
if you will let them, and give them assistance and — v 

encouragement when needed. \ 

/// the Kindergarten — A fending Day. — It /^^^ 
does n't make very much difference to us. what ' 
the weallRT is outside to-day, as we all have work V^ 
to do that will keep us so busy, we will hardly 
notice- how it looks out of doors. 

Nellie, do you know what the busy house- 
keeper does on Wednesday ? 

No? Can any one- tell me ? 

Miss ICdith knows, I am glad to .see, .so we will 
ask her to draw .something on the board, to help 
us A needle and thread ! Sewing ! Sewing ! 
And what do we sew ? cards and buttons and 
dresses and everything nearly, we wear — ^just think 
of how many things that little needle has to do. 


Practice Work. 

If we were going to have a sewing part}-, the needles 
would have to come, and what else? thread, thimbles, 
scissors, work-basket and things to sew. Well, that's just 
what we are going to have to-daj^ in our Kindergarten. 

Who can find the finger that wears the thimble 
hat ? The fingers and thumb that helps the 
needle through ? The whole family of fingers 
help when we sew, one or two fingers could n't 
do it alone. 

Winnie tells us ' ' when she grows older she is 
going to do all the sewing for her mamma, for mamma has so 
many things to do, she hardly has time to sew ; " and we are 
going to help Winnie to be able to do this, as already she 
handles her needle like a little woman. 

The first work this morn- 
ing will be to make a work- 
basket, either with slats or 
free weaving paper. A work- 
box could be made with card- 
board modeling paper ; hav- 
ing compartments for thimble, 
spools and buttons made of 
smaller boxes fitted in. 
Tell the children you have such a tiny little cylinder for 
them to measure on the table, and give them each a needle. 
How long does Harry think it is ? An inch and a half and a 
little over. Here is the thread, and James asks if it is a tiny 
cylinder too ; who will be the first to get it threaded ? Nellie ? 
Now who can make the neatest knot ? Nellie is anxious 
to assist Theodore who has clumsy fingers but at last they 
are all threaded, and such knots ! Put 
them away now in your work-boxes, 
while I show you how to make a pin- 
cushion. Here is another cylinder and 
some cotton batting, and mucilage ; paste 
batting on the end of the cylinder. Have 
colored cashmere or flannel, on which a 
circle has been outlined, let children select color and cut out 

Practice Work. 287 

circle. Put the cloth over the cotton and tie around cylinder 
with ribhou. Fix the other end in the same way. These 
make pretty presents for Christmas time. How many pins 
does James want ? Wilbur ? letting children count them for 

Have a thimble drawn on cardboard tor children to perfor- 
ate. " It looks just like one," will be the cry when it is fin- 
ished, and they will be able to reproduce one in clay, making 
the indentations with a toothpick. Some child is sure to 
notice, the thimble is also a cylinder. 

Give the children an opportunity to sew on a button, 
dictating from upper right to lower left hole, then from upper 
left to lower right hole, not forgetting to make a " neck " on 
it, and fasten well. If any child should need a button on 
waist or apron, that would be the button for him to sew. 

The principle of darning can be taught through the weav- 
ing mats, one up and one down. 

The smaller children can play darning with the balls, 
using the ball for heel of stocking and the string for the 
cotton : backward and forward, up and down. 

These can have excellent numl)er and color le.s.sons, using 
Mrs. Hnilmann's beads for spools of thread. String two blue 
spools, three red spools and so on. 

Sorting buttons according to varieties and size is another 
occupation they enjoy. 

Give the children scissors and paper, or cloth, letting 
them make patterns for their dolls. Some of them may be 
our dressmaker in embryo. 

Now for a little story. When I was a little girl. Santa 
Clans brought me a thimble, and my Grandma gave me a 
work-box with many things in it. While I 
was thinking what I should sew, my dolly 
looked at me with her blue eyes, and right 
away, I thought I would make her a quilt for 
her l)ed. Grandma cut out the little squares 
and I sewed them together, over and over, until I made a 
whole quilt, to keep D«>lly warm. 

I have some little .stpiares here, and I wonder who could 


Practice Work. 

make a little patchwork block with them. Give each child 

two light and two dark tablets. After the 

children have all laid the block, put them all 

together in the center of the table. It is 

plenty large now to cover a doll. Follow this 

lesson by the pasting of square parquetry 

papers to form blocks. 

With the help of the teacher in joining the blocks, a real 
quilt could be sewed, " over and over " stitch, by the children, 
and sent to Children's Ward in the Hospital — the work of 
loving hands. ^ 

" A needle and a thimble. 

And a spool of thread, 
Without the fingers nimble, 

And the knowing head. 
They would never make out, 

If they tried the whole day, 
To sew a square of patchwork. 

As 5^ou well may." 

The other tablets could be used in arranging symmetrical 
beauty forms for quilt blocks, as could the Third, Fourth 

and Fifth Gifts, both as inventions 
and as dictation lessons. 

After the mending is finished 
we will put away the clothes in 
the bureau drawers. Make bureau 
with Third and Fourth Gifts- 
pasting lentils for handles, and one 
block serving for the mirror. 

Now that our work is over 
for the day, what a pleasure it is to 
think John's waist is ready to go 
on him, that the tear is mended 
in Jennie's apron, and that the 
elbow of Florence's dress is again 
presentable, that the buttons are on Nellie's shoe and that 

Practice Work. 289 

the rent is no longer in the Kindergarten towel ! We can 
now put away our needles, thimbles, cotton and buttons in 
their places in the work.- basket, so we will know just where 
to find each thin^ when needed next time, for "order is 
heaven's first law," and labor is its own reward. — Mary 
E. Ely. 


Thanksgiving we were all thankful for God's goodness in 
:giving us our homes where our mothers and fathers take care 
of us. Our food came from the fruit and grains, giving us 
of themselves ; our clothing from the cotton plant, the silk- 
worm and the sheep, giving us something of themselves ; but 
at Christmas time we have something better than all these 
to be thankful for. We are glad when there is a little baby 
in our homes that we can help take care of. On Christmas- 
day a baby was once born who grew to be a man in this 
world we live in. and all the time he lived here he was doing 
good because he loved everybody. 

We all know something about loving jieople, — our fathers 
and mothers, — our sisters and brothers and friends, — all those 
who are kinil to us ; but this baby who was l)oni on Christ- 
mas-day as he grew up loved everylnidy in the whole world. 
And how do you suppose he could love everybody, no matter 
whether they lovetl him or not ? It was by always helping 
others from the time he was very little. He loved his mother 
very much, so he always tried to help her in every way. As 
he grew older and became a man he worked every day, as 
your fathers work every day ; and after awhile he went alx>ut 

290 Practice Work. 

among people in their homes helping them to be good, and 
showing them how to be loving. 

On Christmas-day some people have a tree of the kind 
that stays green all winter, and they hang on it the little gifts 
they love to give each other then, because they are so thank- 
ful that Christ came to show them the best way to live and be 
happy, ^an)'- of you have seen Christmas-trees, or have 
heard of them. These gifts people often make themselves 
just as you make little mat-baskets and picture frames in the 
Kindergarten and give them to j^our mammas and. friends. 
Children often make little gifts for others to be hung on the 
Christmas-tree when the father brings one into the home at 
Christmas time ; but in many houses they never have a Christ- 
mas-tree, and the}^ cannot go out to the country, where these 
trees with the little green leaves that look like needles grow, 
and where they could take one away and the little tree would 
be glad to have the nifce gifts hung upon it ; and you cannot 
perhaps have a Christmas-tree at home, but we can have one 
in the Kindergarten for us all. 

There was once a good old man once whose name was St. 
Nicholas. He loved children very much, so he always used 
to give a great many of them something on Christmas-day. 
Mammas and papas knew all about this good and kind old 
man, and they still let him give their children pretty and use- 
ful things on Christmas-day. Sometimes he hangs these 
gifts on the Christmas-trees ; sometimes he puts them in the 
children's stockings, and what is very funny, some people say 
he comes down the chimney when he brings these gifts, but 
no one ever saw hini do it. 

When the children have seen old men dressed as Santa 
Claus (another name for St. Nicholas) that is not the real St. 
Nicholas, but only some one dressed as thej^ think he used to 
look, and because we do not want to forget him ; and when 
mammas and papas tell their children that Santa Claus comes 
at Christmas time they do so that the children may think 
about the good old man who lived so many years ago. A 
little boy once said to me in the Kindergarten that his papa 
was his Santa Claus ; another said he thought his mamma 

Practice Work. 291 

and papa were the l)est kind of Santa Clans. — /.tf/zra /'. 
Charles, Lexington, Ky. 


'• What is to be done with a child who insists upon sitting 
(n\ one of liis feet ? " 

" I would praise the other children, whose two feet were 
upon the tloor,, and if I chanced to find his two feet down, I 
should give him a word of approval, also." 

"To what element would you be appealing? " 

" To the child's instinctive love of approval." 
■ Is that right or wrong ? " ' 

" Right, when needed as a stimulant for right action ; 
wrong when tending to increase vanity or egotism." 

"I had just such a child year, and invented a story 
about two little twins, who loved each other so dearly that 
one was always unhappy when the other was not l)eside it. 
We then played that our feet were these twins, and I found 
that the i)lay plea.sed the child very much, and he voluntarily 
put his other foot hastily upon the floor." 

"How is the child to be treated who refuses to do his 
occupation work, not through inability but through indo- 
lence, saying : ' Oh, y<m do it for me. I don't want to.' " 

" I won a child into a love of the weaving by playing that 
the weaving needle was a train of cars, going fir>t «)ver and 
then under bridges." Another played that the child was a 
bird weaving the straws into his nest, in and out. 

' Do you not think that the child sometimes refuses tt> 
wt)rk through timidity?" 

"Yes. Then he must be encouraged to »e\\ one line, to 
weave in one .strip, or to do a small dcfinilc portion of the 
work at a time. The children are often discouraged at the 
vagueness or seeming lack of end of their small tasks." 

" But these same children are very apt to want tol>eovcrl>' 
independent in the games, which call for less application ami 
concentration. Von might estal)lish the precedence, that he 
who works best is the l)est leatler for the games, taking alway.s 
into consideration the natural ability of each child." 

vol.. V,— NO. J. J I 

292 Practice Work. 

Another suggestion made was that the little song, ''Oh 
look at our Harry and see what he has made," be sung with 
greater enthusiasm, but reserved for such children as have 
finished their work themselves. Notes from Kindergarten 
College class-room. 


Our warm-hearted lovers of art for the child's sake are, all 
over the land, putting on foot such measures as shall, through 
the opportunities afforded us by our expansive school walls, 
bring into the every-day life of the young generations the en- 
nobling influence of this silent gospel of salvation. 

Ruskin relates the following incident : "I was strangely 
impressed hy the effect produced in a provincial seaport school 
for children by the gift of a little colored drawing of a single 
figure from the Paradise of Angelico. The drawing was 
wretched enough, .seen beside the original, but to the children 
it was like an actual glimpse of heaven ; they rejoiced in it 
with pure joy, and their mistress thanked me for it more than 
if I had sent her a whole library of books. ' ' Ellen G. Starr, of the Hull House, Chicago, who is 
making a special study in this line, remarks : 

"Feeling deeply that children, and especially the chil- 
dren of large tow-ns, w4io are debarred the enjoyment and 
developing power of daily association with nature and beauti- 
ful buildings,. ought not to be deprived of what good pictures 
can do, not by supplying their places, but by creating an 
image of them in the mind. I began, last year, to make a collec- 
tion of such pictures within ray reach as seemed to me valuable 
for schools. The first of these, mostly photographs of build- 
ings of architectural and histc?ric value, I gave to the public 
school Hull House. After that it seemed better to 
form sets of pictures to be lent to schools and periodically 
exchanged, and I began getting together pictures on this plan. 

Great self-control should be exercised in the selection of 
pictures for schools. The temptation is strong toward decid- 
ing unadvisedly that a thing "will do," or is "better than 
nothing." It was certainly better than nothing for the chil- 
dren in the seaport school, who could not see x\ngelico's Para- 
dise, to see a colored drawing of it ; the more faithful the 

Practice Work. 293 

drawing the better for the children. It was better than noth- 
ing because the original of tlic drawing was entirely good for 
thcin, and because the drawing; retained some of the qualities 
which made it so. To decide when the reverse is tlie case — 
that is, when the obtainable copy is cither a worthless one, or 
of a worthless original, recjuires a considerable knowledge of 
pictures. Pictures for .schools should certainly not Ikj selected 
by incompetent judges. It should be rememl>ered that, though 
a given picture may do something for a child's mind, a l>etter 
would do more ; and that, though the first object is, indeed, 
to secure the child's attention and interest ; the second is to 
direct them .somewhither for profit. It is a legitimate object 
to entertain and recreate the mitid, but care must l)e taken to 
recreate it, indeed into a more faithful image of its source. 

There is great difficulty in getting g(XKl color. Colored 
prints are sometimes "better than nothing." They give 
some kinds of information about the represented thing but 
they rarely convey its spirit, and do little or nothing for the 
art instinct of the child. As soon as a machine intervenes 
between the mind and its product, a hard. ini|)ersonal barrier 
— a con-conductor of thought and emotion — is raised between 
the si)eaking and the listening mind. It is not impossil)le, 
however, to get good water-color drawings of flowers, and 
other natural objects. Several have been given me for the 
school collections, and I have good hope that, when once the 
attention of artists is called to the necessity for good pictures 
in the education of children, they will often be willing to con- 
tribute tliem for the 

This much-to be-desiretl knowledge and love of nature is 
not to be acijuired through pictures alone. The chief motive 
in supplying schools with pictures of natural objects is. that a 
sufficient amount of pleasant curiosity al)out them may l>e ex- 
cited in the minds of children, to induce them tt) notice and 
admire such as do come into their e.xjK'rience : which, again, 
will give increased pleasure in the pictures. 

I'ollowing lo\e of nature it is desirable that it be made pos- 
sible to young people reasonably to atlmire the work of man 
To those who rarely or never sOe a beautiful buiUling. picture> 
of noble architecture and lovely streets, such as the streets of 
Venice or \'erona, the calluilrals of Canterbury, Lincoln 
Rheims or Amiens, may speak a new truth : indeed many new 
truths. It is my wish to combine as much teaching, and of as 
many diflerent kinds aspo.ssible in thcM.- school pictures. For 
example : I have had frajued many photographs and other re- 
pHwluctions of the buildings and streets of \'enice. There 
have also been gi\en and lent me. paintings in oil and water- 

294 Practice Work. 

color, which add color lo the otherwise sadly defective idea 
which a child could form of Venice. In order that the group 
may have its full possibe value to the children, their teachers 
should be able to tell them something of the history of the 
city, and the men who made it great. Something of this may 
be accomplished by the descriptive labels. 

A third most important function of pictures is that of 
arousing in the mind of the child and youth, love and admira- 
tion for truly great men and women, and making them 
real to him. I wish a really good picture of Abraham Lincoln 
might be in every .school-room in the land. I know of no 
really good portrait of him which is not too expensive. If 
some photographer would take a large and fine photograph of 
Mr. St. Gauden's statue, every school might have it. 

If the public were aroused to the importance of making 
the school-room a beautiful place instead of the desert spot it 
now is, I believe that the board of education would co-oper- 

The first essential for this is the tinting of the walls with 
some color in itself agreeable to the eye and pleasant as a 
background for pictures. The second is a somewhat different 
management of blackboards. All these changes could be 
brought about if it came to be generally regarded as a matter 
of consequence whether the rooms in which the children of 
the land pass their most susceptible days be beautiful and sug- 
gestive or ugly and barren. 

Miss Starr was largely instrumental during the month of 
November in displaying a collection of pictures for use in 
schools — of such as are suitable and not so expensive as 
to be impracticable for that purpose — and which were lent for 
the occasion. 

Whenever it was possible the cost of the picture and the 
frame was marked upon it, that those interested in the ques- 
tion of supplying the public schools with suitable pictures, 
might gain an idea of the expense of so doing. 


Songs and Games. — Christmas songs should have a 
peaceful loving spirit, and games show care for others. Let 
a child represent Santa Claus bringing a gift to others. (Cer- 
tain children and teachers represent family, — all busy and 
cheerful together, but with few home comforts. Child enters 
carrying basket of provisions or toys for children.) In this 

practice Work. 295 

way tlic- Kindergarten children will get the more ethical 
thought (jf Santa Clans dissociated from the personality of 
the jolly old saint with his reindeer companions. Besides the 
Christmas songs breathing the higher spirit of peace and 
goodwill let the children give expression to the more exulxrr 
ant side (jf their nature in joyful Christmas carols, and gleeful 
games expressive of the holiday season. Sleighing, skating 
jingle hells, "Jack frost is a roguish little fellow." p«»pping 
corn, reference to the yule log.— English and German Christ- 
mas festivities, bob apple, snap-dragon, hanging up the mis- 
tletoe, (lecorating the walls with holly, and the singing of 
Christmas carols by the "wails" who went from house to 
house awaking sleepers early Chri.stmas mornings. 

If cedar or pine trees arc not obtainable, a dead tree or 
branches can be used wrapped in cotton batting sprinkletl with 
tinsel to represent snow and frosted ice. Icicles can also be 
simulated by transparent glass cylindrical beads strung on 
thread. Such a tree, laden with gifts and ornaraentetl with 
bright decorations, is a joy and vision of beauty to the 

The children will want tt) make gifts and occupations — 
everything — minister to the Christmas thought. In the occu- 
pations let them choose what they can make, and do as much 
as possible themselves. Sticks, rings and lentils can be used 
to make the Christmas-tree. With the First Gift the child 
himself can represent the tree, and the balls as gifts or deco- 
rations hung on the tree. The Sixth Gift offers rich facili- 
ties for the free activity of the children in producing a great 
variety t)f life forms. Whatever is built shoukl be expressive 
of some phase of the Christmas thought, —what has impres-setl 
the children during the Christmas talk ami work is left to 
express these ideas freely, guided only by suggestions, if 
needeil. l"or instatice, a little girl could build a playhouse 
and share it with another. Toys and toy furniture for Christ- 
mas gifts, even carpenter's t(H)ls to delight the hearts of the 
boys are readily ct)nstructed with the bricks, plinths and 
.sijuare prisms of the Sixth Gift. Second Gift beads may Ik* 

296 Practice Work. 

used to string square, cylindrical and round bead chains to 
decorate Christmas-tree. 

The Second Gift makes a wagon coming to the house with 
groceries for Christmas dinner, — or use perforated cube for 
stove (stick for pipe) and plain cube for kitchen table, — cylin- 
der for barrel of flour, sphere for fat turkey. And so one 
could go on with tablets, lentils, Third Gift and rings, finding 
an appropriate way to use each and all. Tablets for instance, 
to make railroad trains bringing friends to spend the Christ- 
mas holidays ; lentils, rings or Third Gift to illustrate " Over 
the river and through the woods," adapting to Christmas 
instead of Thanksgiving, etc., etc. 

In occupations we find an inexhaustible field for creative 
work expressive of the Christmas season of joy and the glad 
spirit of giving. Book-marks in free weaving, pen-wipers, 
bo7i-bon boxes (folded box with tissue paper gathered above), 
shaving cases with sewed mottoes, needle-books, baskets from 
the salt cellar in large squares of heavy paper, cornucopise of 
square mats with bag of tissue paper drawn together, set of 
furniture in peas-work, set of furniture as in Vol. I. of the 
Kindergarten, and set of furniture in cardboard modeling 
with pricked designs, are all appropriate and suitable. One 
of the most satisfactory of our little Christmas gifts last year 
was the pentagonal basket in cardboard modeling with 
pricked designs and tied with ribbons ; and one of our pretti- 
est and most effective decorations for the Christmas-tree was 
what we called lanterns, made of oblong pieces of bright-col- 
ored paper folded horizontally and cut into strips vertically, 
then opened and the two short sides pasted together. The 
fold makes a bulging crease, which gives the lantern a grace- 
ful shape, and zephyrs passed from one side to the other are 
used to hang it upon the tree. 

For more permanent mementoes of the Christmas thought 
expressed by the children in their work, they can sew Christ- 
mas-tree and decorate with gummed paper dots. Also paint 
brown bare trees against the sky, ground covered with snow 
and snow-flajkes falling. Refer to sleeping life of trees. Even 
the evergreen, though it keeps its queer little green needles 

Practice Work. 297 

all winter and is our bright Christmas-tree ; it, too. has its 
sleeping seeds covered up carefully from the cold. Cut and 

paste large star of gold paper, and with rays to synilwlize the 
bright light of spiritual truth Christ brought to earth, put 
upon wall with picture of Madonna and Christ-child, Also 
any other i)ictures, prints, etc., representing Jesus' life on 
earth. Christ blessing little children would l>e a true 
and typical subject for the Kindergarten. 

-Man rejoices in Christ's birth while nature sleeps. Nature 
sympathizes in his resurrection. From Christmas to ICaster 
man is active in indoor life, occupation and trade. As the 
ancients regarded the winter solstice as the turning ])oint of 
the year, — the beginning of the renewed life and activity of 
nature, — so the advent of the Christ-spirit into the life gives 
to its sleeping energies a new meaning. — A. P. C. 

In visiting a Kindergarten recently I found the children 
sewing the outline cards of little sheep and lambs, using rain- 
bow-colored zephyrs. It occurred to me that it might l>e an 
improvement to sew these in white wools on a black or at 
least dark background. — .S". //'. 

\Vi-: had such a very fruitful time in carrying out the 
Columbus thought, that our old Thanksgiving story seems 
meager. W'e will liave to prepare a new and more 'thank- 
ful " version. — .SV/^.v. 

lu.KiiuKN, Wis.— The Kindergarten was put into the public 
school last year, averaging an enrollment of over fifty pupils. 
When fully organized and in running condition last year 
among other c|uestions which confronted nu- this ■ W' 
shall we do for Christmas ? " 

I wished the children to know the h.ippineN> i>t gumg 
from their own efforts. Soon the little ones were eagerly 
interested in making presents for father, mother, sister and 
brother, ami liow they did work. Next came the question, 
how should the presents be presented. A tree was sccureil 
and the inclosed program arranged. Notes of invitation werv 

298 Practice Work. 

sent to the parents. The children helped trim the tree and 
distributed the gifts. Each child entered into it with all his 
heart and helped to make it a happy success. 

Who is struggling with a like difficulty ? 

I have had so many helpful suggestions from the Kinder- 
garten Magazine that I shall be very glad if I can help in 

The following is a sketch of my program : 

A Welcome: 

We are glad you have come to our dear little .school, 

We're just as glad as we can be, 
It's the very nicest place in the wide world, 

At least that's the wa)- it seems to me. 

Song: (Adapted from Eleanor vSmith's " Songs for Children," 
No. 6. ) 

Lips tell a welcome, eyes laugh a welcome. 

Heads bow a welcome to parents dear, 
Gladly we meet you, merrilj' greet you. 
For welcome are fathers and mothers here. 

Recitations : 

Do you know what to-morrow morning will be 

When the sun wakes up and the stars hide away ? 
It's the jolliest, happiest time of the year, 

To-morrow, hurrah ! is Christmas-day. 

There's Christmas music everywhere, 

The Christmas bells are ringing, 
The very air is full of joy 

The Chri.stmas tidings bringing. 

Song: (No. 18, Emilie Poulsson.) 

We've each been playing a Santa Claus, 

With needle and scissors and card and thread, 
We've pricked our fingers hard sometimes 

But we did n't mind. " Tis for Christmas, we said. 

fractitr IVork. 299 

Jack Frosl aiul the weather have said " stay at home," 
Jack lias pinched our noses but still we have come. 

We had to be here or the presents you see. 

And the tree and the rest never would have been done. 

Sonx' : Jack Frost. (From the Hubbard Song-Hook. > 

Talks and Stories : 

The very first Christmas present was llie little Christ- 

Christmas is Christ's birthday. 

The little Christ-child brought a Christmas present of love 
.and love and i.ovi-: to every body. 

Chrishnas Hymn: ( F^leanor Smith.) 

The Christmas-tree I 'erse: 

Papas and mammas and friends >o true, 
Do you see that tree with its presents for you ? 
\Vc made them for you we girls and Ixiys. 
Now have n't you each a Santa Claus ? 

Distribution of presents by the children. — A/ay L^ersiyn. 



" It must be much easier to carry out Kindergarten ideas- 
in a regular Kindergarten than it is in the home. It is such 
a different matter for the Kindergartner who deals with some 
one's else children, for certain hours of the day, than the 
mother who is with them all the time and feels herself en- 
tireW responsible." 

' ' The responsibility of being a mother is overwhelming 
in itself, without the additional weight of being the educator 
of one's own children." " This is the substance of a discus- 
sion recently overheard by a Kindergartner, and no doubt, 
voices the thought of scores of mothers, who, having a slight 
knowledge of the Froebel system, have felt a corresponding 
responsibility toward their little ones. 

The question comes up only too frequently, " Is the Kin- 
dergarten practicable in the home?' ' As the mother of three 
little children I should like to answer it. I have furthermore 
been so fortunate as to make a thorough study of the Kinder- 
garten system covering a period of five years. I grew up 
from childhood to girlhood and womanhood, without know- 
ing what it was to be responsible for anything or to any one, 
with little or no practical experience of the world, its con- 
ditions or people. The care of home-making prepared me in 
a degree for the care of the children, but I found myself 
without a definite aim or motive, doing, as hundreds of other 
wives are doing from day to day, the best I could. But from 
my first knowledge of the Kindergarten, my desire was to be 
more and more to the children. I engaged a trained Kinder- 
gartner and opened a little class in my own home for the 
oldest child. I studied and worked along with her, for a 

Mothers ' Department. 301 

year, supplciucutiii^ this actual cxi>ericnce \\ itli rcadinv: and 
rejj^ular work in a training school. 

In tliis way I had the opi)()rtunity ol toting all the 
beautiful theory, watching its application in tlie class and 
computing the actual results on my own child. There 
were times when the ideal and the reality did not entirely 
corres]>ond, hut in the main I found myself and child growing 
closer together, and many obstacles were being removed. benefits were made very plain to me when my neigh- 
bors' children came in to play, or as I watched the attitude of 
my dearest friends to their children. I found myself more 
reasonable in my demands of children, more patient and 
more on a level with them — not as an autocrat far above and 
beyond them. I found myself having fewer fears and worries 
over the development of my child, and little by little I l)egan 
to recognize a higher, itnier, inevitable growth there, which 
was no longer entirely dependent upon me and my efforts, 
but more and more working it.self out according to God's own 

To-day I ha\c luy three children— aged twelve, three, and 
one and a half — about me in the home "keeping school" on 
the Kiiidergarten plan. It is hard to tell which of us is 
teacher at times, as we take turns about. learning of each 
other. We have regular hours for our work and a definite 
plan as to the results we mean to reach. I make it and ))e- 
lieve it to l>e the main work of my life, not only to be with 
the children, but to be something to them in more ways than 
providing them necessities and comforts. I believe that the 
principal source of impatience among mothers is that they dt> 
not make their home work with the children their business, 
as do tile Kindergartners, but instead are constantly wishing 
to do this, that, or the other, which takes them out of the 
home and away from the children. That little unwillingness 
to give up our entire time, if necessary, cuts us oft* from nujch 
pleasure, comfort and satisfaction with our children. 

Studying and preparing for my little .school accortling to 
the Kindergarten plan, keeps me in touch with the newest 
books, the best meth«)ds and the noblest thoughts and efforts 

3o2 Mothers ' Deparhnent. 

of the time. After all, I am the greatest gainer and my 
children are holding and helping me to reach my highest 
ideals.—//. ././. 

"it is moke blessed to give than to receive." 

When we make Christmas gifts to our children, but give 
them no aid or opportunity to make gifts for others, are we 
not depriving them of a blessing to which they are entitled ? 

Giving cultivates generosity — a noble trait ; it carries one's 
thoughts from self to others, and makes the giver happy, be- 
cause God has wisely constituted man to delight in making 
others happy and has provided a spiritual reward for any 
kind of reasonable self-sacrifice. 

Making the gift is still better, at least for children, be- 
cause it involves more self-sacrifice than giving what costs no 
effort ; it more completely takes away thoughts of self while 
the mind is engrossed with the work ; it trains hand and eye 
and develops ingenuity, gives all the training which comes 
from doing work, and at the same time provides an endless 
amount of happy conjectures, as, " What will auntie do with 
her box, do \ou think? " "Will she know who made it? " 
" We must put a pin in or she'll think it's to hold something" You have all heard such gay chatter, and you know 
that Christmas giving is more blessed to them, with their 
bright hopes and impossible plans, than it is to you with your 
anxious heart and full hands. 

Christmas is a joyful season ; let the children give expres- 
sion to their joy by Christmas giving, so will their joy grow 
more complete. 

Thankfulness for Christmas blessings soon turns into self- 
ish anticipations in the child, if the blessing consists only in 
receiving, — it must cripple the benevolent nature of the most 
generous child, — while the making of gifts, with painful care 
often, but with loving thoughts of the delight the gift will 
give, must awaken the generosity which appears in some chil- 
dren to be almost dormant. Our "only" child or our " baby," 
old though he be. has few chances to make sacrifice and to be 

Mothers ' Department. 303 

generous, either with material gifts or in the giving up <if self- 
will and self-interests. 

The wise mother welcomes Christmas with its opportuni- 
ties for spiritual gnnvth. Children's attempts at gift-making 
are often pathetic, and, although the discipline which they get 
unaided may be good, would it not be far better if they were 
helped to make something really pretty ? 

Alas for the selfish mother who is too engrossed in her 
dainty work for Christmas to take time to plan and be i)atient 
with the children's work and tangles and discouragements a> 
they endeavor to do something like her pretty Christmas 
work ! To this mother we would say, forego some of your 
pleasure in fancy-work, get good materials, and take what 
costs far more self-denial — your time — to work with your chil- 
dren. Your pleasure in their pleasure will be sweet and the 
good to them will be one of those unknown ((uantities which 
no algebra problem can ever determine. 

To the mother who does no fancy-work because her hands 
are lull of necessary sewing and housework, perhaps the ex- 
perience of one mother may be profitable. For six weeks be- 
fore Christmas the evening meal was bread and milk an<l 
baked api)les, or some equally simple dish which could Inr 
prepared and again removed from the table in a few minutes, 
so that she might have lime to sit down with her children to 
plan the work and help them. They were more energetic in 
helping her for the same reason, and the good wrought wa> 
double. ( Is it not always so ?) 

To the mother who has no money, let us give the cxjh.- 
rience of .some others who have made dainty, appropriate gift.*» 
out of the rag-bag, the piece-bag, Chinese fans at one cent 
each, pasteboard, tissue paper saveil from rolls of cotton bat- 
ting, possibly, other odd bits of paper, old lace, yarn or zeph- 
yrs, cheese-cloth in delicate colors, or pretty prints and 
cretonnes. Among the following suggestions are many which 
require no exjK-nse, if you have l>een in the habit of .»i;iving 
the bits of pretty new ch»th left fmm dresses or silk and rib- 
bon from oltl hats. 

Do not leave out the boys in planning work. Older boys 

304 Mothers ' Department. 

may draw and paint and carve, pink edges of chamois skin and 
tie bows: and younger boys may with propriety do just such 
work as the girls do. The boy I know most about sews his 
doylies and doll-quilts as well as his sister a year older, but 
no one ever calls him girlish — no indeed, he is all boy in 
thought, word and deed, except that he ca7i sew, dust or 
wash potatoes, and get more fun out of it than his gentle 
sister. Let the boys work. Manliness does not consist in 
awkward fingers. 

One child of three hemmed a cheese-cloth duster for her 
grandmother, and it was certainly a pleasure to both. The 
hem was basted first, and the cloth finished, was washed, 
ironed and neatly folded, and put in a pretty bag made bj' an 
older child. There are tiny plush bags madejust large enough 
to hold thimble, needle, spool and small scis.sors for auntie to 
carry when she goes out to an " afternoon tea." Larger bags 
of all shapes, made of all materials, to hold buttons, tapes, 
balls of yarn and twine. There are stocking bags, darning 
bags, piece bags, sponge bags made of rubber cloth, or oiled 
silk, clothes-pin bags, cofFee-sacking bags, made for sister to 
keep her rubbers in at school, with a plain initial letter 
marked on one side in lead pencil and then sewed in etching 
stitch with embroidery cotton or silk. Simple outlines sewed 
in this way may be such as suggest the use of the bag. as 
clothes-pins, hair-pins, yarn, etc 

There are stove-holders, dainty holders for the cofFee-pot 
handle and ironing-holders. Coffee-sacking or bed-ticking 
holders ( 12 x 24) inches with a loop at each end are best for 
use around the oven, and the fancy stitches around the edge 
furnishes work for little fingers. 

Children tire of patchwork, but love to do enough to make 
a doll's quilt, and after a sheet of wadding and lining are 
basted on they love to tie it and overhand the edge with 
zephyr. Fold back the edges of each block, baste them 
together and have them sewed with the over and over stitch. 
This is a pretty gift for one child to make for another. 

A ball for baby brother is made of eight oval pieces cut 
from suitings or heavy flannel, say eight inches long and two 

Mothers' Dipartnient. 305 

inches at the widest diameter, sewed overstitch on the right 
side with gay silk thread and stuffed with raveled yam from 
worn-out hose. 

Doylies in linen, or lump mats in felt are found stamped in 
simple designs, easily sewed by a child of five. When wash- 
silk is used pour boiling water on the skeins and shake them 
till dry and they will stand washing much Ixjtter. 

Needle-I)ooks are always in order, so are chamois skin pen- 
wipers which nia>' be cut in the form of some leaf picked from 
the window-giirden. T;ike a large geranium leaf, orabutilun 
or very small calla leaf, or a pressed maple or oak leaf, pin it 
on the skill, outline with lead j)encil and cut with scissors, 
put in veins with pen and ink or water-colors, sew together 
the leaves at the ^em and tie narrow ribbon around over the 
sewing. A little child can do this alone, or he can outline a 
leaf on cardboard, color it, and use it for needle-book covers, 
inalch-scratchers, etc. Mount the sewed, pricked or painted 
design on the back of sand-])aper and make a lo«^)p and Ixjws 
of ribbon to hang it by. Or, cut an apple or pear, from stem 
to blossom, through the center ; lay the half on paper, draw 
its outline including the stem, cut out the drawing and use 
that for a pattern to lay on your l)etter material, be it linen, 
cardboard or chamois skin. Children are ingenious if you 
set them to w«)rk in the right wa\ . They can roll paj">er 
lamplighters and tie them in neal bundles. They can cut 
about fifty circles of tissue jiaper, in one color ot in shades of 
one color, string them (Hi a wire, which is first fastened to a 
small button, crowd them together and make a l)eautiful ball 
of shaving papers for papa. Or, they can outline baby's 
stocking in cardboard, put etching, scrap pictures, or painting 
on for ornament, cut shaving papers the same shape and sew 
lightly on to the back of it at the top, and suspend with a loop 
of ribbon. 

Kjiitting through a spool which has four pins on top. is 
fascinating work tor a child, though it is some work for 
mother to make up these vards of knitting into lamp mats 
with a crocheted edge. Three strands are sometimes braided 
into strong lines, nearly as good as lines knit with needles. In 

3o6 Mothers ' Department . 

one case the three children each knit a strand. For grand- 
father make a chamois skin spectacle wiper of two oval pieces 
sewed together at one end, or a chamois skin spectacle case. 
This is most suitable for eye-glasses. 

An old-fashioned beech nut of cardboard covered on both 
sides with silk, then sewed together, leaving one seam open, 
is easily made. Cover each of the three ovals (8 in. x 4 in. ), sep- 
aratel}', then sew them together. A little child can overhand 
the covers after they are ba.sted on. It will open by pressing 
upon the two ends. 

Fancy blotters and calendars and sachet bags are easily 
made, especially if children know anything of Kindergarten 
sewing, drawing or weaving, to ornament the work with. 

Pretty boxes are made by a little folding and cutting. 
The sides can be ornamented. Handles can be put on. Many 
Kindergarten folds make pretty bon-bon boxes. Old-fashioned 
cornacopicE (horns of plenty) are good to make. 

As these suggestions are for little children, there is nO' 
mention of knitting, embroidering, or making of larger arti- 
cles, such as sofa pillows, head-rests, scarfs, table and bureau 
covers, yet the little ones can aLso do this work if too much is 
not required of them. — Susan P. Clement, Raeine, Wis. 


There is much self-pity current among mothers, because 
of their lack of time and opportunity to study and experience 
the world at large. "Tied down," as the expression goes, 
to the limitations of home and domestic duties, every energy 
sapped up in the ceaseless round of daily duty and the de- 
mands of increasing responsibilities, until the mother with an 
ideal in her heart of what she should be begins to feel that it 
is too much to be a mother. Has it ever come to you that 
the time for your individual culture of and by yourself is in 
one ended now, and that you as a mother are given the 
miraculous opportunity of consciously living your life over 
again in that of your child ? It is the philanthropic attempt 
of some unthinking reformers, to take away the children of 

Mothers ' Department. 307 

poverty or sorrow-stricken parents, particularly in the darker 
avenues of life, hoping to hrinj? these little ones up ajid out 
of misery. Hut what about the mothers left behind, who are 
thus literally deprived of this chance of making over their 
own lives, of at k-ast having an object in life, even though 
they do not appreciate it in this higher sense ? Mothers of all 
classes who are looking forward to some beautiful time for 
study, for pleasure, for freedom, between which and them- 
selves their children stand, scarcely realize that they are 
closing their eyes here and now to the living expression of 
that very consuniniation they seek. By studying their chil- 
dren, by observing them and learning to understand them, 
they will l)e reaching out into that next generation and that 
next cycle of human hi>>tory which prophecy itself cannot 
describe or foretell. The mother has the opportunity to add 
the remnant of her own unfulfilled hopes and visions through 
her child to this oncoming future, and has the still greater 
privilege of watching this growing and expanding for which 
the whole past of mankind has paved the way. — A. H. 

VOL. v.— NO. .J. 


Mrs. J. B. WvtiE, formerly of Brautford, Ont., has opened a private 
Kindergarten in Buffalo, N. Y. 

We publish iu this number a Christmas carol written special!)' for 
the KiNDKRGARTKX MAGAZINE, the words by Andrea Hofer, the music 
b}- Eleanor Smith, who is about to publish a new volume of Kindergarten 

A FrokbkIy union has been organized in Toledo, Ohio. 

The following is a plea which comes to us repeatedly and shows 
clearly the growth of the demand for increased Kindergarten oppor- 
tunity : "How may we go to work to organize a Free Kindergarten 
Association ? Our private Kindergarten has given such good satisfac- 
tion, but the thought comes to us again with growing force, that so few 
are benefited by it, — while the many who really need it are receiving 
only street schooling." 

A mother's class of forty members is organized for regular study at 
Aurora, 111. The meetings are to be held at the People's church every 
Wednesday for twenty successive weeks, under the charge and instruc- 
tion of Mrs. O. E. Weston, of Chicago. 

Mr. L. H. AixEN, of the Buffalo Kindergarten Xews, has compiled a 
directory of Kindergartners, and has nearly 1,500 names of verified pro- 
fessional Kiudergartners. The correspondence 'attending such a com- 
pilation, has brought out many interesting and valuable facts connected 
with our work. The l)ook is out and may be had for j^ 

Besides introducing its twenty public school Kindergartners, St. 
Paul provides a training school and a model Kindergarten under the 
supervision of Mrs. V. K. Hayward, who also has charge of the training 
class of fifteen young ladies. The Kindergarten teachers of the city 
have organized under the name of "St. Paul Froebel Association." 
President, Mrs. V. K. Hay wood and Miss Florence B. Whituej', secretary. 

Miss Mary Regina Pou.ock, after training her own successors for 
the Free Kindergarten Association, Memphis, Tenn., has gone to Okla- 
homa to bring the Kindergarten to the Osage Indian children. 

Field Notes. 309 

A PROMINKNT Kindergartner was asked recently whether she thought 
the children who attended the World's Fair Kinderj^arten would become 
Belf-coiiscious. Her answer was: "Just in ]jro|)oriion as their Kinder- 
gartner is self-conscious, and anything short of a true Kindergartner." 

Thk Minneapolis Kindergarten Association opened a Kindergarten 
class, NoveiiilK-r 5lh, for the advanced study of Kindergarten work, 
designed for those who wish to have a better understan<ling of the edu- 
cational principles of Froebtl's philosophy. There will be twenty lect- 
ures in the course <lelivered by the following persons : Mrs. Klsic I'ayne 
Adams, Miss Ilattie Twitchell, Miss Sarah L. Arnold, Miss E. E. Ken- 
yon and Mrs. Louise Jewell Manning, of Minneapolis: Mrs. .\)ice 
Putnam, of Chicago; Mr. \V. N. Ilailniann, of Indiana. The will 
be under the direction of the superintendent, Mrs. Elsie I'ayne .\dams, 
who has also charge of the training school under this association. 

At the commencement exercises of the Louisville Free Kindergar- 
ten Association last month, Miss Bryan made the following remarks, 
which may be used as an answer to the question often put to Kinder- 
gartners as to the desirable qualities of the same : " Two expressions 
are always heard by Kindergartners," said she. "One is. 'It must 
take so much patience to be a Kiiulergartner,' and another, ' I don't !^e 
why it lakes so much training to play with children.' In the first place, 
the Kindergartners are not all models of patience. In the second, she 
would be unsuccessful had she the patience of a Job had she not pre- 
requisite training. She must have studied the deep meaning of child- 
hood before she can have been able to instruct. She is trained and is 
engaged in a profession, and not in a sentimental occupation. This 
work necessitates insight, and this is born only of honesty of purpose, 
of effort, of self-mastery in all directions. The Kiutlergartner must 
gather up and systematize the knowledge which has been lying as so 
much loose, confuse<l dihris. Her work is always demanding the very 
best of herself. This is why she is always happy and enthusiastic 
over it." 

.\.s an immediate result of the International Kindergarten Union, of 
which we published a full prospectus in our last number, similar local 
unions are being formed in the various centers of Kindergarten 
work. Pniladelphia has organized a union of all elements interested in 
the cause. lUifTalo has also formed a similar union, with a definite 
purpose of bron»leiiiiig the capacity and energy for usefulness of all its 
members. That day is past in which the individual Kindergartner pu//!es 
only over her ]>ersoiial problems. These have I ecouie universal nn>l 
demand solution of the united elVorts and abilities of all represcntatixe 
workers. The Colonial stage has been reached iu Kindergarten hi.«tory 
and the pioneer bands are uniting with the new generation which has 
risen by force of their early and sturdy efforts. 

3IO Field Notes. 

Miss E. B. Fletcher, connected with the Kindergarten work of 
Des Moines, is spending a year for work in Chicago. 

Miss L. E. Spenser of the Colorado Kindergarten Normal School 
is in Chicago for a season of stud}- and to visit eastern work. 

We have secured the promise of a series of Home Talks to Mothers 
from the pen and experience of Mrs. Fannie Schwedler Barnes, who has 
the doable profession of Kindergartuer and mother. 

A COURSE of twenty talks on Dante is being given by Eliza Allen 
Starr, at her residence, 299 East Huron street, Chicago, first lecture 
began November 10. 

Miss Mary E. McDowell, National Superintendent of the Kinder- 
garten Department of the National W. C. T. U., issued her address to 
the National convention at Denver in a circular booklet, "The Kinder- 
garten and its relation to the Woman's Christian Temperance Union." 
The text taken by Miss McDowell was from Friedrich Froebel as 
follows : "The object of education is the realization of faithful, pure, 
inviolate, and hence holy life." 

In Bangor, Me., eleven years ago. Miss Warner, of Florence, Mass., 
opened a private Kindergarten, thus awaking interest in the work. She 
is still there, and has each year as many pupils as the rooms will hold. 
Three years ago Miss Doolittle, also of Florence, opened a training 
school for teachers, and with the co-operation of others started a free 
Kindergarten, which is now most successfully managed by Miss Blanche 
Boardman, a native of Bangor and last year a teacher in the Hill Insti- 
tute at Florence. As the school was getting crowded, a branch has 
been opened on the East side of the city. This fall another private 
Kindergarten began — and thus Bangor has now four Kindergartens, 
all in flourishing condition. The real Kindergarten spirit exists, and 
each teacher is trying to do her best for the "least of these little ones." 
The system has not yet become a part of the public school education. 

The question of intelligent dress is being discussed so freely that 
many applications are being made for the right maker of such dress. 
On another page of this paper will be found the announcement of Mrs. 
Florence Trumbull English, who is prepared to meet this necessity in an 
intelligent and artistic way. 

KiNDERGARTNERS will appreciate the following commendation ot 
Mr. Wm. E. Sheldon, of Boston : "I enjoy your Kindergarten Mag- 
azine very much. No. i. Volume V., for September, is a model num- 
ber. It presents the true ideals of the ' New Education,' and evidences 
a breadth and Catholicism of spirit that is cheering. It augurs good 

Field Notes. 311 

things when such <! ma^a/itie, devoted exclusively to the principles and 
methods of the Kindergarten, can l>e sustained in America. The profes- 
sional training of Kiudergartners wlio have the projMrr natural qualifica- 
*tions for this great work, is the one great need of our time« in this field. 
The real true work of the Kindergarten has suffered in the past, by the 
unphilosophical work of those who had no ade<|uate conception of Froe- 
belian culture, its aims and purjwses. Now the demand for teachers 
who have not only maternal instincts but psychological training is ur- 
gent, and I feel that the many good Kindergarten colleges and training 
schools will soon furnish the requisite number of workers, who will not 
mutilate or strangle the great aims of the real Kindergarten." 

Thk committee on ".Art in Education" of the World's Congress 
.Auxiliary (Miss Josephine Locke, chairman 1, met Oct. 26, in Chicago, 
and were addressed by Mrs. II. W. Chapin, of Boston, who is the 
Corresponding Secretary of the Public School .\rt League of America. 
Mrs. Ch.ipiu read the following remarks : 

In no part of Europe have they the same noble common school sys- 
tem that we have, by which and through which it is possible to bring 
the licautiful within the reach of the children both of high and low- 

Visitors from the old world have been wont to sneer at America 
because, as they said, we had no .Vrt — and of the kind they meaut, this 
is true. 

Rut a new and entirely original .Art, born of our needs and conditions, 
is rapidly being developed. One of its most attractive aspects is the 
desire to ornament the school-rooms of the country ; to take away the 
bare lU'solatiou, the hardness, colthicss and cru<lity which whitewashed 
walls and rows of blackboard cannot help suggesting. 

The time has come when in this new Columbia the feeling after 
Brotherhood, Ivquality and Liberty seeks for a harmonious expression. 
/. e". , to clothe itself in .Art Form. 

The universal intelligence that is so cjiaracteristic of the .American 
peoi)le, our versatilit\, divine discontent, and adaptability, all conspire 
to make the revival ])eculiar to this age, ditTerent from all .Art epochs in 
the past, and the gran«lest, most humanitarian movement of the «lay. 

I'or the cultivation of .Art feeling and .Art expression means the 
uplifting of humanity from the plane of pathos and fear to that of joy 
and gla(iness. 

Real .Art must be the expression of Truth — an<l Truth is always posi- 
tive, oplimislic, idealistic. Because life, actual life in .America, is the 
realization of the ideals of (ireece antl Rome the new Art which is to 
be the expression of this life must be joyous, free and the common 
property of everybody. 

In tile Divine order it would seem that Chicago was destined to be 
the center of a new life in educational matters, as well as in everything 
else. It bi'hooves her to set a noble ex.implc to .Art lovers all over the 
worlil, for representation from every part of the glolie will Hock here to 
learn the best methotls of edacation. 

To create seutinieut for the embellishing and adornment of the public 
schools where the chiUlren and the young people of the land eongrr- 
gate, to surround them with milder and morecongeuial influences is the 

312 Field Notes. 

object and mission of the Public School Art League. The idea is not 
new, although the organized prosecution of it is. 

Send to John Lyman Faxon, Secretary, for circulars, etc. 

Miiy\v.\UKEE, Wisconsin is well-known as a center for that cult- 
ured German element which fosters the interests of music, higher educa- 
tion and the genial in life in general. This city has been for many 
3'ears experimenting with the Kindergarten problem, of how to educate 
its public, then how to successfully carry on the public's schools on this 
plan. Among the pioneers who have worked in this movement there 
may be named Mr. Bernhart Goldsmith, now of the Wisconsin State 
Board of Regents ; Professor McAllister, now of the Drexel institute, 
Philadelphia ; Mr. Wm. N. Hailmann of the La Porte, Indiana, Schools, 
and several of the ladies most prominent factors in the progress of 
the Kindergarten. To-day Milwaukee has every phase of the public 
work illustrated, itf mission Kindergartens among the foreign 
population, free public schools, private schools and two training 
schools for professional teachers. One of these is conducted under 
the direction of the State Normal School, and is incorporated as a 
regular feature of that work. The aim of this State adoption of the 
work is to provide strong and uniformly well-trained teachers, to go 
into the public school work, and little by little extend itself into a 
thorough and acceptable system of which the State may be proud. The 
State Law of Wisconsin provides education for children of four years, 
which in itself is strong encouragement for a common system of pub- 
lic Kindergartens. It will be of the keenest interest to educators to 
watch the growth and success of this movement at Milwaukee. 


What is the meaning of current niaj^a/ine literature? It is the 
impression of many versatile readers who sip the latest honey from the 
newest book in market, that each current monthly is to be laid aside as 
soou as its successor appears. Students who arc s]>ecialists in any 
particular often find helpful articles in a back numljer, and are l)e>;in- 
ning to lay more value on this none the less permanent, because current, 
literature. .\ well-known eastern artist is said to jwre over the old 
numbers of ( 'ostni>politaii or Ceiiliiry with the interest of a traveler who 
is sightseeing abroad. ICducators cannot fail to find new food for 
thought by grazing the same pastures again and again. There is no 
more educating discussion than that which concerns itself with the 
special articles in the periotlicals. 

"Tjik Practical Application of the New Kducation " was one of the 
I)owfrful articles in the Novemlwr Airna. It is written by I'rof. 
Huchaiian and mainly from the physician's standpoint of physiological 
argument. The discriminating truth-seeker will nevertheless find 
wonderful signs of how the new education is calling even the material- 
istic doctrine of "mind-making man" up higher and higher, until 
growth becomes wholly an unfolding from within and not merely a 
barnacle-like accumulation from without. 

Thk HotHt'-Makcr for October gives an interesting description t f an 
" Mxperiiiunt in I-Mucation." of establishing the itleal girls' boarding- 
school, which provides not only the necessities of life, but the proper, 
salutary environmeiil essential to sweet, natural homelike growth. The 
Margaret Winlhrop Hall, of Cambridge. Mass., is the subject of the 

That classic monthly magazine Musit, published by W. S. B. 
Matthews, Chicago, opens its November index with an exhaustive but 
thoroughly enjoyable article on •'Wagner antl the Voice" by Clement 
Tetedoux. The article has a jwculiar interest to all jicrsons who have 
failed to find Wagnerian opera inspiring. It deals with nil the argu- 
ments commonly held on both sides of the iiuestion. It has a far 
greater value, however, to students of music, in arraying before them 
the historical progression which makes Wngner no future wonder but • 

314 Literary A^oles. 

present and substantial element in art. The apt and common-sense 
illustrations used by the author of the article make it a most readable 
and forceful argument against all stereotyped, or conventional opinions. 
Music is published monthly, at 240 Wabash Avenue, Chicago. 

" First Steps in Natural Science " is a neat book just published 
by its author, Miss M. J. Jewett, who has had a continued experience of 
teaching and talking natural science to children. The book is practi- ' 
cally interesting and gives a simple and connected outline of the sciences, 
which is most suggestive. It is delightfully written and in the main 
accurate in its scientific statements. 

An auxiliary text-book is recently published by Holt & Co., under 
the title of Natural History Lessons for primary grades, in two parts. 
Its joint authors are Geo. A. Black and Kathleen Carter. A paragraph 
from the preface of Part I. will best speak for the purpose of the book. 
" In working out this idea, the author has aimed at the reality and 
method demanded by the rigorous science of to-day, and submits the 
result to teacher and parents only as it has stood the test of use in the 
class-room and at home." There is an increased demand for compila- 
tions of this kind, keeping pace with the freer methods of object and 
science-teaching in the schools. The simple facts of every-day things 
are necessary to a teacher's knowledge, but unfortunately not many of 
the present generation of teachers have had the privileges of the same 
early training they are now called upon to give the children. 

The Music Review. — This is the title given to a new magazine 
devoted to music education and a review of music on a plan that places 
this magazine prominent among the musical magazines of America. It 
is a magazine of rare interest and value to all who have the real cause of 
music at heart. Its motives are helpful. Its plans are practical, and its 
influence can be nothing but beneficial. Calvin B. Cady is its editor. He 
has contributed to the Kindergarten M.\gazine at different times, and 
is therefore not a stranger to its readers. One of the prominent features 
of the Music Review is a children's department which is conducted upon 
plans acceptable and in thorough accord with the music side of theKin- 
dergartner's work. A sample copy of the Music Review will be sent to 
any one applying for it, the subscription price is $1.00 per year. Clayton 
F. Summy, Publisher, 174 Wabash Avenue, Chicago. 

The Godey's is making greater claims than ever to being a home 


\Luca deUa Robbta.\ 

Terra cotta (colored) bas-relief. Museum, l-loience. 


Vol. v.— JANUARY. 1893.- No. 5. 


■ ".L' \-\ IV-: tiiu 

n«B*{» ■ V sill 

iSvtl! - - -- '-" \'AY down in the southern part of Den- 
It^..'* -•. . v4 .,; . mark, touching upon the river Kibe, we 
k1 Altona, wlicrc. in the year 1827. the 
ibject of this sketch first opened his 
eyes to tlie light. With him nuisic was 
an inheritance, so his father, whose pro- 
cssion was that of a musician, early di- 
rected the steps of the little Carl into the 
path which he has always followed. 
We do not read of his being a prodigy — but better still are 
led to believe that he possessed exceptional ability, which was 
wisely directed into a useful channel. At eleven he made his 
dt'/)ii/ as a piano .soloist. When still a youth he devoted time 
also to the violin, adiling to his early experiences — by engag- 
ing in orchestral playing — a most broadening influence. 

When eighteen years of age he traveled in Scandinavia, 
scoring an especial success in Copenhagen. But it is in 1S43 
that we fiiul him in that musical center of the Kingilom of 
Saxony, Leipzig, where Mendels.sohn and Schumann were the 
magnets that attracted talented students from all lands. Rcin- 
ecke^natle the very nu)st of the association with g'fted 
composers, antl breathes through his work the impression 
made by the contact with them. Not that his comjKisitions 
are less original or completely his own, but he has naturally 
drifted into an expression of his art in the same manner, and 
a very good m.umer it is. After serious study he retunied to 


Carl Reinecke. 

Copenhagen to add to his laurels, being appointed court pian- 
ist. In 185 1 the professorship of piano and counterpoint at 
the Cologne Conservatoire was offered him. In 1854 Barmen 
secured his services as conductor of the Cojicert-gesellschaft, and 
in '59 the University of Breslau selected him as Musik-diredor. 

But Leipzig was still very dear to his heart, and when 
Julius Reitz gave up his work as conductor of the famous 
Gewandhaus orchestra, Reinecke succeeded him, at the same 
time identifying himself as professor of composition with the 
Conservatoritini, both which positions he has held since i860, 
and where he may be found to-day at the very height of his 

The Gewandhaus is one of the first orchestral organiza- 
tions in the land. The name has no musical meaning, but 
was adopted because the first concerts were held in a building 
"where clothing was made and sold" — Gewand-haush€\\\% the 
German for cloth-house. The music was given in the Hall of 
the ancient armory, one of the oldest edifices in the city. In 
1743 the first concert was given by this company of earnest 
workers, the orchestra numbering sixteen, frotn which it has 
gathered strength with years, until now there are about 
seventy members. The old hall only re-echoes its memo- 
ries now since a new and complete structure is used for these 
feasts of music. 

The leaders of the Gewandhaus orchestra have ever been 
lights in the musical firmament, and include such illustrious 
names as Mendelssohn, Ferdinand Killer, Gade, Reitz, and 
the subject of this sketch. 

Reinecke appears in the threefold position of virtuoso, con- 
ductor, and composer, and he excels in them all. A friend 
writes that his piano playing is wonderfully beautiful, his 
scale-passages sounding "like strings of little pearls." But 
it is Reinecke the composer, that will especially hold the atten- 
tion of the mothers and children, since he has poured out of 
his abundance, treasure upon treasure, for the little ones. 
His career has been thus hastily traced, that it may be appar- 
ent to all what a wealth of experience he brings to his work. 

Behold then, a man with a lofty ideal, to which he unites 

Carl Reinecke. 319 

fertility of invention, and the most consummate skill in form 
and counterpoint — no device of this art being unknown to 
him. He. however, never descends to eccentricities. He is 
very versatile, exploring the field of composition in its many 
phases, giving us examples of orchestral oratorio, symphony, 
overture, concerto, sonata, cantata, mass, chamber-music, com- 
positions for voices, and the simple Lieder forms. 

A recent writer speaks of him in the following maimer: 
"And here we find still at work one of the most sympathetic 
of artists, Carl Reinecke, who has mi.s.sed being a very 
great man ; no living artist combines more delightful (juali- 
ties : he writes songs of such charming simplicity that chil- 
dren can .sing thcni, and concertos of sudi difficulty grown 
people cannot play them. Endowed with the happiest mus- 
ical perception, fully ripened by j)rofound study and experi- 
ence, he is ecjually happy in his elaborations of ancient dance 
forms as in the most modern effects. Nothing ^ould exceed 
the musical ingenuity, which is displayed on the effective 
arrangement for two pianos of a theme from Schumann's 
Manfred. All the tricks of musical craft and lore are at 
his fingers' ends, and always eni]>loyed to serve a tnily mus- 
ical purpose. A pianist and accompanist par txcelUnce, the 
honored master of the Gewandhaus concerts forms a unique 
figure in German art." 

This is indeed a tribute. Hut the writer who states these 
interesting particulars, is evidently thinking of Reinecke's 
Qrt-t)ffit-ss, in comparison with those masters who are like lu- 
minous planets, but forgets that greatness which outranks all 
other claims to greatness— the ability to " write songs of such 
charming simplicity that children can sing them " I There 
is no composer of the modern school so near to the child 
heart and life, as the one of whom we are now sjK'aking. 
He uses his fund of knowledge, his inventive faculty, his 
sense of humor, his geniality for their sakes. 

Study the iixce of this composer. It expresses a quality 
of nature like the great Agassiz, and he is as simple-hearted 
anil benevolent as was the famous scientist. 

Having a large flock of his own (the storj' goes in 


Cari Reinecke. 

Leipzig that when a child was lost the town-crier would 
always first ascertain if any of Reinecke' s little ones were 
missing before investigating elsewhere), it was, of course, 
necessary to provide musical food for home consumption ; 
hence he approaches the minds of the children very easily and 
naturally, entering heartily into all phases of their life. He 
not only writes for his fledglings but dedicates different com- 


positions to them — Helene, Lottchen, Anna and Otto being 
remembered in this wa3^ 

The " New Note-book for Little People," op. 107, contains 
thirty simple piano pieces — a " Slumber Song for the Dolly " 
and a little "Dance, Dolly, Dance," for her after she wakes 
up. "Child and Cuckoo," " Evening Landscape," "Under 
the Lindens," etc. 

Carl Reinecke. 321 

Then there is a hook of fifty songs— characteristic and 
sugj^estivc. Ill these llie composer has often added his own 
words, revealing another gift, that of poesy. In "A car- 
riage to ride in, a horse for bestriding " in which the child 
tells what " kind Christmas is bringing " the accompaniment 
has a movement like a rocking-horse. In "Stork, Stork, 
Stander," you can fairly see the stork walk about. " Who 
has the whitest lambkins?" and " Christmas Song." are dainty 
lyrics. Indtred one will need to include nearly the whole 
collection if one enumerates those songs which are beautiful. 
They are also arranged for piano with three extra " Had I 
but a little fiddle," " Merry Music," and " Duet." 

The Singing- I.esson Book, (Book III. of the Musical Kin- 
dergarten), contains other simple .songs — "Morning," "The 
Ship in the W'ashtub," " The Organ Grinder," " In the Ap- 
ple Tree," " Ball Play," "Circle Dance," "Watering Flow- 
ers," "When Hal)y Creeps," and "Child's Prayer." This 
last has a touch of nature in its api)eal to the throne of grace. 

" Thou dear I'alher, and dear angels 
Let nie ever kind and ^ood be ! 
Please k-l all my old nij^hl-nowns loo. 
Soon j^row far loo small for nie I '* 

The text for these songs conies in German, French 
and Hebrew. 

In op. 54 we find a group of four-hand piano pieces, the 
primo being ui>oii a compass of 'iwn tones, " in one |>osition of 
the hand e.specially composed for the training of the feeling 
for time and exjiression." The teacher supp.^rts these clear 
simple melodies with a harmonious accompaniment, antl the 
subjects for study are Liedchcn, "Morning Prayer." "Ro- 
mance," "March," "Polonaise," ' Walzer," "Roundelay." 
"Cradle Song." " Alia Siciliana" (Canon). ' Tareiitelle " : 
all good material for developing the idea of movement. 

That the digestion shall not be impaired, fonn is given in 
small and jileasaut ipiantities, so that the growth of the child 
shall be sound and healthy. For this we have some little 
Sonatinas, op. 127. A. on five tones also. SixMiHia/urtS«>' 

322 Carl Reinccke. 

natas, op. 136, are also easy, and for work a little more ad- 
vanced come the three numbers of op. 47. No. 2 of this set 
has for the theme of its last movement " Who has the whitest 
lambkins?" treated in a very charming manner. Op. 98 
contains two numbers : the second sonatina including a cava- 
tina that is a model of good writing. 

A suite of studies, op. 173 in six sets, the right hand upon 
a compass of five tones are very instructive, the last one 
(number six) being in Canon form. But in op. 130 we find 
an uncommonly fine work for four hands, in two sets, or 
books. These, as Reinecke ^ays, "are designed to awaken 
an intelligent interest in the Polyphonic style for practice in 
difficult rhythms and ensemble playing." These will amply 
repay one for any study the}' may involve, being of great 
value to the child after he has mastered some of the earlier 
stages of progressive work. They are certainlj^ the most de- 
lightful creations of so-called strict form that one can find, 
and are full of music all the time. Here then, is one of his 
masterspieces, for he dearly loves this field and it would have 
been so easy for him to have given us the nut without the ker- 
nel. But even when he wanders into the province of diminu- 
tion, augmentation, contrary motion, or the Choral in the 
CEolian Mode (the " Canon Cancrizans,'' that is to say " crab 
fashion" canon, which reads either backward or forward, as 
you please), he has still in mind the fact that he is to quicken 
and interest the musical life of the student. We must rejoice 
that the master has given us the twelve examples with such a 
treatment that they appeal alike to all. 

The fairy tales are touched upon in the Mac7xhen-gcstalten, 
the " Red Riding-hood " and "Thorn-rose" being exquisite. 
And the "Overture to the Nut-cracker and Mouse-king" 
should be played often to the children, so intensely do they 
enjoy it. The legend should be told in connection and if 
possible a nut-cracker shown. These are carved out of wood 
in all sorts of fanciful shapes by the peasants of the old coun- 
try. Bismarck's head is one of the subjects chosen for this 
purpose and it is needless to say that he cracks the hard- 
est nut. 

Carl Riiiuckf. 323 

Mr. Louis C. Klson tells us iti Music of a peep afforded to 
him at the Reinecke home and let us follow him there for a 
moment. " Kapellmeister Reinecke in himself illustrates the 
modestly great character of the German musicians of rank. 
He has no tremendous salary ; he does not dictate royal terms 
for every appearance of himself and orchestra ; but he is sin- 
cerely honored by every one in Leipzig, and in his autograph 
album are letters of heartiest recognition from Schumann and 
Berlioz, down to kings and queens. * * * * The great 
institutions find that if they wish to keep the musicians from 
starting for the New World tiiey must give pecuniary induce- 
ment to stay in the Old. I had some charming glimpses of the 
home- life of Kapellmeister Reinecke as he took me from the 
conservatory to his modest quarters in the Querstrasse, some- 
what nearer the sky than some of our less learned composers 
dwell. A number of charming young ladies of assorted sizes 
greeted my view in the drawing-room, and I was presented, 
one by one, to the daughters of the Kapellmeister. Astounded 
at the rather numerous gatliering I ventured to ask whether 
any had escaped, and was informed that some of them had — 
into the bonds of wedlock. The sons, too, seemed es|>ecially 
briglit, and the wit and badinage around the diinier-table was 
something long to be remembered. Reinecke has not got the 
American fever to any extent, and a very short sojourn showed 
me why he is not anxious to change his position for one in the 
New World. It is true that he has not a salary such as our 
directors and conductors of the first rank obtain, but on e\*ery 
side were tokens of frientlship and homage fri>m the greatest 
men and women of I\urope, and when the next day he took 
me to his Kncipe near the conservatory, I noticed that every 
one in Leipzig tot)k off his hat to the simple and good old 
man ; every one. from nobleman to peasant. It counts for 
something to be thus honored and beloved, and perhaps a 
few thousaml dollars would not compensate for the loss of 
such friends. How kindly and paternal Reinecke is may be 
clearly shown by relating the origin of the beautiful violin 
jiarl to the song 'Spring Flowers.' He had comjxised this 
without any violin obligalo whatever, and it wa»i to K' sung 

324 Carl Reinecke. 

by a young lady at her dehit in a Gewandhaus concert. The 
evening before the concert the artist came with a decided fit of 
the ' nerves ' to Reinecke's home, and in trembling and tears 
expressed her forebodings for the debut of the morrow. The 
good- hearted composer sat down to think matters over, and 
then exclaimed : ' I will give you some extra support for the 
voice so that you cannot fail,' and then wrote the violin part 
which is so tender and characteristic. Immediately rehearsal 
followed, and thanks to the violin support and the goodness 
of Reinecke, the debut was a success. And at the Kneipe, 
too, I saw how much of contentment passing riches, there was 
in such an artistic life, for here in the corner of a ver)' modest 
Wirthschaft were gathered some of the greatest art workers 
of Liepzig (literature and painting were represented as well 
as music), and every da}' at noon they met and spoke of their 
work, their hopes, their plans and their arts, and in such an 
atmosphere the plant of high ideality could not but thrive, 
and I could only wish that we might some day have such . 
unostentatious and practical gatherings among the artists of 
America. ' ' 

His children are all grown now, but other people's children 
are sharing the thought which this kind father has bestowed 
upon his family. 

TjU frciuidlicher Ermnerung {m. friendly greeting) which 
is inscribed across the photograph, comes over the water to 
prove that to such a nature music is a universal language ; 
and it must be particularly gratifying for this composer to 
know that his writings have gained such a foothold upon this 
new soil. May this life be spared until its full measure of 
usefulness shall bless the world. 

Juliette Graves Adams. 


I lie iicw education is not satisfied to work 
only with little children. It makes a corre- 
sponding effort to reach the parents of these 
children, and secure their co-operation along 
the rational lines it selects. That depart- 
ment of the Kindergarten work known as 
" Mothers' Meetings " is enlarging its l>ound- 
arics in every direction, and is attracting the 
attention of experienced philanthropists. Among the latter 
it is an accej^ted fact that the best and most permanent phil- 
anthropic results are secured from efforts among children ; but 
meanwhile their hearts bleed over the almost irredeemable 
ways of the adults who father and mother these same chil- 

A prominent mission worker, who has 
poured his fullest energies into a certain black district for 
many years, said recently and with great emphasis : " There 
is something all wrong about our parents* meetings. We have 
abandoned the j)rayer meetings and substituted a pleasant, 
.social evening in its place, but still they do not come without 
a certain amount of constraining. What is the matter? " 

There is much influence gained among these classes by 
such as can come to their level, not morally, but mentally. 
The Kindergartners who are conducting the free schools in 
our large cities understand best what this means, and know 
best how to put it into practice. Their daily work with the 
children drills them in that greatest of human accomplish- 
ments, namely, of putting themselves in another's place. 
They learn the .secret of reading the complete situation of a 
family in its various conditions, and so gain the confidence of 
and access to the members direct. Particularly dtK'S the Kin- 
der,v;arlner touch the hearts of the mothers of her children, l>e 
the latter waifs or " well-to-do's." She says, by virtue of 
her daily practice, "I am a mothe.-, too ; these arc our chil- 

326 How Some Parents arc Schooled. 

dren, — yours and mine together, and we have a right to talk 
over our common troubles. Therefore you may listen to me 
without doubting or questioning my intentions." Every 
teacher seeks more or less to learn of the home-life of her pu- 
pils. The Kindergartner holds this as a part of her profes- 
sional duty, and visits the children and parents, particularly 
in the humbler homes. Her intention in so doing is to knit 
together the family and its interests, to keep the home and 
school, parents and children close to each other. 

The organized plan of holding parents' meetings in con- 
nection with many Kindergartens is bringing to light inter- 
esting as well as substantial results. The character and 
policy of these meetings is usually left to the individual 
discretion of the Kindergartner, varying according to the social 
and mental status of her neighborhood. The Kindergartner 
in a certain Bohemian district thus describes her efiforts with 
the mothers : 

The women who come to my meetings once a month can 
not speak English. I send them written cordial invitations by 
the children, which they manage to have read for them by the 
grocer's clerk or some one else. When I call at the homes 
they immediately send out for an interpreter and are eager to 
catch all I have to say. They are a thrifty, busy, class of 
women. Many of their homes border along the railroad 
tracks, and the Pullman passengers see from their windows, 
these Bohemian women standing in their doorways, babes in 
arms, knitting as fast as the train speeds. They always wel- 
come our coming ; I think it is because we too are such busy 
active women. The last time I made a round of calls, I found 
several of the women at the wash-tub ; they stopped their 
work long enough to wipe off a chair, push back the furniture 
to make room, and then continued the rubbing in a cheerful, 
lusty way that was good to see. By this visiting we get a 
clew to the children's characters and can understand better 
how to help them. Our rule is to begin with the dirt under 
our feet, and work away until we are clean up to the very 
top. That is why we begin in the homes, and work for a 
cleaner or better effort to-day,— not for a far-off result in some 

How Some Parents are Schooled. 327 

future time. Tliese people cannot come to appi-eciate the 
church and its privileges, until they have some idea of a true 
home. The one pride of mothers is that their children 
shall be obedient at the Kindergarten. If one perverse little 
one is reported at home by the others, he is cruelly punished. 
We try to show them how to train the children some l>etter 
way than through beating, and in several cases have discov- 
ered the warmest affection in the most unlooked-for quarter. 
They always brinji^ the ba])ies io our meetings, which gives us 
an excellent opportunity to practice our theories of patience 
in their pre.sence." 

Another Kindergartner who has her field of labor among 
the fortunate middle-class, tells of her work in interesting the 
parents : 

"Our people are mostly Americans of that busy enterpris- 
ing middle-class that is well informed on all subjects, whose 
children see and hear and live whole volumes every day. At 
a recent evening meeting to which fathers, mothers and chil- 
dren were invited, the former were amazed at the peculiar 
knowledge possessed by their children. They found the 
latter knew how to apply all the varied information they 
gleaned at home. I read to them the plan of work for our 
Kindergarten for the week, and gave a general outline of the 
first five Gifts and their uses. Several of the parents gave 
signs that tliey began to understand what the children meant 
in many of their plays at home, and also that they began to 
appreciate the value of our work. I brought all the parents 
and children to the work-table and gave them something to do 
after the Kindergarten order, hoping to break through the 
crust of home limitatiojis which their workaday lives set 
about them. Having the meeting in the evening has suc- 
ceeded in bringing the fathers, who never having seen the 
work, .scarcely crediteil its value." 

At a parents' meeting held recently, there were fifty 
fathers present, many of the women having staid home to 
take care of the babies, (^ne man in his blue je.m overalls, 
took his place at the table with the children. He was de- 
lighted with the success of his work and finally exclaimetl in 

328 Hoiv Some Parents are Schooled. 

the most radiant tone, — "You work out something! The 
children can see what j'ou are driving at ! " He afterwards 
asked for instructions in the use of the building gifts. 

Another burh- German attending such a meeting, was 
Overcome b}' the genial brightness and home-likeness of the 
Kindergarten. " I work in the beer factory. This is beauti- 
ful. I wish you would keejD open ever}- night ! " 

Again the question was asked of other Kindergartners, — 
what results have you seen from this work with parents? 

' ' The women have grown courageous and expressive. 
They have learned our sweet lullabies, and sing them at 
home with their children. They have played the games, 
often after great hesitation, because of physical inability or 
timidity, but always in the end with great pleasure." 

" The parents have learned to think about the characters 
and qualities of their children, by talking them over with the 
Kindergartner, whose business it is to study them. Thej' ask 
many intelligent, earnest questions, and seek to meet the 
problems in our way. They have confidence in us." 

" The same mothers come again and again and oifer to 
assist us, — to pay for the good they are receiving. We ex- 
plain to them carefully all our plans and purposes, why we do 
certain ways and what the results. They see there is a mean- 
ing in what we do, and that that is wh}- we are happy in it." 

" Even the women who cannot understand our words, feel 
our sincerity and truth. Many of them for the first time in 
long years, come into close contact with a fellow-woman, with 
one whose keen .sympathy and honest heart understands their 
own. We meet on the common ground of womanhood. 
They then believe that our only motive is to help them make 
better men and women of their children." 

"The social side of these little meetings does much to the 
glory of God. We have a cup of tea and a cordial chat, 
which, done in the sincerity which knows all men as children 
of one Father, sends us home better mothers and truer women. 
It brings us back to our best selves, which sometimes get lost 
in the density of much work and worry. It unites us into a 
present brotherhood." K. G. 





AS FROEBKL followed these thoughts new vistas opened 
before him aiul demand for the highest light grew. 
He realized that the senses must be awakened as the 
organs of the mind and not as the organs of mere sensuous 
pleasure or of mere desires as in animals. 

I quote his statement of the problem and his solution where 
he gives the reasons why he chooses the ball as the first object 
to be studied. 

He says, " Now I wish to find the right forms for awaken- 
ing the higher senses of the child. I must ask the whole 
organism of creation, the whole universe, for them. I must 
go back from the particular to the general, which contains 
the particular and furnishes the typical or fundamental form 
for the manifold phenomena of creation. Then come the prop- 
erties which are common to all things, and without which 
there is nothing knowable. I must .seek objects in which the 
universal properties of form, color, si/.e, weight, movement. 
etc., are to be perceived one by one, and strikingly shown. 

' For this purpose I choose not only forms for the child's 
eyes, which are to make him acquainted with the outward 
world which surrounds him, I have .^^ymbols which unlock his 
.soul for the thought or spirit which is innate in ever>-thing 
that has come out of God's creative mint!. If the rij^ned 
mind is to know and understand this thought, its embcnlied 
image must make an impression upim the yet uncon.scioos 
soul of the child, and leave behind it form which can ser\'e as 
analojjies to the intellectual ordering of things. 

" What symbol does my ball oflTer to the child ? That of 
unity. Out of unity as form, proceed all phenomena, whether 

330 Art Principles of the Kiyidergarten. 

it is an original cell or a seed. And everything must in its 
development strive again for unity or completeness ; — the 
flowers and the fruits, the heavenly bodies and the organs of 
the human body (whose head is in the form of a ball) all pro- 
ceed according to the law of the sphere. Unit}'- as spirit, 
absolute Unity, is God himself ; the universal spirit goes forth 
out of All and returns back to the All. In God we live and 
move and have our being. We are spirit out of God's spirit, 
we are children of God, and therefore capable of finding and 
recognizing in all the works of God, within certain limits, our 
mind and God's mind." 

He believed that the simplest forms, types, which lie in 
the foundation of the fabric of the world, lay also the founda- 
tion in the minds of children for the understanding of the 
world, which expresses God's thought and spirit. And he 
found these simplest and unarticulated forms to be the funda- 
mentals of crystallization, the solid forms of Froebel's Second 
Gift. By these types which include the universal properties 
of things this universe which expresses itself in form and 
color, in size and weight, in tone, number, etc., is to be 
stamped in the most elementary manner on the child's soul 
through his eye as fundan\ental form, fundamental color, 
fundamental tone, archetypes as it were of ideas. 

Froebel therefore decided on the sphere, the cube, the cyl- 
inder as the types through which the child was to become ac- 
quainted with the universe. As there is some difference of 
opinion among teachers with regard to the use of type forms 
as the beginning of form study, I would ask particular atten- 
tion to Froebel's ideas as here expressed. He felt that there 
is no other way to give the mind a clear view of a multitude 
of things than to use fundamental forms of types which 
bring out their properties in the simplest manner. For if the 
comparatively mature minds needs this help of classification 
how much more must be needed by the child's mind in the 
first stages of its development. Therefore such things are to 
be offered with the first observations of the mind in order to 
afford appropriate fundamental perceptions for subsequent con- 
ceptions. It is very essential for careful and thoughtful 

Arl Principles of the Kindergarten. 331 

teachers to observe that the sphere, cube and cylinder give 
and should give only the type — only the normal, fundamental 
and typical perceptions which are also presented through 
other objects Ibuiid in life. 

Following this thought Froel>el found it in the highest de- 
gree important that there shall be given early to the child 
something normal outside of himself as a standard for classi- 
fication, connection and comparison, first that he may recog- 
nize for every special and single, a universal and a unity, and 
that he learn to judge of one l)y the other. For it is possible 
that man can comprehend each singly in all its relations, and 
bring to it perception, knowledge and insight. Hut if he now 
comprehends one single thing thoroughly he will at the same 
time learn to understand all others thoroughly. 

The giving, possessing and holding fast of a nonnal or 
type, as simjjle, as comprehensive, as all-sided, in which he 
can as easily learn again to recognize the others, is that which 
from early life on is so very much needed by man, not only for 
perception and instruction, but especially as means for all- 
sided self-development and self-education. 

To the signification of the type of the sphere and the 
cul)e, and how the several subjects in the environmetit of the 
child may be treated, just a word. 

" The cul>e may be now a table on which something is set 
for the child, — now a bench on which the mother places her 
feet, — now a stool on which the child sits, so, farther the hearth 
whereupon .something rests to be cooked for the child. — now a 
chesl in whicli something is locketl up. — now a house which 
is closed, — now a well which is concealed, finally a stove. 
Then again a hammer with which sometliing shall l»e knocketl 
off for the child, the little stick l)cing put in the corner, a 
broad-axe, a pick-axe to dig a little flower-lied." 

" Finally as it is whirled, a child that turns, a maiden that 
dances, a kitten catching its tail. Again a snowball, an 
avalanche which falls from the roof or mountain, a rock 
which tears itself tree and plunges into the valley. Or. placed 
on the ground with upright statV in the lop. a flower jx)l in 
which a slender tree is planted." 

332 Art Principles of the Kindergarten. 

The child will thus be led to observe and comprehend one 
thing from many points of view, several things under one re- 
lation, and to perceive and observe the common and the uni- 
versal in several single things and the thing will be truly dear 
to the child through the diversity which it brings to the life, 
the mind and the spirit. 

Moreover Froebel says: — "Clear observation and clear 
representation lead to comparison and clear conclusions, and 
thus to clear logical thinking." 

" To reach this result, mereh' the rightly chosen objects, 
(types) are not enough, there must be the right treatment or 
use of them in order to give the first acquaintance with the 
material world. By such activity the first experiences and the 
first technics of the human hand are required, or an A B C 
of work which, together with the exercise of the sense of 
beauty, gives a simultaneous preparation for art." 

Along with the study of the t^^pe forms and objects like 
them by which the external has been made internal, Froebel 
would give occupations of building, tablet and stick laying, 
modeling and drawing as a means of expression. This leads 
us directly to drawing, for which Froebel speaks strong words, 
claiming that it requires in its use and exercise the whole man, 
consequently the child in all the relations of development and 
culture. And this is his argument : 

" The correct holding of the fingers and of the hand, for 
the free use in drawing requires a correspondingly correct 
free use of the whole right arm ; this requires again indis- 
pensably a corresponding use of the other limbs and the 
whole body of the child who draws, if it would represent what 
it creates with free action of the body and with a free spirit. 
For a free, skillful use of the body presupposes necessarily 
a free, bright spirit, as both mutually condition one an- 

" As, therefore, true, free, beautiful drawing demands a 
body and limbs developed in every direction, it requires also 
the free, ready use of the senses, and not less of the sense of 
hearing and of touch, than especially of the sense of sight — 
but this all-sided complete development of the body, limbs 

-•/// Principles of the Kindergarten. 333 

and senses. Hence the development for drawing requires also 
a soul harmoniously developed, a feeling, a receptive mind, as 
well as a ihiuking and comparin^j, an intelligent and under- 
standing sj)irit, a cultivated judgment, correct reasoning, and 
so at last a more or less clear idea of the object to Ix: repre- 
sented, that develops itself more and more during the work." 

"Hut all this requires again, and develops in the child 
wluj draws, observation and attentiveness, a conception of the 
whole memory and thought, the i)ower of combining and in- 
venting, imagination, and in general it ojnrns the way for the 
corresponding use of the creative power of man, enriches the 
.spirit, the mind and the soul with clear notions, true thoughts 
and beautiful ideas, the fundamental conditions of the crea- 
tion of the fullness of life and living that the child already 
longs for and tries to obtains. 

This freedom, the free arm, the free movement, the free 
spirit, which Froebel .so extols is indeed of the utmost im- 
portance and he would have special movements given for the 
development of this freedom.* 

Some of you who know the Kindergarten network draw- 
ing may be surprised to know, that in continuing the subject 
in the Kindergarten Wesen, Froebel would have the 'drawing 
of curved lines l)efore straight. He says further. " The 
drawing of lines, of the curved as also of the straight lines, 
should be combined with the explaining word or with the 
enlivening little song as the earlier ball or sphere .songs, not 
only to awaken thereby, but also to cultivate and strengthen 
the general activity of the child as \yill be indicated soon, 
and this is a de.scri])tion of the exercise." 

" While the slate i>encil moves in circles, by the fingers 
drawing on the slate, the following is .sung : 

Round .inti roiuul, rouii<l and round, that is mv plensurr. 
Round and ruund, round and round, so I turn and rejoice, 
Rijoicf also with nic." 
or : 

Just U>ok at the straight i>ath that my slate {Mrncil can dr«w." 

•The extract which I have given U from the KimdrrxatUn IVtum. 
vol.. v.— NO. 5. 34 

334 ^''^ Principles of the Kindergarten. 

" For the curved, as well as for the straight lines, beside 
the position and direction, the mode of originating, or forma- 
tion, in regard to the child, who is drawing, must be observed 
soon ; from the hand toward the hand ; or, outwards, inwards; 
upwards, downwards; downwards, upwards, or opposite direc- 
tions repeatedly united together in zigzag or winding course. 
As experience teaches, this gives to the children great pleas- 
ure, especially when, as already mentioned, the explanatory 
word that speaks to the mind, is given in the living tones that 
speak to the spirit, and so, as the flowers bloom in the beam- 
hig, warm sunshine, in the morning, the different unions of 
lines appear with the clearing, rejoicing w^ord of song." 

" Zigzag, zigzag, is my pencil's path, 
Tick tack, tick tack, is yonder the ticking of the clock." 

or wdth winding curved lines, 

"With a song, with a song, 

The drawing's winding motion 
Does not make the time seem long." 

"But soon these lines become for the child that is led to 
observe nature and surrounding things a means of further 
representation. So the circle that he can draw fairly now 
becomes for him the picture of the moon, the svui, a disk even 
of an apple, a ball, a hoop, a ring, etc. He has seen in 
meadows, in the garden and field the three-leaved clover with 
its roundly single leaves and the five-leaved flowers of the 
most different kinds with their circular corolla, and repre- 
sents them easily with winding curved lines, and still further, 
radiating flowers and the numerous feathered leaves, that are 
sometimes quite circular ; as for example, the beautiful 
feathered leaves of the Matterdorn (a sort of field rose), of 
the acacia, etc., or further beautifully paired stem-leaves, as 
for example, in the sunny blooming Pfennigkraut. But the 
child's impulse to represent by drawing ventures also near the 
living, he tries to represent the rabbit with its rounding 
forms, the little mouse, sheep, dove, etc." The aim seems 
always to be to cultivate the utmost freedom of representation, 
leading to freedom of thought and to the expression of the 
ideal. Mary Dana Hicks. 


FORTUXATIC the individual or nation dwelling in the 
tL'in|)crale /one I 
Spring, with her bursting? Inids and teeming animal 
life, is full of interest and fills the mind with delightful antic- 

Summer follows, and while granting enough of realization 
to support our hope, still points onward. 

Autumn showers her wealth of fruitage into our gamers 
and then Mother Nature seems to say — "Enough of these 
things. Beautiful as they are through the life which is in 
them, I have other wonders for you." 

First she strips away the leaves and makes the flowers hide 
their heads. Then the animals disappear ; and when all pos- 
sible distracting things have been removed, she proceeds to 
present her object-lesson, fully illustrated, on W.vter. 

Overhead is the blue sky, and no Tyndall is needed to tell 
Mother Nature the rich color is due to the infinitesimal 
particles of watery vapor suspended in it. 
What travelers these vapor molecules are I 

Mr. Heat has been doing something to make them on ver>' 
unfriendly terms, and like some other l)eings they simply 
" won't have anything to do with you " and try to get as far 
from each other as possible. But as they jouniey on the wings 
of the wind, a cooler frame of mind is gained, and like others 
with common interests and destiny, antipathies lessen and the 
discovery is made that, after all, each has an attractive side, 
aiul friendly advances are made toward closer relations. 

Men say, " How hazy it is to-day ! " 

(.)n blow the winds with their niyriads of dancing mole- 
cules, till perchance a mountain-top is reached. 

Those nearest seem to take pity on its nakedness and be- 
come po.ssessed with a desire to do something for it. 

Mr. Heat's intluences were already on the wane, and now, 

336 Water Crystals. 

how distrust and envy, rivalry and hate disappear in the 
presence of a kindly thought and purpose ! 

As they draw nearer in conference as to what shall be done, 
men say, " See, the Mountain has his cloud-cap on ! " 

Little time is lost, some have had experience as water- 
drops and know full well the}- had a share in making the 
mountain bare, but all so fully agree and so cordially 
enter into the present purpose that each little particle of 
" water dust " slips into its proper place to form beautiful six- 
pointed stars. Some of these are straight edged (see illustra- 
tion below), as plain as such elegant things can be, while others 
grow most beautifully fringed and branched as they slowly 
settle towards the bare rocks ; and as the sun is setting the 
mountain shines out in its glorious mantle of snow. 

There were others, not so near the mountain, who for a 
moment helped form the cloud-cap, but were drawn from their 
purpose by their companions, and becoming vapor again hur- 
ried on over a widespreading country. 

Here the wind found so much to spend its heat upon, that 
the haziness grew into fogginess and cloud. As the little 
vapor particles joined others the)- began to descend faster and 
faster till they reached the earth as rain-drops. More followed 
till the ground and all on it was soaked, the brooks began to 
roar and the ponds filled up. 

After the clouds had emptied themselves and the storm 
was over, it cleared up and became colder. 

Then what a lively time there was among the molecules ! 

To be sure, they had become quite sociable in the water- 
drop — but now a strange impulse seemed to seize each one to 
organize in six-pointed stars as their fellows on the mountains. 
On every hand were heard the cries for ' ' more room ! ' ' and 
they crowded and pushed so, to get into the forms they 
wanted, that some strange things happened. 

Those near the surface of the pond felt themselves drawing 
closer together and then beginning to sink, while others came 
to the surface only to sink in turn. 

After all in the pond had had their turn the pond was " icy 
cold. ' ' The coldest of them near the surface began to play at 

Water Crystals. 


star-making, hut while the molecules had still freedom to move 
to their places, they constantly found themselves hedj^ed in by 
others, ami so, crowdinj; and i)ushinK, they wove a firm, glassy 
surface to the pond, which was lighter than the water and 
floated on the top. 

The boys said, " Hurrah the pond is frozen over !" and the 
ice-men came with their saws and cut cakes of the interwoven 
crystals to store for the hot summer to come. 

Another group of water particles happened to fall into a 
bottle, and pushed, so hard, in their efforts towards the perfect 
stars they wished to be, that they burst the bottle I 

One man (they heard him called Professor) thought he 
could hold them. So he filled a thick iron ball with water. 


and as he screwed in a strong iron plug he was heard to say, 
" There ! I guess you wont get out of that f " 

I"\)r a time there seemed plenty of room, but as they drew 
closer and closer together, the desire to make stars became 
almost uneiuluralile. 

To be sure, each single one was very tiny and weak, but all 
made up their minds to do their best, and at last, by one 
united eflbrt the iron walls burst asunder! So suddenly, in 
fact, that before they could spring to their places some of the 
water gushed out through the crack, but did not spili, for 
the molecules so (juickly took their places as to leave a pro- 
jecting fringe of ice. 

Those which fell on the hard clods of clay in a fanner's 
field, had such a time getting room, that they burst the hard 

338 Water Crystals. 

clods in every direction, till in the spring, it was like corn- 

Some sank into the creases around some peach-stones, and 
as they struggled to cr>'Stallize, separated the two halves of 
the stones so that the young trees found it easy to get out in 
the spring. 

Another company sank into the earth, filling a crack be- 
hind a huge rock on the edge of a cliff. Here they found 
they were cramped for room, and so mighty was their united 
eflfort that they actually moved the huge block of stone 
towards the cliff. After a while others came and it was 
moved farther, till at last the huge mass was sent tumbling 
into the sea. 

All these companies were so crowded that the star form was 
not easily seen. But on window-panes they were more free 
to move and most beautiful was the delicate tracing that was 

Another place where exquisite work was done was in the 
small pools of ditches and fields. Here the star-building went 
on as the water sank away, leaving some of the six points 
free to grow into wonderful perfection under the ' ' shell ice, ' ' 
as the boys called it. 

Thus everywhere the little particles (they are too small to 
be called drops) strove most courageously to be true to them- 
selves. They wished to be regular six-pointed star crystals, 
with equal distances between the points and the angles all the 

How surpassingly wonderful is it, that under all the crowd- 
ing and interference, every unbroken angle of every crystal, 
everywhere on the face of our " great round ball " should be 
unvarying and the nearest possible approach to the typical 
form be always attained I 

What lessons for us do these crystals teach ! 

Edward G. Howe. 


the decoration of the children's building at the 
world's fair. 

HP^RE has been in progress in England 
for more than a dozen years, a move- 
ment, having its center in Manchester, 
for the suitable decoration of schools. 
It would seem to indicate a perverted 
state of civilization tliat there should 
need to be an organized propaganda 
for persuading the public that the 
schools, where their children pass the 












years of their lives which are most susceptible to the in- 
fluence of the beautiful or the ugly, should be made such as 
to develop and not pervert the aesthetic sense, even though no 
higher end were considered. 

To a Greek of the time of Pericles or to a Florentine or 
Venetian of the fifteenth century, the tjuestion whether the 
places where the youth of the land passed their hours of study 
and recreation should be beautiful or not, would have been im- 
pertinent. All buildings were to be beautiful, as a matter of 
course, but certainly those which formed the taste of the 
nation. Ti> the .Athenian his own j^rivate h«»usc was the last 
buihling to be thought of as the object of expentliture »>f wealth 
and genius ; and in Italy, when Italy was jfreat, whatever 
was beautiful might Ik' righly ai>]>ropriated in due tnca.'iiire 
by the individual, but beUuiged in its fullness to the Slate. 

To trace the causes which have pro<luced a civilization 
regarding itself as an evoluti<ni of all i»receding. yet in which 
the vast proportion of the talent it pro«luces is bought by indi- 
viduals for private gratification, would be to write histon* as 
it has not been written. We find ourselves as a result of these 


340 Bare Walls Vers?(s A?-t Walls. 

causes, living in a land whose boast is the generosit)^ of its 
education, yet in which the most dreary and uninteresting of 
its buildings are its schoolhouses. A " movement " is now 
unquestionably necessary to arouse the public mind to a sense 
of its folly in wasting and worse than wasting the years of 
most acute observation and sensitive perception in children. 
We do worse than waste these years, since, during the age in 
which, through the right training of the higher senses, the 
mind might unconsciously enter all the realms of thought and 
emotion to which these are the portals, we bar the way with a 
blank white wall, and turn the active and hungrj- mind into 
the street, there to devour the sensations of the theater posters 
and the saloon windows. 

Refusing our children the heroes of history and of noble 
fancy made real to their eyes as they have a right to demand, 
we abandon the hero-seeking mind to the patrol-wagon and 
the police officer. 

Can we hope by schools of design to revive in a nation the 
power of right choice between true and false, beautiful and 
ugly, which we have deliberately starved in its children ! 

The "movement," then, has begun in our midst, which 
has for its end, first the converting of school-rooms into cheer- 
ful and pleasant places, and second, the teaching, through 
art, of all that art can teach. 

If the Columbian event is to be worth anything to civiliza- 
tion it must be through making the most of it in the direction 
of positive teaching. 

The decoration of the "Children's Building" has been 
given over by the ladies of the regular committee to Kinder- 
gartners, and the subscriptions are to be raised through their 
organ, the Kindergarten Magazine. Multitudes of people 
will come to see this building. There could be no better op- 
portunity of giving an object-lesson in good decoration for 
Kindergartens and primary schools. 

The artists who have the work in hand are studying the 
designs from the standpoint of the child's needs and demands. 
The work will be done upon canvases, arranged in friezes and 
panels as the spaces require, and can thus be remov^ed after 

Bare Walls Versus Art Walls. 341 

the Columbian building has served its purpose, and applied to 
the decoration of children's rooms elsewhere. 

John Ruskiii has always urged the employment of young 
English artists to paint the walls of Ivnglish school-rooms with 
scenes which shall stimulate the imagination of Knglish youth, 
and feed it with wholesome food. Before we can rationally 
proceed to expend talent in frescoing our school-room walls, 
wc must secure space upon them not covered with black- 
boards, we must bring about the abatement of the smoke nui- 
sance, and we must be reasonably sure that the frescoed 
building will not be pulled down to make way for "advanc- 
ing civilization " in the form of factories. 

Let us pray that these blessed conditions may be in sight 
even in our day. In the meantime let us allow ( I believe we 
shall not need to urge ) the best talent we can find to express 
itself in material which can be removed out of the path of 
"advancing civilization," for the joy and edification of the 
children of the land. 

The cotnmittee in charge of the decoration consists of Mrs. 
Iv. F. Perkins, formerly of Pratt Institute, Miss Kate Kellogg, 
Principal of the Lewis School. I*)nglewocKl, 111.. Amalie Hofer, 
of the KiNni:RG.\RTK.\ M.\r..\zi.\i:. and ICUen Gates Starr, 
Hull, Chicago. 

The designs will l>e made by Mr. George L. Schrciber, and 
the work will be ujukr his direction, with such assistance as 
he may select. Mr. Schreiber, a student of Gerome and Gal- 
land, stands especially high as a decorative, holding a 
medal of the licoU' ilcs licaux Arts, of Paris. 

The plans which have been projected for the decoration 
of the Children's Building and which, it is ho|>ed. may be 
fully carried out. meet these ci>nditions. All who are inter- 
ested in their accomplishment are invited to send sul>scriptions 
to the KiNi^KKCARTivN M.\(;.\/.iNK. Woman's Temple, Chi- 
cago. The lists showing the progress of the fund, will l>e pub- 
lished fn)m month to month. Kllkn Gates Starr, 

C/iairman of Decoration Committee. 



Suppose a shining star should say — 
" I no longer will obey 
The hand that leads me through the sky 
Until I know the reason why;" 

Suppose the moon should lend its light 
To the day instead of night, 
Just because it cannot know 
Why its orbit's chosen so; 

Suppose the Sun refuse to shine 
Till it know the great design 
Of the Universe — its laws — 
Each effect and what its cause; 

Suppose the earth decline to run 
Its yearly course around the sun, 
Or some part of the great whole 
Should rebel against control, — 

Child, dost know then that thou art 
Of the universe a part ? 
Wilt thou the only discord be 
In this chord of harmony ? 

Helena Thompson, 


That it is much easier to talk and even write alx)ut so- 
called fine ideas, is a well-known and oft-proved fact. This 
accusation has freciuently been brouj^ht against Kinder- 
gartners, many of whom are said to theorize in an abnormal 
way. Froebel's own books have been condemned because of 
their moralizing tendencies. There are two rational explana- 
tions of these and similar criticisms. The first is that the 
critics are mainly ignorant of the intent and purpose of the 
scheme of Kindergarten education in its entirety. Ignorance 
is the root of much the greater part of all denunciation and 
carping. Man is too prone to underestimate those matters 
which he is not himself informed upon, and conse<iuently 
every new proposition, whether it be educational or political, 
is attended with antagonisms and loud protestations. 

The .second reason for the accusation of impracticability as 
made against Kindergartners. must be found in their own 
failure to prove their high calling. When a refonner proves 
his words in his works, the world stands still and listens. If 
every utterance on this subject could be clearly made, and 
each audience, whether it be one or ten thousand, be given the 
simple statements of truth in regard to what the si>eaker has 
proven of his doctrine, there would be little opportunity for 
misunderstandings or non-understandings. 

In a talk before an informal group of mothers recently, the 
standpoint of the Kindergartner to her work was discussed. 
The latter saiil that she firmly believed that the principle, the 
truth back of every practical application of the work must l>c 
ajiprehended first and thoroughly, before it could be successful 
or intelligently carried out. One young mollicr. fresh from 
college, interrupted the earnest Kindergartner with an im- 

344 Editorial Notes. 

patient — "Oh yes, that is all very good theory — but I ata 
already overfed with such book stufiF — I am hungrj^ for some- 
thing practical." The appeal was most touching but at the 
same time was prompted by ignorance of what constitutes 
the principle of anything — that something which compels a 
practical outworking. This hungry mother was expressing 
the tendency of the past, which pushed everything of a 
deeper, serious nature, off into the dim regions of a theoret- 
ical something, to be dealt with in some far-off future. An- 
other mother of more experience said in a disturbed voice, 
" Do the Kindergartners really believe all of these beau- 
tiful theories, and do they actually think of them when 
they are busy about their day's work ? " She was told yes, 
that they believed them, that the)' held themselves responsi- 
ble to live them, and that it was only bj' so doing that the 
success of their work was possible. The Kindergartner can 
afford to be misunderstood when she makes these strong 
statements that her work is based on truth, now and here, 
and that it can be proven — not only \>j some other great, 
strong noble woman, but by herself, in her own humble work. 

In certain cities where public school Kindergartens are in 
operation, there exists a very great inadequacy of salaries as 
compared with other departments of the same schools. In 
one community the Kindergartners are engaged to teach two 
sessions, morning and afternoon, with different sets of chil- 
dren, and paid for this work the first 3'ear $40.00, and second 
and all succeeding years $45.00. The hired assistants in 
these schools are paid five dollars less than the directress 
who assumes the entire responsibility and designs the plan of 
work. As one of these assistants said : "I do not aspire to 
being a directress, it is too much extra labor for the pay." 
These low salaries were named and placed many years ago 
when the work was still largely experimental and when its 
fondest advocates compromi.sed its worth inorder to bring it be- 
fore the public. This state of affairs has changed, and the pro 
rata of Kindergarten commercial value should change with it. 
The Kindergartners of Philadelphia have petitioned for an 

Editorial Notes. 345 

advance of $50.00 to be added to the yearly salary of all pri- 
mary and secondary teachers of that city. The Kinder^art- 
ners of Philadelphia are now averaging 5400, for the same 
year's work which in Boston brings a salary of $720. The 
fact that the Kindergartner mnst add to a regular school 
course the special training for her work, is an argument which 
should compel consideration of these claims to increased sal- 

Wk have received several practical responses to the sug- 
gestion made in our last number that Kindcrgartners furnish 
readable articles for newspaper publication and so assist in 
disseminating information of our work. We repeat the call : 
Any articles appropriate to general newspaper use will be most 
gladly received at this office, and intelligently placed in the 
best papers east and west. There is demand among the 
publishers of ladies' and home journals for helps in the do- 
mestic line, suggestions and advice to mothers, nurses, etc. 
Kindergartners whose hearts bum to do good with their pens 
need only be ready to meet the demand. 

TiiK. KiNDERGARTKN MAGAZINE will have its editorial 
headquarters in the Children's Building during the Colum- 
bian Exposition. Child-G.\ki)KN has been cordially re- 
ceived by the public and will especially represent the chil- 
dren's cause at the World's Fair. 





The Second Gift as designed by Froebel fulfills a varied 
and valuable office in child education. Its strongest educa- 
tional value consists in the fact that it represents fundamental, 
typical forms. The First Gift of soft, bright colored balls 
corresponds to the needs and desires of the baby in the 
home. The Second Gift with its permanent, perfect, sub- 
stantial forms of firmer material, is more appropriate to the 
school or Kindergarten child, and his enlarged needs. The 
latter is ready to deal with more than one thing, he seeks 
many things to express his notion of play and work. The 
fact that form is the quality which makes things visible and 
possible, led Froebel to place form-study first and Ijoreniost 
in his system of concretes. He accepted the statement that 
form is the proof of life, being, existence. Therefore he 
planned carefully and logically to acquaint the child with 
the inner meaning of form. The Kindergartner who studies 
into his system, and into the purpose of the Second Gift in 
particular, finds in the three solid forms — sphere, cube, cylin- 
der — a most suggestive field for object-lessons and experiments. 
The logical deductions which are to be made by their syste- 
matic use are very convincing that Froebel found the right 

The Second Gift may be used in the simplest way in object- 
lesson work, in which the teacher presents the forms to the 
children, in order to increase their powers of observation, 
language and knowledge of facts. She may herself have 
little or no appreciation of the inner force of these forms, 
which none the less appeal to the child's natural sense of the 

Practice Work. 


concrete. The language lesson secured through the cube of 
the Second Gift, may deal entirely with the facts of its outer 
appearance, still the child is becc^minj^ acfjuainted with its 
form in a degree. 

But the Kindergartner who has studied into the center of 
Froebel's form-lessons, follows a more inclusive method than 
the above. While the sphere, cube and cylinder present to 
her lessons on the common properties of things, the facts of 

t natural objects, she 

also sees hidden 
meanings which ap- 
peal to and through 
the imagination. She 


plans her work with the Second Gift in such a way as to 
utilize all these facts and bring the child home to this inner 
knowledge as well. She has learned to appreciate the full- 
ness, roundness, comjileteness of the little woo<len fonns, and 
handles them with an earnest zeal which passes over to the 
child. With all her own knowledge of the possibilities of 
the Gift in the background, she leaves them largely to create 
their own imjiressions with the children. 

To the latter the forms do not stand as a means to an 
end, but as an end, a definite thing in the hand, filling it. and 
suggesting many uses. The children by no means see the 
cube as made up of a combination of parts, lines, angles, etc., 
but as a concrete object. To them the charmed box is full to 
the brim of -whoh' thiugs, which will bear analysis l>ecause 
they are wholes. 

There is frecjuent questioning among Kindergartners as 
to how this wholeness should be presented, for they accept 
Froebel's rule to present all things lo ihechilil in completness. 
The philosophic truth embodied in the Second Gift, according 
to Froebel's own exposition, is this : that unity of purpose, 
unity t)f thought and meaning exists in indiviilualizeil variety ; 
that there is a common thread of purpose and use running 
through all things and binding together every specific part or 
piece into a whole : that there are no fragments in GckIs plan, 
there are not many parts welded together In one Titan whole. 

348 Practice Work. 

but each individual thing, however unlike its next neighbor, 
is a unit, telling of universal law and order, in its own way. 
The students of Froebel become familiar with this interpreta- 
tion of nature and life, since he has repeated it in a thousand 
ways. The great mission of education is to bring together, 
to overcome isolations, parts and pieces, and establish a con- 
necting undercurrent. 

Merel}^ presenting the three forms of th*e Second Gift 'to- 
gether does not tell this beautiful story of unity. The Kin- 
dergartner must carry its message in her thought and prove it 
to the child, as Froebel has to her, in an infinite variety of 
ways. Having the teaching of this truth as her aim, she can 
turn the Second Gift into a most useful servant, and make 
every edge, angle, face and corner testif>' to the same truth. 
A Kindergartner said not long ago to a training class : "I 
used solemnly and religiously to give the Second Gift as a 
* whole,' — presenting the three forms at each lesson together, 
before separating them ; but I was fulfilling only the letter of 
the law. I have since learned Froebel's secret, and I now 
teach unity through the Gift and not as the Gift." 

A child who has been taught the facts of the Gift, after 
the fashion of object-lesson teaching, for the sake of develop- 
ing his observing powers, even if he know all the qualities of 
the wooden sphere, though he may describe the edges and 
faces of the cylinder, and accurately locate the right angles of 
the cube with eyes shut, and if he has caught no glimpse of 
the unity chain, he has not been given Froebel's gift within 
the Gift. A. H. 


The following are among the questions asked of us during 
the past month. We answer them here for the benefit of all, 
and trust that any one having better information on any of 
these points will generously give the same. 

O. — I have heard that there is a model musical Kinder- 
garten somewhere. Can you tell about it and the methods 

Practice Work. 349 

A. — We know of no Kindergarten making a special feature 
of music. There are many Kindergartens making efforts in 
tliis direction. 

Q. — Will you kindly tell me what book of songs will be 
the most helpful in connection with the Sunday lessons in the 
KiNDKRG.VRTEx Mac.azink ? I have the Magazines for last 
year and we are using the les.sons in our primar>' class. 
" Eleanor Smith's " book is mentioned for one. 

A. — This question is more fre(iueiitly asked than any other. 
There is no soiig-l)ook s])ecially arranged for i)rimary Sunday- 
school work from the Kindergarten standpoint. The Wm. 
L. Totnlins' " Songs for Children " is recommended by a pro- 
fessional Sunday-school worker as containing the l)est variety. 
The five Kindergarten song-books which are best known, con- 
tain choice selections which must be used at the teacher's own 
discretion. These books are noted elsewhere in the advertis- 
ing columns of this Magazine. Lucy Wheelock, of Boston, 
has arranged a tiny book of "Child Songs," published by 
Ward ^: Drunimond, New York. 

Q. — What course of reading would you advise me by 
which I can cover the ground of the Kindergarten theor>' ? 
I studied the .system some years ago but desire now to master 
it thoroughly. 

A. — Read first of all the *' Reminiscences of Froebel" by 
the Baroness von Bulow. It will give you a good general 
scope of the life and ideas and aims of Froebel, and also the 
condition of the educational problem he had to meet. It will 
bring you near to him as a fellow-worker and teacher. Read 
also Pestaloz/is " Gertrude and Leonhard " and some good 
standard history of education, such as Quick's " Kducational 
Reformers." For lighter reading take .some standard Ger- 
man novel, by Marlitt, Auerhach or Heyse. as these will 
bring you into sympathy with the actualities of Froebel's 
time and national environment. Read l>esidcs these books 
which are in general line with your s|x"cial study, some one 
poem or epic critically, such as '* In Memoriam ' (Tennyson), 
*' Ode— Intimations of Immortality" (Wordsworth). 
VOL, v.— NO. 5. 25 

350 , Practice Work. 


<^.3^ w-7i Thoughts to be emphasized in visit- 

w^^^A^—xi^^ ing : — To give pleasure, to inquire after 

./ifl "iji;' ''■■''"7|l\f be polite whether guest or host. 
""^^^^I l^^^^m Now that our washing, ironing and 

-^\j^^ — ' mending are through for the week, it is 

quite time we were making a few calls on the children who 
have been absent from Kindergarten for some time. 

Who ever went to any one's house to sisLj a little while ? 
So many hands ! Ada, where did you go and why did you 
go ? We listen while Ada tells how she went to see a new 
baby with her mamma. Then Anna tells how she went to 
play school with Frances, and Walton tells what a good time 
he had at lunch with Gretchen. And when you ring at the 
door-bell and some one lets you in what do you say ? ' ' Good- 
morning," " How do you do? " " Good afternoon." Hans 
says his papa says " Wiegehfs " because he only talks German. 
When we go visiting we never touch anything on the table or 
bureau, and never open a box or drawer, for that would be 
impdlite, and w^e always want to do the best we know how, 
so these people will want us to come again. 

Now I'll play I'm the mamma, and that Ella is my little 
girl and Victor my boy, and that this is my house — then 
Nannie and Fritz will come to visit us. L,et the children 
carry out the play of ringing at the bell, greeting at the door, 
inquiry after the children, and taking leave. They like to 
play this at home with the dolls, and can be very polite and 
proper, as little ladies and gentlemen should be. 

Maurice's mother was in to-day to tell me how tired he 
got lying on his back so long, and wished some of us would 
come over and cheer him up. To-morrow^ I am going and 
will take two children with me, and a card for him to sew. 
What else do you think he would like to have ? "An 
orange," " apple," "grapes." Appoint which children shall 

Practice Work. 


bring these, and let them take them over and stay a short 
time with Maurice, whose foot was run over two weeks ago — 
and for whom time passes slowly emnigh. 

At the tables carry out the same thought of helpfulness. 
Let the little children play with the bright balls, using them 
for fruits, putting all the red apples together, the yellow 
apples and so on, till finally a box could be filled to take some 
good family for Christmas. 

Little baskets with handles can be made with the card- 
board modeling paper, that will hold a few- 
grapes, nuts, or the little Second Gift beads. 
Slat baskets made by weaving five mats 5x5, 
and tying the corners with ribbon or yarn ; 
these with colored cardboard cornucopias, with 
ti.ssue paper fringe would look pretty on the 

Let the children suggest what would be 
nice for Willie, who is out of school, atid give 
them material to carry out their ideas, — as 
stick and rings for bowl of .soup, ring for an 
apple, lentils for a bunch of grapes. 

Do you remember Auntie Hopkins who came to visit us 
and told us a story ? As she has no little lx)ys or girls of her 
own, let us paint some flowers to take her. then she will know 
Ave love her. She may tell us about when she was a little 
girl, and then we will li.sten very quietly. 

Let the children paint their favorite flower to take to 
auntie, the teacher drawing it for them. 

When company calls at our house we 
always give them the comfortable 
chair in which to .sit. With the Third, 
Fourth or Fifth Gifts make chairs, getting 
the children's ideas of comfort. A support 
for the back, arms, proper height, a fixJt- 
stool could be given them as suggestions. 

Sometimes we invite friends to take tea. What sha|>c is 
your table. Jo? " Round and Mabels is square, and \'era's 


Practice Work. 

is oblong." Use the Third and Fourth Gifts, sticks and 

rings for children to represent their 

own tables. See that they are straight 

and firm. Ask how many are to sit at 

each table, and give colored circles for 

plates, letting children arrange as 

they wish, on the table. Notice whether they are placed 

opposite or irregularly and give suggestions as to the best 

places for the guests. 

Our folding lessons will be with the table-cloth ground 
form. First we would make the table-cloth, with circles 
' ( 1 pasted for plates ; then the cup and saucer 

— i 1~7 from the table-cloth ground form ; followed 

X' ' '/ by cutting the ends of the saucer and past- 
ing them in different positions to make a tea-pot and sugar- 
bowl. The entire ' ' tea set ' ' 

may then be pasted on dark 
paper. Similar designs 
could be worked out with 
the'triangular tablets. 

The children enjoy writing their names on pasteboard, 
for a visiting card, and leaving it at another table. 

It is more pleasure for the older children to prepare 
crackers and water for a tea party, and invite the smaller 
children over to partake of it, than to eat it by themselves. 

It is delightful to see how quickly children respond to 
calls made upon them for sympathy and unselfishness. Before 
long it is the children who suggest to the teachers "would n't 
it be nice " to do this or so, for some one, and once started in 
the right way, as little sunbeams, having learned the pleasure 
of doing for others, we can but hope they will continue 
through life thus. — Mary E. Ely, Armour Kindergarten. 

Any Kindergartner who has found a special help in bring- 
ing her work down to the " wee babies " will confer a favor 
upon several of our readers by forwarding same to the Mag- 
azine for publication. There seems to be a difficulty in ad- 
justing many of the lessons to the smallest children. 

Practice Work. 



Material :— oval shaped papers (zj^ x. 2'/{), scissors. 

After each child has 

been supplied with the 

oval papers, let him place 

the paper on desk with 

long diameter of the oval 

going right and left 

(fig. I). Let the front 

edge of the oval be 

folded over to meet the 

back edge (fig. 2). Leaving the paper in this position on the 

desk, fold the right side over until it meets the left side of 

the half oval (fig. 3). 


the paper 
on the desk 
with the 
folded side 

toward the left hand. Now take the scissors and cut where 
I place a i>encil mark. Cut 
on the mark and nowhere 
else (fig. 4). Place the 
paper on the desk again as 
in fig. 3, and kt me make 
another mark to guide your next cut. (Cut on black line. 

Dotted line represents first 

cut. ) Now unfold to fig. i 

ami tell me what you see 

(fi);. 6). Yes, a figure 

within the oval which 

looks like a cross, the arms 

of which are roiuided at 

the ends. Fold over the 

sharp corners of the right and left arms of the cross (fig. 7). 

Fold up the arms of the cross right, left, front, l*ack, to 

make the box part of the sle<lge. 


Practice Work. 

Fold down the outside 
rim left of the oval for the 
runners and supports for the 
sledge. Cut off the ends of 
the runners at one side for 
the ends of the runners at the 
back, and the sledge is read}' 
for little Agoonack to take a 

ride over the snow. This will be interesting home work for 

the holidays. — L. R. G. Biirfitt, Danville, Ky. 


Emerson says: "The conscious utterance of thought, by 
speech or action, to any end is art." Is it not true that the 
more the avenues, the more suggestive and truly one's 
thoughts may be given to others ? In clay the child is able 
to work out his own idea in the mass, to feel the all-sidedness 
of the thing he seeks to understand. Nor can this be empha- 
sized too strongly. Through song, he is led to feel the har- 
mony of life in a way which nothing else can accomplish. 
His body is trained by the skillful teacher, a disciple of the 
Delsarte gymnastics, to be a true servant instead of a heavy 

We may add one more means of self-expression to the list, 
one in which the child takes greatest delight, viz., that of 
being able to show mamma something in which he is inter- 
ested and has made with "just a pencil and a piece of paper." 

What child from Giotto down has not been reprimanded 
for defacing margins of books, the wall-paper and wood- work, 
in his effort to satisfy the longing within him, to create out- 
wardly the pictures which float before his inward vision ? It 
is a wise mother who destroys such idols only by supplying a 
better one, which in this, comes in the form of suitable 
materials to serve this craving. 

It is found that a child sees much more of the beauty, and 
feels more of the soul of a flower, leaf, or bird, after having 

Practice Work. 355 

tried to reproduce it by drawing. At first the results will 
probably look like almost anything else than the object he is 
trying to picture. But this is no reason to be discouraged, or 
feel that it is still beyond him. Keep at it day after day with 
the same object in different views. He will not tire of it, but 
on the contrary it will fill a necessary part in his life. 

Why do we not wait until the child is grown to teach him 
to read and write ? There is so much of honest, serious work 
to be done later in this world ; times come when he must give 
to the a^je his best original thoughts, that he cannot then be 
hampered by the mastering of mechanical elements of ex- 
pression. And so it is with drawing, which should be taught 
as utiiversally and as early as " the three R's." 

Ruskin says : " It is one of the things which can never be 
done as well if withheld until the child is no longer a child, 
as if he had gone through the drill stage when young and im- 
pressionable, until in fact it has become second nature to him." 

After some study of the subject it has become a truth with 
me, that every one by more or less jiains may acijuire a pro- 
ficiency in drawing. Only he who has once attained this to a 
degree can know what a pure enjoyment it is, both as a means 
to give veut to his own thought, and as a help to others : to 
say nothing of having learned to see Nature in a more true 
and beautiful light. 

At first the children should be given the swing movement, 
vi/., making large circles on the blackboard : or if this is im- 
practicable, on large sheets of paper. It is best to have them 
work from the elbow in a movement from left to right and 
vice versa, over and over on the same circle. When they are 
able to make these, with a free movement, and a fairly true 
circle, give them the different positions of the oval. Always 
place an inilividual object before each child. 

When after many days of earnest striving and much perse- 
verance he is at last able to do what at one time he was unable 
to do, he will have i^ained a mastery over himself as well as 
his muscles and nerves to an extent which will influence his 
whole character througlunil life. 

Following t)ul the other geometrical forms, pre.sent the 

35^ Practice Work. 

cube last. Let this also be made with bold strokes on a large 
surface. First a front view (square), then the first lessons in 
perspective may be given, and test the readiness with which 
the child is able to follow out the directions, — " draw on the 
paper just what you see and not what you know is there 

I heard an artist say the other day, " If people could only 
.y<?<? they coyAd, drajv ; the trouble is their observing faculties 
are deficient." 

In connection with the school program of the month or 
week, other objects may be taken up with this same thought 
in view of strengthening the power of seeing. 

In order to inspire the child to his best efforts, the teacher 
must love drawing and must further have had special prepa- 
ration in it. Would that drawing were a part of the curric- 
ulum of every training school, both for Kindergarten and 
primary teachers. A teacher is not complete without such 

The first thing in drawing or painting for child or adult, 
is to see the main characteristic of the subject, and then strive 
with all skill, to so represent it as to make this characteristic 
dominant in the sketch. Bj^ all means keep the connection 
and relation of the different parts of each stud}" that the spirit 
of it will be felt and that it will tell its own story. The best 
way to decide what this leading, vital characteristic is, is to 
go to our truest teacher — Nature. 

Taine says, "The relationship existing between art and 
science, is as honorable for the one as for the other ; it is the 
glory of the latter to give to beauty its principal adjuncts ; it 
is the glory of the former to base its noblest structures on 

The characteristics in plants and animals which are more 
important than others are the least variable ones. For in- 
stance, in a plant, the shape and size are less important than 

In a living being there are two parts ; the elements and 
their combinations. The elements are primary, while the 
combination is secondary. We may alter the latter without 

Pratt ice Wotk. 357 

deranj^injj^ the former. In drawiiiK the aim should Ik: to 
picture these fundamental qualities, or the spirit of the thing 
without enlarging upon the details. — Laura McLane. 


One morninjj; in December Mother Nature said to herself, 
" It's time King Winter was here. It is so warm that I 
really can't keep ray children sleeping. Grass and Clover 
are beginning to lo(jk green again ; and this morning I found 
Dandelion with the bed-covers half off, looking as if he 
really meant to get up. He did n't go to sleep till late in 
November; — I could n't get him to l)ed till then — said b« 
was n't a bit sleepy. Hut Jack Frost finally came along and 
pinched him a little just to show him what King Winter 
W'ould do to plant-jieople who are out of bed too late, and he 
poppetl his head under the covers as fast as he could go. and 
I was glad to tuck him in and hear his sleepy ' Good-night, 
mother.' But if this warm weather stays I would n't be 
surprised to see this yellow head any minute. It would n't 
be strange if Snowdrop and Crocus and Pansy got up, too, 
thinking i^ is Spring. They'd be as cros*^ as could l>e, be- 
cause they have n't had half a nap yet, and then would n't I 
have a time ? I'll go up to North Pole City this aflenioon and 
eee what is the matter with Winter. Let me see. 100 North 
Zero Street is his, I think." So Mother Nature took 
the first train on the North and South Pole Air Line Rail- 
road, and called at King Winter's palace. She found the old 
King good-natured ami hapj)y as usual, and he laughed when 
she told him why she had come, and in his hoarse, blustering 
voice told her that he had been having in his 
right foot, but was all right now, and would be along in a 
few days. So she asked him to be sure and get the Snow 
King to come with him, because her children often wanted a 
drink ot cool water in the night, and she thought that was 
one thing that made them so restless and kick the covers off. 
— they were thirst\ . as well as too wann. " My winter- 
wheat looks pale all for want of a gooti drink of snow 

358 Practice Work. 

water," said she. Then she said good-by to Winter and 
went away. 

King Winter called Fleet-wind, the black pony, and sent 
him to Jack Frost. Jack Frost knew what that meant and 
put on his white suit, pointed hat and tall boots, climbed 
up on Fleet- wind's back and away they flew. He made mo- 
tions to the few leaves that were still on the trees to come 
down and help cover the grass-roots and flower seeds, and 
down they came. He rode along the river bank and called 
to the fishes to go down to the bottom where it is warmer, 
and to tell the turtles and water beetle and everything to get 
into the soft mud, for Winter was coming. He looked 
closely along the ground, and when he saw anj- of Mother 
Nature's plant-children trying to get out of bed, he touched 
them with his cold finger, and back they popped under the 
covers. He sent the robins to the barns and the bluejays 
to the thickest pine woods they could find. He told the 
squirrels and beavers ; called to the ants and the bees, but 
they were sound asleep and did not hear him. He looked at 
all the ponds as he passed, and on one he saw a duck swim- 
ming around all by himself, and he beckoned with his hand 
for the duck to follow him. The duck was very lonely, and 
slowly flapping his wings, rose in the air and followed .Fleet- 
wind and Jack. The}' took him to a farm j^ard where he 
saw other ducks, and where there was plenty of corn and a 
warm place to rest, and he was very glad to find some one to 
talk to in his own language. 

Then Jack drew a picture on the farmer's window, — a pict- 
ure of a snow-covered field, a frozen pond and snow-trimmed 
trees. "That," said Jack, "will let my friend the farmer 
know what is coming ; and if he has any pumpkins or pota- 
toes or turnips out in the field, he will bring them in." " Now 
I'll make a slide for the children." So he walked with his 
white boots all over the long board walk that led to the 
chicken 3'ard. The first thing the children saw in the morn- 
ing was the picture on the window, and the second thing was 
the slide, and the third thing was the new duck. They 
called their father to see that now they had four ducks instead 

Practice Work. 359 

of three. The father told them that it was a wild duck that 
had in some way been left behind when the rest went south, 
and that they must feed it and let it live with the others till 
Spring came. He said that the cold night had made the duck 
come to the farm ; but the children always said they l>elieved 
that Jack Frost brought it at the same time he drew the pict- 
ure and made the slide. 

The sun melted the frost slide, but next morning when the 
children looked out they found a better one. Winter and the 
Snow King had passed that way and left whole feather-beds 
of snow on the ground. 

The children were pleased because they could take their 
sleds out and make snowballs and snow men and snow forts; 
the farmer was plea.sed the Snow was good for the 
winter wheat and the pastures; Mother Nature was glad be- now her children were covered up warm in bed, and in 
no danger of waking up till she called them in the Spring. — 
Jean MacArthur^ Denver, Colo. 

A kindergarten's thanksgiving. 

For some time our little people had been busy preparing 
for Thanksgiving Day, in the best possible way. — thinking 
how best to help others, making gifts, and interesting their 
mothers at home in their wish to give to the needy. Our Kin- 
dergarten is a free one ; many of our childen require help 
themselves, therefore it is all the more necessar>- to inculcate 
les.sons of helpfulness, charity and .self-denial. The older 
children had made a scrap-book, and ornamented and tilled 
with candy, forty boxes (a Slojd model used). "And what 
fun and pleasure filling the boxes proved!" These "big" 
children learned the story of the First Thanksgiving Day, 
and the sand-tables represented for them the " rock-lx>und 
coast" with woods beyond, while on the (.sandy ^ billows, one 
of their " Mayflowers" was .sailing towards the latul. 

For some time the morning talks had lK"en about "Seeds." 
and how mother-plants cared for their children, the maple's 
winged seed : the damlelion's para.sol ; the, |x*a and 

360 Practice Work. 

bean children's cradles ; the apple, and orange seed's warm 
blankets and thin quilts ; and from seeded vegetables, the 
talk had brought in wheat and corn, of which we had whole 
plants ; and then we showed vegetables not useful to the 
plant's seed. Our circle story had been the charming and ex- 
ceedingly suggestive one, concerning the two squirrels, 
" Frisky and Frolic." Then there was a new game to learn. 
Lastly, on Tuesday each tiny dress or jacket had pinned to it 
this note, " Please give to 5'our child something to bring to- 
morrow ; one apple or a vegetable will be enough." What 
a response we had ! Two long tables had been placed within 
the circle, one had a snowy cloth upon it and it was set with 
circular paper plates, each holding some fruit or vegetable — 
of clay, the children's own work. Soon this table was loaded 
with the boxes of candy, and plates of crackers, cakes etc. 
The other table was full, too, in the middle an overflowing 
basket of apples, and heaps of difierent fruits, vegetables, 
groceries etc., made it very pleasant to the eyes. 

Such happy little folks were around us t^at Wedne.sday 
morning. After a frolic, they stood while the piano subdued 
their gay mood, and then a prayer and a hymn to ' ' Our 
Father in heaven " opened the days exercises. Then a 
Thanksgiving hymn ' ' Can a little child like me ? ' ' was 
sung, and they were questioned about the meaning of Thanks- 
giving Day, and they told why they had brought so many 
things. Then our new squirrel game was played ! The two 
squirrel families moved away, and soon there were woods, 
with trees in them, and the musical wind shook down ever so 
many nuts. But just here I must tell one thing. Only the squirrels were to gather the nuts, and afterwards give 
them to the Frolics. But as the wind moved the branches, I 
went around, and real chestnuts dropped under the trees, and 
before I knew it, not only were the Frisky's gathering nuts, 
but the Frolics were too, and actually some of the trees bent 
over, and picked up their own nuts ! But then the game had 
never been played with real nuts before. The game over, we 
went to the circle, and the pumpkin pie was brought in. Now, 
in the South, pumpkin is not a noted dish, and it is not con- 

Practice Work. 361 

nected with Thanksgiving Day as are turkey and cranberry 
sauce. Hut this pumpkin upon opening, proved to have such 
curious seeds — sleds, hells, buckets, pots, parasols, white 
mice, froj^s and little dollies — each with a child's name pinned 
to it. The presents were given, a good-bye sung, and the 
children were dismissed. 

Out of the children's offerings, seven baskets of provisions 
were taken to the poorest homes, and the scrap-book and 
boxes of candy sent to the Child's Hospital. A nice letter of 
thanks came from there to the children. Surely, their little 
hearts have felt the "joy of giving," and if a seed of charity 
was sown to bring forth fruit in after life, how greatly should 
we rejoice. — ..•/ Baltimore Kinderi^artner. 

wintp:k son(; and g.vme. 

A pretty brook was running at play 

With little Jack Frost on a coM winter's tlay, 

It stoi)petl to rest at the foot of a hill, 
Making a pond, all quiet and still. 

"Ah! ha!" said Jack Frost. 
" Now is n't this nice." 

And ((uickly he turned the still water to ice. 

A number of children take each other's hands and run 
around the room followed by a child who personates Jack 
Frost. The string of children finally stop in the form of a cir- 
cle. — making the tjuiet pond. Jack catches up, and 
breathes on them, turning the water to ice, — on which other 
children take- turns in sliding. — ■/. MacA. 


Have all the children in a circle. Choose the leader to 
place the balls in the hand of every third child, then have one 
or two of the older children represent a tall pine tree with its 
branches waving as in a storm. All those not given a ball 
are to represent windows; alternate holding their hands to- 
gether to make the window and with tlie free haml feetl the 

The children are to hop and tly with the ball and when the 
words, " Tapping, tapping on the window-pane ' comes, they 

362 Practice Work. 

are to tap on the window-pane with their balls, then fly off to 
the tallest tree for shelter. 

The wind is blowing amid the trees, 

The snow-birds are flying through the breeze, 

Tapping, tapping on the window-pane, 

" Peep, peep," I want some grain. 

I open up my window high, 
And each little bird may pick and fly. 
They fly and they fly to the tallest tree. 
Where the branches shelter them lovingly. 

A PORTFOLIO of autumn leaves have been forwarded us 
from a St. Louis school which shows a happy thought on the 
part of the Kindergartner and free and natural work on the 
part of the children. An autumn party was the occasion, 
and each of the children was given a bright leaf to talk about 
and examine, and finally to reproduce in sewing. The out- 
lines fiurnished in the regular supply cards were used. With 
the bright leaves before them the children selected their own 
colors of zephyr to match the leaves, and the resjult was a 
gay collection, but shaded and combined with taste. One 
maple leaf is sewed entirely in red, with the exception of the 
tips, which are yellow ; another is shaded reds, still another 
greens tinged with red. 



In thinking about our Christmas celebrati(^n with the lit- 
tle ones, what we did do, and what we did not do, we are 
very prone to look ahead to the coming year and plan to 
profit by tiie experience just passed by. This little sketch, 
though too late to Ije of use now, may be helpful and sugges- 
tive for another Christmas season. 

Surely the keeping of this most blessed of all holy days 
is worthy of earnest, thoughtful, preparation on the part of 
parents and teachers ! 

Our Christmas-day last year was so quiet and holy, yet 
withal so joyous, that it left with us a benediction of |)eace 
and love beyond expression, and we felt that we had indeed 
been in the presence of the Christ. 

For some time before Christmas I had talked to our little 
two-years-old boy about the holiday which was coining, had 
told him very simple stories about sheep and shepherds, and 
the little fellow had done, himself, some simple pasting to 
"give to papa antl sister." 

He had never .seen a Christmas tree, ami when on Christ- 
mas morning, immediately after breakfast, he was ushered in 
to the presence of the " Wonderful tree," with its ornaments, 
lighted caniUes. and surroumling bundles, his surprise and 
joy were unbounded. He gave a little exclamation of delight 
and then stood motionless, looking at the splemlor l>efore him. 
Very little was sail/, and after we had all k>oketl to our hearts' 
content, I went to the piano and we began to sing. \'ery 
q\iietly and softly we sang our Christmas and Sumlayscht>ol 
hymns and many of the Kindergarten .songs. Fully half an 
hour was thus devoted to music, during which little Ned, with 

364 Mothers ' Department. 

beaming face, was seated on his papa's lap, while the six- 
months-old baby occupied the big arm-chair, watching and 
listening with wide open eyes. 

When the candles were nearly burned out we turned our 
attention to the goodly array of bundles, and such a merry 
time as we had opening them ! 

Towards evening, after a day of genuine happiness, the 
little fellow was delighted at the prospect of a "story," and 
in a very simple waj^ I told the s\.oxy of the first Christmas, 
long, long ago. The little figure before me was full of inter- 
est, and I never shall forget the look of rapt admiration that 
came into his little face when I showed him Mueller's picture 
of the ' ' Nativity ' ' ; and when with the picture still before us, 
we sang, very quietly, 

" Once a little baby la}-, 
Cradled in the fragrant hay," 

it seemed as if the Babe of Bethlehem were really in our midst. 
It was indeed a beautiful Christmas — one full of blessing to 
each and everj^ member of our little family, and as I look 
back upon it, I am reminded of our Master's teaching, " Ex- 
cept ye be converted, and become as little children, ye shall 
not enter into the kingdom of Heaven." 

If we parents are willing to give up our thought of self 
and become one with our children, entering into their little 
lives and joys, will we not always receive a double blessing, 
and find indeed the kingdom of Heaven ? — A Mother. 


There is scarcely a child who has not and does not attempt 
all manner of dramatic performances, from the simple play of 
riding a rocking-horse, on into marshaling whole armies of 
gallant knights to imaginary frays. Parents who are alive to 
the educational influences of such play will encourage it even 
among the older children and assist them in carrying out 
their hay-loft or garret performances. 

A teacher gives the following discription of how her chil- 

Mothers ' Department. 365 

dreti dramatized " Columbus and his Crew, " Similar helpful 
and happy plays may he encouraged in any home. She writes : 
" We were unable to find any exercises for Columbus Day 
juvenile enough, so were thrown upon our own resources. 
From a dry-goods box we constructed a boat, which, when 
painted and having addition of sails, reached perfection in 
the eyes of the little folk. Columbus and his crew were jjer- 
sonated, Columbus standing in the prow of the boat, spy-glass 
in hand, watching the land, and Indians running about upon 
the shore. In one corner of the room, we had a little glimpse 
of shore, sand, rocks, grass, etc., large limbs of trees to repre- 
sent the forest. Under the trees was a wigwam while running 
upon the shore and sitting under the trees were Indians. As 
our school is very large all the children could not personate 
Indians or Columbus' crew, so the others were asleep at the 
tables. A ' little sunbeam ' awoke them when Columbus' 
ship was nearly to land. They then were little birds that 
flew around the ship to welcome Columbus. The story was 
thus acted out ns we had talked about it, lasting nearly two 


The story of how we made our scrap-l)<)ok may seem a little 
crude, but however that may be, the children have been ver>' 
much interested in it. It was our Sunday afternoon work. 
I bought a book at the art store, made for mounting foreign 
photographs. I had previously read carefully the life of 
Christ from the P'our Gospels. From this study. I noted the 
most important epochs in his life, from the time of Annuncia- 
tion of the Virgin to the Resurrection and .V.scension. 

I then took my list to the young lady at the store and 
together we selected photographs from pictures of the old 
masters, and some few modern ones scattered through thera, 
touching on the principal points in the history of our Saviotir. 

My first afternt)on I devoted to Guido Keni's Annuncia- 
tion Angel. After showing the picture to the children. I 
told them of God's mes.senger. who brought the tidings to the 

vol.. v.— NO. 5. 26 

366 Mothers ' Departme7it. 

pure, good, young woman that she was to be the mother of 
the little infant Jesus, who was to bring great love and joy to 
all the world. The children were anxious to know something 
of the artist. I gave them a little account of his life, touch- 
ing on his reverence. Then we pasted the picture on the first 
page of the book. Above it I wrote the name of the picture 
and of the artist. Below it I wrote the words of the Angel, 
" Hail thou, that art highly favored among women, the Lord 
is with thee." On the opposite page I wrote two verses of 
of the old Christmas hymn : 

" Hail Thou, long expected Jesus, 
Boru to set Thy people free. 
From our sins and fears release us 
« Let us find our rest in Thee." 

Then we closed the book for the day. One thought had 
been added to their little storehouse and a happy and profit- 
able hour secured to children and parents. Each Sunday in- 
troduces a new picture, a new thought and a further event in 
Christ's life. 

Following the first picture came Murillo's exquisite Im- 
maculate Conception, Albertinelli's Salutation, Plockhorst's 
Apparition to the Shepherds, Portael's Magi, or Star in the 
East, Correggio's Holy Night, with the face of the Virgin 
ecstatic in its joy. The Flight into Egypt comes next, by 
Bouguereau ; The Repose in Egypt, a picture full of rest and 
peace, and here we come to the wonderful story of the 
Sphynx. Murillo's Divine Herder, and Christ and St. John 
with the Shell maj^ be added. St. John and the Lamb is 
another of Murillo's — full of strength ; then the beautiful St. 
Anthony with the Infant Jesus, can be added. Jesus as a boy, 
six years old, pointing to the fourth commandment, is a 
thoughtful and pure type of childhood. Hoffman's wonder- 
ful picture of Christ in the Temple comes next. Jesus stands 
there in the midst of the Doctors and Elders, a youth in years, 
a face divine in its beauty and purpose. After all these will 
come pictures illustrating the epochs in his life history, when 
matured to manhood : — 

His healing and raising of the dead, his love for the low- 

Mothers ' Department. 367 

licst penitent, The Lord's Supper, Christ Before Pilot. The 
Crucifixion, Resurrection and Ascension, are the closing 
scenes, wonderfully portrayed by the old masters. 

Such is the plan of our home art scrap-book, and if it can 
be of any service to others, we shall Ix- only ttx) happy lo have 
described it. — Ellen C. Watson. 


If all the toys that are worthless and harmful in their in- 
fluence upon the children into whose hands they fall, could 
have been piled up and burned on Christmas Eve of 1892, 
the flames would have lit up the heavens in magnificent 
splendor. I have seen boys to whom the gift of a doll would 
hale been more ennobling and Ijeneficial than the same gift 
would be to thousands of girls ; and yet, who ever thinks of 
giving a boy a Christmas present of a doll ? 

I know of a boy who had an expensive little riding 
wagon and a pair of goats that he could drive out with at his 
pleasure, yet only three times has he voluntarily made the 
exertion. He prefers to spend his time in the attic of a play- 
mate who is an embryo inventor. 

Another boy not far away has even.' possible mechanical 
appliance for his instruction and entertainment, which are 
in turn neglectfully cast aside, while their owner yearns wist- 
fully for the unused turnout of the little gt)ats and the wagon. 
A wealthy gentleman is thoroughly averse to purchasing 
inexpensive atul trifling toys for his three little girls. He is 
an ardent admirer of Goethe and much interested in the 
manner in which a little toy-theater had impressed and im- 
proved his favorite author in his childhood, so for a Christ- 
mas present the little daughters received an elegant theater 
with three sets of shifting scenes and with figurer in costume. 
There was the villain, the comedians, the father and mother, 
servants, the hero and the heroine, each in the proj>cr cos- 
tume. One of the little daughters had yearned for a yard of 
calico and some pieces of old kid gloves with which to make 
clothes and shoes for her doll ; another has longed for a rock- 

368 Mothers ' Depayimejit. 

ing-horse like her boy cousin's ; the third has alwaj's wanted 
a little pet dog. But, no, "the dog could not be endured 
under any circumstances, the rocking-horse was 'bojnsh,' 
and the calico and pieces of kid leather did not represent 
enough to show friends as Christmas gifts." Christmas Eve 
came and with it the fifty-dollar theater. The little girls tried 
with all their hearts to play with andenjoy their joint Christmas 
gift, trying hard to hide their disappointment. Their parents 
have no talent whatever in the theatrical line and the little 
girls therefore have inherited none, consequently the expen- 
sive toy holds now a conspicuous place in the garret of that 

Parents often give children expensive toys and then pun- 
ish them for breaking the same. The mother of little five- 
year-old Marie I^ouise gives her a fine Paris doll, with 
complete outfit. Poor little Marie ! This fine doll won't 
requite yowx love as much as would a clothes-pm dressed up 
in a piece of cloth, for the sermons that mamma and nurse 
will give you on the care of fine toys will make her appear 
less attractive in your eyes ; 3'our little playmates won't love 
you so much, for they will envy you. Your life is a trial dur- 
ing the holidays. Poor Mademoiselle Blanche, the doll ! Soon 
you will go off" into a little corner by yourself and poke out 
her eyes, and you will take mother's sharp scissors and cut off" 
Blanche's golden hair. Tomm3^ of next door, will suggest 
that you make an acrobat of Mademoiselle Blanche and tells 
you that clothes are wholly unnecessary. Then you will put 
on your heads some of these gaj^ silk dresses and dance a war 
dance in the back yard. The declaration of independence 
has been signed. When Marie Louise next sees her mother 
there is a climax. 

We claim to please the children, but in truth think more 
of pleasing ourselves. We systematically train our children 
to fakse notions of pleasure. Our homes are not planned for 
comfort, they are too luxuriant ; the dressing of the beds., 
rich carpets, heavy draperies, our very food has become so 
complex, that the machinery called home takes every atom 
of our time and our strength. If we delay a minute for a 

Mothers' Department. 369 

pleasant visit with :i friend all the housework falls behind. 
We can count the mothers in the land who have time to play 
with their children. They are few in number. We find still 
fewer that feel they have the leisure to take full charge of 
their little ones. 

Simplicity ! simplicity ! ! is our watchword. I^'t the 
homes be arranj:[ed .so simply that children under twelve years 
of age mij^ht do every detail of the work connected with it. 
As it is, children hinder us, while their strength and exjxri- 
ence are still insufficient, and when we deem them mature, it 
is too late, for in the meantime their sympathies have been 
turned into another channel. 

Little three-years-old Rose wants t(i help her mother 
sweep. The mother is in haste, the brooms are too heavy ; 
she tells the child to be good and sit down and play with 
her doll and not trouble manmaa. would like to help 
cook, but Bridget does not care for children, besides Rose's 
dainty gowns might be stained. To pacify the clamorous 
little work-woman a pretty kitchen outfit is i)romise<l Ikt for 
Christmas. The outfit comes and ctjsts .several dollars, but 
does it please Rose as much as a cheap little stew-pan would, 
given with- the permission to use it on the "really, truly big 
stove" ? The natural desire of the child is, to Ik- where his 
elders are. where real things are done. Children imitate their 
jiarents as all know who have watched tluin at play. 

Little three-years-old Hernice is sitting by the side of her 
mother, who is reading. The child has her picture-book " to 
reatl like mamma," but she is too active to sit still long and 
soon three small chairs are inktl up in imitation of the cook- 
stove. Two sticks of wood are placed under the second chair 
" for a fire," and her three-(iuart pail in which she is aIlo\ve<l 
to carry water, and in which she now ciH>ks the imaginar>' 
water, is placed on the third chair. After all these arrange- 
ments are completed she takes up her picture- Ixxik and reads 
from it as if it were a cook-book. "Take three cups of 
beans for five jieople, three cups of water, two spoons of salt, 
and when it boils put <>n some more water, and when it l>oils 

370 Mothers ' Departmejit. 

hard three times and looks soft, it will taste good to five peo- 

Parents, take your children into your confidence and 
they will make you their companions for life. Let them share 
your labors as well as your pleasures. 

In choosing toj's .select those that are amusing to 3'ou as 
well as to them. Plan some leisure time for yourself and 
play with these toys as if you were a little child your- 
self. Remember that healthy childrAi are active. Toys that 
do not foster mental or physical activit}' must be doomed. As 
a rule parents may safely follow the natural inclination of 
their children. With a little observation this may be soon 

One exceptional case comes to our mind. Two little girls, 
whose parents were authors, early in life developed a passion 
for books. The occupation of the parents encouraged this 
passion and when Helen, the elder, was fourteen years old 
she chose to stay at home and read Motley's Dutch Republic 
in preference to joining a party of intimate friends who in a 
private j^acht took a sail up the Hudson. Helen died of con- 
sumption at twenty-six years of age. Ruth, the second girl, 
was rescued from a similar fate by a friend of the family, who 
adopted her. Books were prohibited for three years, in place 
of which gymnastics, excursions for botanizing and geolo- 
gizing were substituted. 

Fortunately such cases are rare. As a rule the child is a 
healthy, little animal with natural, sound inclinations. Girls 
are more easily influenced than boys, therefore require more 
careful attention — but that is a subject hy itself and may be 
treated in some future number. — Fayinie Schwedler harjies. 


Old Winter is a sturdy one, 

And lasting stuff he's made of: 

His flesh is firm as iron-stone. 
There's nothing he's afraid of. 

Mothers' Department. 37 * 

His home is by the North Pole's strand 

Where earth and sea are frozen ; 
His summer home we understand, 

In Switzerland he's chosen. 

— From the German. 

Little by little the time goes by, 
Short if you sin^- it, lon^^ if you sigh ; 
Little by little the sky grows clear ; 
Little by little the sun comes near ; 
Little by little the good in men 
Blossoms to beauty for human ken. 

It snows ! it snows ! and the children run 

To the open door to see the fun ; 

Out of the soft, gray cloudy sky 

The feathery flakes go sailing by. 

The boys cry : "See, the ground is white ; 

We'll have out our sleds this very night." 

One step and then another. 

And the longest walk is ended ; 
One stitch, and then another, 

And the largest rent is mended : 
One brick upon another, 

And the highest wall is made ; 
One flake upon another 

And the deepest snow is laid. 

CniI.l»RKN'S I'R.WKR. 
Father, we thank Thee for the night. 
Keep us safe till morning light; 
As the shei>herd in his fold 
Keeps his sheep from harm and cold. 
Hless all friends to us so dear. 
Father, mother, and all here. 
And may Thy little children be 
Ever very near to Thee. 


Mrs. W. N. Hailmanx, of La Porte, Ind., Miss Stewart, of Philadel- 
phia, aud Miss Pingree, of Boston, were in Chicago the last week of 
December to attend the regular meeting of the Kindergarten Committee 
of the Congress Auxiliary of the Columbian Exposition. These ladies, 
as members of the advisor^' council, brought many valuable suggestions 
and discussions of the work before the Congress. We will next month 
give a full account of the work so far done in the various departments of 
the organization. 

Lake Forest, III. , has the privilege of a model school of the so- 
called "new order." The Alcott School is the property of a committee 
of ladies organized for the purpose of providing educational advantages 
for their younger children ; the latter vary from the ages of three years 
to thirteen, and number about forty in all. The teachers in charge are 
disciples of modern methods and the results of these as here applied are 
certainly most happy. The little ones have their own Kindergarten and 
grade up for two years' work in this line, to pass into first and second 
primary, in the same line of work, and from there into an intermediate 
department which meets the same requirements of stud}' and standing 
as any public or graded school. At a recent visit to this unique school 
we found the primar}- children mingling with the babies in their simple 
morning exercises. There was a happy fellowship among teachers and 
pupils, and good order existed at the same time with an easy homelike 
freedom. The happy zeal with which the children, applied themselves to 
their books and work was most refreshing. There was a dado along the 
blackboard of the pictures accumulated by the children telling the story 
of Columbus' life. Many of these were original drawings, showing the 
greatest of freedom and effort. The sunny bright rooms, both above and 
below, tinted walls and busy, happy occupants, presented a picture not 
soon to be forgotten. One of the teachers remarked at the close of the 
morning's work: "We enjoy it so much ourselves. I look forward to 
ever}- morning with the greatest of pleasure." More and more such 
demonstrations of happy, hearty, wholesome school life are in store for 
the children of the coming generation. 

The experiment is being tested in three of the public schools at 
Worcester, Mass., to combine Kindergarten and primary work. In 
each school the regular primary teacher and a trained Kindergartner 
work together, and excellent results are promising. As a rule the com- 

Field Notes. 373 

biuiiiK of these methods under existing conditions would prove fatal to 
the growth ofthechihlren. (Jneof these teachers writes : " I am sorry to 
see in educational magazines so much effort to apply Kindergarten 
methods in the primary rooni. for there is much danger of their l)eing 
misapplied. Not l>ut that I think that the Kindergarten principles are 
at the l)Ottom of all right etlucation. Hut educators should consider 
well before they propagate the doctrine which leads primary teachers to 
think that by using a few devices for numl>er and reading, and a few 
poorly chosen Kindergarten games are adequate to Kindergarten 

A C.\i,l, is made for assistance to be given to the Pundita Ramabai in 
the Kindergarten department of the Sharada Sadan, which, through a 
private effort, has met with a good degree of success during the past 
three years. Assistance through ilonations of any sums — annual sul>- 
scriptions, or from "Ten Times One" societies, are solicited, and infor- 
mation will be given by Mrs. G. N. Dana, 31S Keacou St., Itoston, 

Miss Ancki.ina Brooks, of New York City, six)ke on the 3d of 
December before the Conference of ICducational Workers, at Colum- 
bia College. The subject was, "The results of Kiuclergarteu Training 
on the Development of the Child's Moral Nature." Miss Laura I'isher. 
now of the Boston Normal School, spoke at the same gathering, and 
Mr. Sanger, ujember of the New York City Board of Education, spoke 
most heartily in favor of putting Kindergarten into the public schools. 
.Vmong others who spoke enthusiastically were E. H. Cook, of Flush- 
ing, Chas. (iorton, of Yonkers. and Professor Barringer of Newark, N. J. 

Tni': Kitidcrgarlen .\luinn;f Association of the Philadelphia Training 
School for Kindergartners, of which Mrs. M. L. Yan Kirk, of 1333 Pine 
St., is principal, held its annual meeting at the Young Men's Christian 
Association rooms, Broad and Federal St.s., on November 19, at thret? 
o'clock p. m. A pleasant feature of the occasion was the reading of an 
able paper by Miss Ivmilie Poulsson of Boston, Mass., on " Moniing Talks 
in the Kindergarten." The gist ^f the lecture was jH-rhaps cont.iined in 
her concluding senUnce. " Let our intent, therefore, l>c to seek the moral 
germ which is in all things, and ever hold the underlying purjiose of the 
Morning Talk to be the awakening of the child's higher nature, the 
deepening oftlu- liu- " 

TuK November tnecting ol the I'lulatUlphi.i S*victy 01 Frocl>eI 
Kindergartners. had the privilege of an address from an honorary 
inenilu-r. Miss .\iigeline BriH>ks, of New York l"nivcn»ity, upon " Au 
.\pplicationof the I,awof Tnity loSex; or. The Foundation of the Home." 

374 Field Notes. 

It was a spiritual interpretation of the culminating tinity from the 
numberless dualities of the universe, breathing the spirit : "The pure in 
heart shall see God in all that He has made." — DI. Gay., Secretary. 

The Kiudergartuers of Detroit, Mich., are working with renewed 
energy under the direction of Mrs. L. W. Treat. A morning class of 
nearly seventy members is in organized work, also a special class for the 
study of Froebel's Mother Play Book. We reprint the following from the 
Detroit Evening News of December 2ud : "There is a growing interest 
here in the ' Froebel thought' as explained by Mrs. Lucretia Willard 
Treat, of the Grand Rapids Kindergarten Association. Mrs. Treat comes 
here each alternate Saturday, and on December 3, will continue work 
at the high school at 9:30 a. m. The study and explanation of Froebel's 
' Mutter und Kose Lieder ' will be given at the Detroit home and daj- 
school, corner of Cass avenue and vStimpson place at 2:30 p. m. This is 
a most helpful and inspiring study for all interested in the development 
of their children. A general invitation is extended to join the class. 
The opening of a Froebel Kindergarten at the corner of Prentis and 
Fourth avenues, is an advent for which the people in that part of the city 
are glad. The Kindergarten is under the direction of Miss Clara L. 
Doane, an able and experienced Kindergartner, graduate of the Chicago 
Froebel Kindergarten training school, assisted b}- Miss Martha A. Tenny, 
pupil of Prof. Calvin B. Cady, of the Chicago Conservator)'. Miss Tenny 
is already well known for her artistic work in music and Delsarte. Her 
work with the little folk is to develop musical thought, which will lead 
to true expression in subsequent piano work." 

Thte state of Colorado is agitated to the extent of legislating on the 
question of Kindergarten for the public schools, the present winter. 
The women of Denver are enterprising and pushing and there is no 
reason why thej' should not carry the day in their earnest endeavor. 

South Oil, City, Pa., is awaking to the needs of more Kindergarten 
information as well as enthusiasm. 

Three hundred children selected from the large classes of Wm. L. 
Tomlins, gave a Christmas Carol Concert December 27th, in Central 
Music Hall, Chicago. Their sweet rendering of the old-time carols was 
one of the most pleasant occasions of the holiday time. 

Miss F>a B. Whitmore writes from Gottingen, Germany, of a de- 
lightful trip down the Rhine, to the Hartz INIountains, and a call at 
Eisenach on Miss Hierwart, of Kindergarten fame. 

A Baltimore Kindergartner writes the following account of the 
Kindergarten Association of that city : The Kindergarten movement is 
making progress in Baltimore, although in a slower way than in many 

Field Notes. 375 

places. The Baltimore Kitnlergartcn AsMxiattoii wa^ organized ou 
December 10, 188.S, having then seven mcinberB; now it has fifty-lwo 
members on its roll-book. For some years now, our Association has 
enabled us to have courses of lectures each winter, at little «*r no ex- 
pense. Year before hiit it was a course in Slojd Mo<leling (in paste- 
board), given by Miss Crandall. Last winter and spring we were 
fortunate in having a course of lectures on I'sychology, given by Dr. 
GriflSn, Dean of the Faculty of the Johns Hopkins University. Out of 
his interest in all eilucatioual movements, and especially in ours, he 
offered to give us the lectures, with the proviso that we might expect 
absences if other engagements conflicted. But not once was Dr. Griflin 
absent. This year a class in Physical Culture is being formed. 

The membership of our association includes almost all Kindcrgart- 
ners in the city. As far as could possibly l>c ascertained, we have 
thirteen Free Kindergartens, supported by churches, or charitable 
individuals, and sixteen private Kindergartens. There are 593 children 
in free Kindergartens and 164 in private Kindergartens. This letter 
would be incomplete did I omit mention of the two training classes, 
whose trainers are backed by our association, with hearty commenda- 
tion. Originally two private enterprises, these two ladies year by year 
have so interchanged their work, that it is virtually one class now, the 
fourteen students jirofiting by the best points in each trainer. 

Tnr: eilucatioual exhil)it at tlie World's F'air is to have the space it 
requires. A new building costing Ji2o,(k*) has been ordere<l for the 
€thnologica\ exhibit, which accordingly is thereby rcmoverl from the 
Manufactures and Liberal Arts building, thus allowing more space for 
the educational exhibit. 

Tin: editors of the KlNl)KRr..\RTi:N M.\c;.\/.inj-: have l)een favoreil 
with a Christmas gift of the new I'roebel bust, f»>r which they thank Mr. 
Thi>s. Charles. The bust stan<ls fourteen inches high and was mo«leled 
by Sydney H. Morse, the sculjitor who mo<lele»l the familiar I*'merson 
heatl. All the j)ictures and jK)ssible hel|>s have been gathere«l together 
in order to bring the outline aiul contour of the great etlucator's face as 
nearly correct as ixissible. The lower part of the face is particularly 
plciy?ing, and suggests what might have been the gentle chanictcr of 

r.\KTiKS wishing to send in exhibits of school work must apply to 
Dr. I'ealKxly. who is chairman of the LU>ernl Arts committee and will 
arrange for si>iice and jUace of exhibit. 

Miss Andrk.v Hoki;r, of the Kindhrlvrtkn M.\r..\riNK, spent • 
wet"k at Grand Rapids, and reports the most flourishing and broadening 
work going on umler the Kindergarten Association of that city. 

376 Field Notes. 

The Froebel Kiudergarten Society, of Toledo, O. , have issued cards 
which cordiall)' iuvite their friends to meet them the first Friday of ev- 
ery month, from two to four o'clock in the afternoon, for the study and 
discussion of Froebel's method as applied to the child in the home, the 
Kindergarten, and the public school. The following list of subjects 
have been selected for discussion : Friedrich Froebel and His Work, 
The Child a Bundle of Possibilities, The Discipline of the Will, The 
Value of the Imagination, Froebel's Law of Unity or the Law of Reci- 
prosity. The first meeting takes place January 6th, 1S93. 

Mrs. O. E. Weston, of Chicago, will spend the month of February 
in Jacksonville, Florida, in furthering the work there. 

Many Kindergartners from outside points have been spending the 
holidays in Chicago, looking into the various phases of the work being 
done here, and attending the Literary School, to hear what the wise men 
of to-day have to say for Shakespeare. 

The Galveston Free Kindergarten Association has been organized 
and the following officers elected : Mrs. Julia Runge, president ; Mrs. 
Aaron Blum, vice-president ; Miss Wilkins, treasurer ; Miss Ballinger, 
recording secretary ; Mrs. Rembert, corresponding secretary. This 
free Kindergarten will be opened early in January at the West End and 
all arrangements to that end are now being perfected. Texas does noth- 
ing in a small way. This Kindergarten, equipped with teachers and 
material for fifty children, begins with a fund to maintain it for one 
year. Galveston, though not a large city, has a free school system equal 
to any in the United States, and a school superintendent. Dr. O. H. 
Cooper, who stands upon the mountain-top. In a public address re- 
cently delivered in favor of free Kindergartens, he said : "I advocate a 
complete system of education for Galveston, beginning with the Kin- 
dergarten, and ending with the University. — R. C. R. 

We are in receipt of the Christmas Festival card of The Silver Street 
Kindergarten, San Francisco, with the compliments of Miss Nora Smith. 
The following program was announced and carried out, December 17, 
1892, 10 o'clock in the morning : 
Christmas March. 

[Entrance of the children of the three Kindergartens.] 
Christmas Carol. 

A Day in a Child's Life. 


This is how, all thro' the Night. 

Wake up, the Sun is shining. ' 

Fuld Notes. 377 

n. — MORNMNr. I'RkVrR»i 

Father, we thank Thee. 

<^iod sees. 

Oh ! little hands be good to-day. 

Lips say " Good-morning." 
Thumbs and fingers say "Good-morning." 
The Family. 
The Merry Men. 


The Tinkers. 
The Dollies. 
Cuddle Down. Dolly. 

The New Moon. 
The Moon and Stars. 
Where do all the Habies go ? 


We take the followin)^ paragraph from the petition i)Ut forth by the 
citizens of the District of Columbia to the fifty-first Conjjress of the 
United States. The document sets forth giKxl rea.sons for establishing 
Free Kindergartens and the following is one of the arguments : " Even 
the most conscientious mother does not know how to satisfy the active 
child's cry — ' What can I do/' — unles.<; she has studieil the Kinder- 
garten philosophy, and the younger children do not claim her attention. 
In the Kindergarten, this God-given desire for occupation and love of 
industry is gratified and encouraged." 

Mr. JoSEi'ii L. Sii^sBiCE, of Edgcwater, 111., presentetl his lady with 
a supply of fine stationery with a heading of a fine engraving of the 
seven children of the family. The home is calletl Kinderheim, both of 

which facts will he highly appreciated by Kindergartners. 

Miss Mary C. McCulloch, supervisor of the eighty-six public school 
Kindergartens of St. Louis, si>ent the holiday week in Chicago, attends 
ing the Shakespeare school and meeting with friends in the profession. 


The first edition of The Kindergarteii Directory is published by 
Mr. Louis H. Alleu, of Buflfalo, N, Y. It contains a verified list of the 
Kindergartners, Training Classes, Kindergarten Associations and Socie- 
ties, cities maintaining public Kindergartens in the United States and 
Canada, and a complete list of Kindergarten publications. The pub- 
lisher has certainly produced a book of the greatest value to the cause 
at large and individual Kindergartners can keep in line with the work 
in no more intelligent way than to secure a copy (price li.oo) and study 
its contents. The following paragraph from the publisher's introduc- 
tion is in itself an index to the practical value of the directory : " The 
growth of the Kindergarten in this country is most encouraging to 
those who look closely ; we have outstripped Europe in numbers, 
and the future promises a much more rapid spread. Special reports 
from seventy training classes in our hands indicate that there were one 
thousand six hundred and twenty-seven pupils studying the Kindergar- 
ten system in last year's classes — more than the entire number published 
in this directory — while the estimates of possible graduates given was 
one thousand one hundred and twenty-five, so that, including those 
trained by private Kindergartners, there were at least one thousand 
Kindergartners, more or less trained, and launched into this work." 

How to Teach Paper- Folding and Cutting is the title on a practical 
manual recently published by March Bros., Lebanon, Ohio. The object 
of the author is to provide a simple teachers' guide in this the first 
steps in manual training. The book is fully illustrated and the direc- 
tions and dictations are clear, covering the successive steps from the 
simplest paper cutting and fold up to the modeling of solids in card- 
board, including fancy border designs and color combinations. 

Another effort to supply teachers with fornmlated help in the 
manual occupations, being now so generally adopted, is that of Miss 
Ellen Hildreth in Clay Modeling in the School-room, published by 
Milton Bradley Company. The outline of work is based on that tested 
in the St. Louis public schools for many years. It offers a systematic 
and progressive scheme, combining form study and manual skill in 
modeling. The author closes her preface with the remark : " Clay 
work in the school-room must constantly combine beauty and use and 
never be allowed to drift into aimless play. The chapters of the little 

Literary Notes. 379 

book consider the care an<l provision of good clay, general directions for 
niodelinj^, illustrations of forms and objects repro<luced as well as 
many hints un the educational and scientific value of the work." 

Thk Literary Northwest, published by D. D. Merrill & Co., St. Paul, 
is a thoroughly cre<litable illustrated monthly whose design is to utilize 
the literary talent of the great Northwest. The opening article in the 
Decemlier number, by Mrs. Ada .\dams, is on " Child Culture at Home." 
The magazine has an e<Uualional flavor worthy the staunch finn whose 
name it l)ear8. There is room in the West for more strong publishing 
companies who make unto jjermanency of literature and cease to harbor 
only the transients among books. 

Nkw Pkriodicals Announced : Amtrican Young People, Chicago, 
an illustrated monthly devoted to American history for boys and girls. 

Current History, published at Detroit, Mich., edited by Alfred John- 
son. — a (juarterly register of current history. 

The New Peterson Magazine comes with the Januar>- number, in 
place of the old one. Its aim is to be thoroughly new in ever>* respect. 

The 'whole I'amily is publisl:ed by Russell Publi.shing Co., Koston. 
It is edited in many Departments, intended to cover the needs of family 
reading once a mouth. 

The Gertrude Quarterly, devoted to the interests of the home and 
healthful dress, published in Chicago, has reachetl its fourth numlier. 
It furnishes-readable articles about woman's work and gives illustrated 
helps as to patterns and styks. 

H'orthington's Illustrated Magazine carries as its sub-title " Liter- 
ary Treasury." The initial number is datetl January, 1893, published 
by .-\. D. Worthington vS: Co.. Hartford, Conn. 

Childhood is a monthly addressed to parent.s, is published at 7S 
Maiden I.ane, New York, Ji.oo a year, editors. Dr. tieo. Winterbum 
& Florence Hull. 

"Our Children of the Slums," is a volume ol studies of child life in 
the Kindergartens of St. Louis. The lK)ok is written by .\unie Bronton 
King ami pu»>lislied by D. D. Merrill ^S: Co., New York. 


Take Notice. — For the convenience of those whose subscriptions 
•expire, we inclose a very simple form of Convertible Subscription Blank. 
It is only necessary to fill the blank lines, inclose remittance, fold, and 
seal the edges, which are alreadj^ gummed for that purpose. This con- 
stitutes a secure envelope, already addressed, only waiting a two-cent 
stamp to be ready for mailing. 

A New Magazine. — Child-Garden, of Story, Song and Play, which 
appeared last month, supplementing Kindergarten work, in the home 
and nursery, has been received with open arms. The subscription price 
is |i.oo per year in advance. Send in lists of mothers with j^ouug 
children who would be glad to receive this magazine for their little ones. 

A year's subscription to either Kindergarten Magazine or Child- 
Garden will be given for acceptable short stories, verses, games and 
songs. Address Kindergarten Magazine, Woman's Temple, Chicago, 

Foreign Subscriptions. — On all subscriptions outside of the States, 
British Columbia, Canada and Mexico, add forty cents (40 cents") for 
postage, save in case of South Africa, outside of the postal union, 
which amounts to 80 cents extra on the year's numbers. 

The pages of the Kindergarten Magazine will no longer be cut 
by machine since the majority of readers save their files for binding and 
prefer not to have them trimmed twice. Vol. V. will be more hand- 
somely bound than ever, and no magazines will be exchanged at the 
end of the year that have been cut by machine. Our readers will please 
take notice. 

Busi7iess Correspondence. — Send your subscription (]pi.5o) made pay- 
able to the Kindergarten Magazine, Woman's Temple, Chicago, 111., 
either by money order, express order, postal note or draft. (No foreign 
stamps received.) Always send your subscriptions direct to us and 
avoid delay and confusion. 

All inquiries concerning training schools, supplies, literature, song 
books, lectures, trained Kindergartners, etc., will be freely answered by 
correspondence or by the advertising columns of the Kindergarten 

Publishers' Notes. 381 

All subscriptions are stopped on expiration— the last number l>eing 
niarkeil, " With this number your subscription expires," and a return 

subscription blank iiK-lostil. 

There is great demand for all back numbers of the KindhrcarTKN 
Ma(;azink, by many who wish to possess the complete file. This shows 
a growing appreciation of the practical value of the n>aga/ine. There is 
repeated call for Volume I. The substance of this volume can \rt secured 
in the compilation, Mothers' Portfolio. Price J2.25. Vol. II. is entirely 
out of print, and only a very limited numl>er of bound Vol. III. are in 
the market, at I3.00 each. Vol. IV., in cloth, can still l>e hail for $2.25. 
Address. Kindergartkn Magazink, Woman's Temple, Chicago. 

IFan/ed.—We need February 1892 Magazines. Also May '88, and 
'89. If you have one to spare send it, and we will give you any other 
number in exchange. Kindhroartkn Magazink, Woman's Temple, 

Bound Volumes. — Exchange your files for '9i-'92 (Vol. IV.) for a 
bound volume of same ; it will cost you only 75 cents to have a hand- 
some book made of your numbers. 

If you want to spread the work send for a l)unch of our new circulars 
to distribute. 

In requesting change of address always state both the new and the 
old location. It saves us time and trouble. 

Hotv lo .Send Jfone'v. —Remit by postal money • order, Iwnk -check 
or draft, express money order, or in registeretl letters. If remitted 
otherwise, it will be at the sender's risk. Postal notes and bank notes 
are often sent, but arc not the safest form of remittance, unless sent in 
a registert<l letter. Make all money orders, checks, and drafts payable 
to KiNDivRi'.ARTKN Magazi.nk, Woman's Tciuplc, Chicago, 111. 

Our readers who change their addresses should immetliately notify 
us of same and save the return of their mail to us. 

vol,, v.— NO. 5. 27 

Our World's Fair Premium Offer 

... To any one sending us fifty new subscriptions to the 
Kindergarten Magazine and $75.00 or seventy-five new 
subscriptions to Child-Garden and $75.00 by April ist, 1893, 
we will furnish a week's entertainment in Chicago during 
the World's Fair. 

We will supply circulars, subscription blanks and sam- 
ple copies for any such to work with. 

Please correspond with us at once. 

Kindergarten Magazine, Woman's Temple, Chicago. 


Fidiii a phiitogiaph of a statue by Carl Kohl-Smith, to be placed in the entrance of 
Klcctricity Building, at tlie Columbian Exposition. 


/ ;V. / '. hliBRL \ I A' ) '. /SqS—^'o. 6. 

Till-: kim)i:k(,aktkn as an institution for 


■''f^i^\*J!3''^^»k\ "^' l^''i*'<^"''h'*''t'-'" •'^^ •'*" institution for 
-if^'^Tj^HT^ - " moral training,' is the subject I have 
/Cv{ v^T been asked to present. Morality may 

' \' A*** - ' ''*^ ilcfined as the observance of the 
' i,p^'t (Uitits iinolveii in the social relations 

• -^^i ol incM. The vital importance of j^ivin^ 

'.rr^» more attention to this subject than it 

:y * has heretofore received is bein^ more 

and more appreciated by both edu- 
cators aiul stuilents of st)cial science. 

Society is a unit, and the absunlit)' of netjlectin}^ moral 
traiiiini^ iti the schools, thus necessitating^ remedial measures 
later on, is obvious. 

The tax-pa\er who supports the sclu)t»ls must also pay 
for the maintenance of j^ood social order, and he has aright 
to complain if throuijh an\- nei^lcct of the schools social 
order does not prevail. 

The public schools were first established in this countr>', 
anil have since been maintained, for the purpose t>f making 
j^ootl citizens, for it is universall)" ctinceileil that "ii^norance 
is the parent of vice." However well they may have ful- 
filled their nussion in the past, new ci>mplications have 
arisen which require the adoption of new measures. In all 
departments of industry and social life*customs that prc- 

*Hapt'i n-mi nt Coliimhin CollrKc. New Vork, before the Conlrrcnrc of KdumlkNMl 

384 Moral Tnri/iifii^ of the Kindcrij;aytcii. 

vailed forty years ago are now practically obsolete, and it 
must be admitted that many of the changes which have re- 
sulted have produced conditions not favorable to the forma- 
tion of good social habits. The crowding together in large 
cities of so many families in tenement houses deprives chil- 
dren of the comforts enjoyed by a well-ordered family, pre- 
vents the forming of any standard of what true home-life 
may be, and induces a life of idleness. The education in 
practical morality, which the country boy receives from the 
varied occupations of the farm and the kindly and helpful 
associations of neighborhood-life, is entirely wanting to the 
boy in the city, who having, when out of school, no proper 
field for his activities, ine\itabl)- falls into mischief. The 
criminal records and the statistics of our reformatory insti- 
tutions show that from year to year there is an alarming 
increase of juvenile criminals, and the establishment, within 
a few years, of the reformatorj' prison at Elmira, in this state, 
was deemed essential because of the existence of this 
increasing and dangerous class. 

Our educational problem is further complicated b}- the 
fact that a large part of the tenement population of our 
great cities is composed of recent immigrants who are hence- 
forth to be citizens of this country, but who have brought 
hither the ignorance and the vices of the lowest classes of 
the Old World. New York city, in which multitudes of this 
foreign population are accumulated, is in danger of being 
overwhelmed by this constantly increasing mass, ignorant 
of our language and of the principles which underlie our 
national life. These are the classes which must be trans- 
formed into good citizens. 

In view of this alarming condition of things we turn with 
pleasure to the Kindergarten as a possible means of solving 
our difficulties. 

It would, howe\'er, be too much to claim that the Kin- 
dergarten would accomplish so great a result should the 
schools remain as they are; but it is claimed that the Kin- 
dergarten is the foundation of a true education and that it 
is based upon principles which, if established and fully 

Moral Trtuhing of llw KimiirgorUn. 385 

.il)|)lir(l ill the schools, would accomplish the needed educa- 
tional reformation. 

It is \\\y purpose t«> show that the Kiuder^,'arten is an in- 
stitution pri-einiiu-ntl\' pr(iinoti\e ot both social and moral 
education, an<l t liat, therrf(»ri-, it is ;i(i;i|)te(l to the exigencies 
of the tiims. 

As no other education.ii institution ha^ e\er done, it pro- 
vides for tlu- most iniprissionable perioti of the child's exist- 
ence. The schools do not ordinariU* accept the child below 
the yiars of a^e, ami lre(|uentl\' not below six. but all 
acquainted with chilil-life know that his |)ractical education 
is well advanced before this ai;e, and that he has already 
recei\ ed the bent which determines not onl>- what his school- 
life will 1)1'. but fri-(|uciitl\- also what his whole future char- 
acter will be. 

A child the \ears of a^e ina\ ha\e been so well started 
in life that when hi- enters the school he ma\' have a recep- 
tive niinil, a docile, reverent, and trustful spirit, habits of 
truthfulness ;ind obedience, refineil tastes. Ljentle manners, 
I cheerful disposition, aiul a will so traineil to re^aril the 
rights of others that he can easil\- adapt himself to the 
social condition of the miniature communit)' into which he 
has been introduced; or he ma\- have (|ualities the reverse 
of these; but with his i)revious education the school has 
had noihiuL^ to ilo, ami must take him as it hnds him. 

Now that we are becominj.j familiar with the Kindertjar- 
ten and its possibilities, wi- are betjinnin^ tt) realize what an 
inormous loss of opportunit)' there has been ii) ne«.jlectinjj 
the years betwien three and five, to which the Kinderjjar- 
ten is perfectl)- atl.ipteil. In intrt>ducin«; the Kinderi^arten. 
as it is prop«>siil. into the public schools in this citN . it will 
be im|)ossible. without a chanj^je in the laws. ti> admit pupiU 
under t u e \ears of ai^e. It is true that /// f>r,stnt, with our 
crow did sch«)ol-buildinj;s, it would be practically impossible 
to pro\ iile suitable accommodations for all the children be- 
tween three and five \ears of a^e. of whom it is estimated 
there are at least se\ent\- thousand in the tenement hou>e> 

386 Moral Ty(7ini/i^i^ of the Kindergarten. 

Visionary as may appear the scheme of thus extending 
the school age, there arc in the way no difficulties which 
will not be surmounted when the public becomes fully 
aroused, in their consideration of the enormous interests at 
stake, and are made thoroughly conversant with the pre- 
ventive and upbuilding educational possibilities of the Kin- 
dergarten, when presented under the best conditions. / 

In the social development of this countr)' this is dis- 
tinctly a time of emergenc}-, to meet which new and hereto- 
fore unused measures must be resorted to. A long step will 
have been taken toward that unification of society which 
Froebel saw would be the inevitable result of the application 
of his theories, when all classes of society shall unite in a 
common enthusiasm for childhood. 

Two features of the Kindergarten particularly adapted 
as means of promoting the moral training we are consider- 
ing are (1) its manual training antl (2) the joy of the play 
spirit in which the work is done; play necessarily implying 
playmates, and therefore involving direct social education. 

Much has recently been said and written on the moral 
and intellectual \'alue of manual training, and it is chiefly 
on these grounds that it has been accepted in the schools. 

The Kindergarten was the pioneer in the great manual- 
training movement, which during the last decade has ex- 
tended throughout the country, and whith marks an epoch 
in the de\'elopment of our educational ideas. More than 
sixty years ago Froebel, in "The Education of Man," laid 
down the principle that no instruction is of value which is 
purely theoretical. He declared that education should be 
the means of disclosing to each individual his own possibili- 
ties; that no one can know himself, and hence suitably re- 
spect and esteem himself, until he has seen himself object- 
ively in some product of his own activity. He therefore 
strongly emphasized the necessity of doing. Froebel never 
stops with mere theory. Unlike the great writers on educa- 
tion who preceded him, he reduces all his theories to prac- 
tice, going into the minutest details in the preparation of 
material for the use of infant hands, and prescribing particu- 

Monti J'niinini^ of the Kituicrt^arten. 387 

lar directions t«M the ccjiuluct of the orj^ani/ecl j»amcs of the 
Kindergarten. He has probably gone more deeply than 
an)' other writer into the psychology of the subject of man- 
ual training. In the notes of one of the songs of the 
"Mother Play" book, he says that counting, which is neces- 
sarilv iiu'oKed in all e.xact manual work, is a moral act; 
and in the " I'Mucation of Man," he sa)s that mathematics, 
which he uould always give to the child in concrete form 
in connection w ith some work of his hands, are allied to 

In the simplest and most elementary occupations of the 
Kin<leri^arten there are fostered habits of accurac\-. atten- 
tion, carefulness, patience, perseverance, ami method, — 
habits which cannot fail to have a powerful influence in dc- 
\elopin;^' the moral virtues of truthfulness, conscientious- 
ness, industr)', thrift, and self-reliance. The want of these 
virtues is painfully apparent in that large class of our fellow- 
beings who necessitate the existence of our boards «»f char- 
ities and corrections. It is a significant fact that those who 
need charit)' and those who require correction are, in sta- 
tistical tables, usual 1\' classed together. 

An investigation into the causes which have led these 
large classes to drop from the ranks of good citizenship dis- 
closes the fact that in a large majorit\" of cases both the 
|)auj)er and the criminal have untrained hands ami undis- 
ciplined minds of which their enfeebled moral condition is 
an inevitable result. The superintendent t>f the reforma- 
tt)ry prison at I^lmira sa>s that of the young criminals en- 
tering there, very few have any special aptitude for any use- 
ful work; and further than this, the carefull)- kept statistics 
t)f the institution show that nearly all are tlu* chililren of 
thriftless parents unskilled in the arts and industries of life. 
Mr. Dugdale. an authorit)' on the subject, in his book u|>on 
"Crime and Pauperism," sa\s that if the children of vice 
and crime, born with the lowest tendencies, could from their 
earliest childhood be traineil in P'roebel's motluuls, these 
tendencies might be to a great extent overcome. 

That the Kindergarten does produce moral results of the 

388 Moral Training of the Kindergarten. 

most positive kind is shown in an article by Miss Lewis, in 
The Californian for January, 1892. in which she states that an 
investigation of the record of the nine thousand children 
who have been trained in the Kindergartens of the Golden 
Gate Association, shows that only one has ever been arrested 
for crime. 

When vvc consider that tiicsc nine thousand Kindergar- 
ten children were all gathered from the slums of San Fran- 
cisco, we are forced to admit that the Kindergarten is a 
great moral agency. 

Upon this subject I quote from a published address of 
Mr. Hailmann. He says: "Good Kindergarten in all its 
work is pre-emincntl}' religious and ethical. Work in the 
Kindergarten from beginning to end has reference to the 
religious promise in the growth of the child. 

"Again at every point of the work the teacher must act 
in full sympathy with the child, must place himself on the 
child's plane, and from this, labor toward the child's (the 
human) ideal. If the Kindergartner seOs in the gifts and 
occupations entls instead of means of instruction; if she 
makes weaving, building, or folding matters of instruction, 
and subordinates the child io these, -she has not the spirit 
of Froebel. 

"It has been said that we must go down to the child. I 
would say. Go up to the child; lift yourself if you can, to 
the lc\cl of innocence, of singleness of purpose, of pure 
and simple enjoyment of all things ; follow the child ; be 
led by him ; carefully and thoughtful!}' seek to know the 
direction in which he drifts, then helj) him in his upward 
tendencies, and guartl him against all that looks downward. 

"Again, the Kindergarten is essentially ethical. y\ll its 
work must build up character, benexolence, justice, right- 
eousness, in exery sense of the word, h'or this purpose its 
surroundings are adjusted. 'Then,' say some oT the critics, 
'you do not propose that children shall know an\'thing ?' 
Know! We want them to know vastly more than the\' know 
now; their knowledge shall not be merely verbal, but j)rac- 
tical, entering the pui)irs \'er\' life. 

Moral Training of the Kindergarten. 389 

" If tlu Kinclcrj^artcn has any quarrel with the school — 
ihoii^,^! I cannot sec tliat it has it is not that the school 
teaches too much, hut that it fails to put int<» the learner's 
life the knowleclj^e it docs teach." 

What a re\'olution would he uroui^ht in the homes and 
the lives of the chililren of the present generation in this 
' ity if from this time onuard their natural activities were so 
careful!)- fostered and directed that all should delijjht in the 
work of their own hands! 

I'roebel's wisdom is nowhere more manifest than in the 
pro\ision he makes for having e\er\thinj4 ilone in the pla\ 
spirit. The chiltl of the Kinder<.jarten is usually on yood 
terms with his companions, chief1\- because he is on good 
terms with himself; the delii,dit of healthy activity and the 
jojousness of spontaneous plaj' creating an atmosphere in 
which selfishness anil ill nature do not thrive. 

The objection is sometimes raised that in the Kindergar- 
ten the work is made too eas)- for the chiki; that, iiuleed. 
he is not taught to work but onl\' to play. The objectors 
o\erlook the tact that there are purpose anil method in the 
pla>- of the Kindergarten, and that, if the activities of young 
children are to be directed to educational ends it must be 
done through their pla\-. since to them work, as such, is 
hopelessl)- irksome. Ihey will willingly, glailly work if 
they can only play that the\' are working, as they do in the 

As has been saiil " Labor performs the prescribeil task, 
but |)lay prescribes for itself." Visitors in the Kindergarten 
often express themselves as specially impresseil b\- the evi- 
dent hapjjincss ami positive joyousness manifesteil by the 
children. No better means of .social training can be devised 
than that which is involved in organized play. Children 
gather in a circle, dropping their own personality for the 
sake of sharing in the larger personality of the little com- 
munity of which they are a part. Thus the ci>nceited and 
aggressive as well as the timid and shrinking are led to 
appreciate themselves at their true value. 

Not long since an intelligent visitor in a Kindergarten 

390 Moral Training of tJie Kindergarteit. 

was moved to tears on observing the self control and evi- 
dent sympathy of a large circle of children as they patiently 
waited for a somewhat dull child to choose the game. Surely 
here was a training in good morals which is 7iot always evi- 
dent iji games played by children of a larger growth. It is to be 
hoped that there is educational value in play, for if there is 
not what is to become of our universities? 

The true Kindcrgartncr plays, studies to play; and it will 
be a happy day for the schools when the glad, free, and joy- 
ous spirit of true play animates all, both teacher and pupils. 
It is impossible truly to play with the children and at the 
same time to be cross and unsympathetic. 

Closely allied to \\\cjoy of the play spirit is the delight 
which the children takeinthe bea?itif?d — the central thought 
of the Kindergarten being to secure the happiness of the 
children, not as an end but as a means. 

The indolent, thriftless, joyless man is a dangerous mem- 
ber of society. Let him take positive delight in his own 
work and learn to respect and esteem himself as the pro- 
ducer of that which is good and beautiful, and he becomes a 
bringer of happiness to the community, for "virtue kindles 
at the touch of joy." Angeline Brooks. 


She started up was it indeed s<j late? 

The shadows leiij^tlieiiiii;^ on the ^ 
Mad turned from west to east 

So swifti)' did life's morning pass — 
And she, who mij^ht have wrought the most, had wrought 
the least; 

And it was afternoon. 

Yet had she gained much of the good of life; 

Urank of love's jjoisoned sweets, 
And of )'outh's rash ambition drained the cup. 
Now what of gLidness mi;^du she hoj)e to meet, 
Who thus had used life's charm .ind sweetness up 

l*>e it was afternoon? 

liut oh, the good she still might do! 

The fainting hearts that she might comfort >et. 
Tile hungr\' souls that now she longed to feed! 
She would arise ere yet the sun was set, 
And comfort all whom she might tliul in neeii, 

While still 'twas afternoon. 

.She roM.-, iiioit.- r.iger lli.m in life's young dawn. 

Hrought all her ri|)eiUHl powers to the task; 
Adown the shaded wa\s she passed with jo\-. 

(iave of her garnered sweets to any who might ask, 
( )r lu-eded of luT store, and in this hlest emplo\- 

She passid her .ifternoon. 

\\ ho uails o'er lifi-'s bright morning gone? 

The gods at noon shall give thee greater power. 
And show thee higher hon«)rs to achieve. 
Antl in the ijuiet of that noontide hour 
liestow .1 prize on all who give the best that any give - 

Life's fruitful afternoon. 
Grami Kapiiis, Mu/i. .M akv K. Si.v. 



GOOD Kindergartner wishes to teach 
only good. She wishes to teach all 
good, by both precept and example. 
I wish just a word with teachers and 
mothers upon the character of nurs- 
ery rhymes. If the characters of 
Dickens, Hugo, or Shakespeare are 
real to us who are grown, and if 
these literary creations influence the 
acts and thoughts of our every day, how infinitely more real 
to a child are Jack Horner, Jack and Jill, and the little and 
big people who live in nursery rhymes! What is the moral 
atmosphere of many of these rhymes? 

Tom, Tom, the piper's son, 
Stole a pig and away he run. 

Taffy was a Welshman; Taffy was a thief; 
Taffy came to my house and stole a leg of beef. 

Nanty, panty, Jack-a-Dandy 
Stole a piece of sugar candy 
From the grocer's shoppy-shop, 
And away did hojjpy-hop. 

These are nothing more or less than a set of little 
thieves, though no sentence or thought of condemnation 
runs through the rhymes. Would you let your boy go with 
Tom on his pig-stealing expedition? Then do not permit 
a mental association. It is mental, not physical, associa- 
tions that contaminate. 

Not only do the gamins of the nursery rhyme out-steal 
the real ones of the street, but the greatest kings commit 
petty larceny for no apparent reason, and queens and nobles 
profit by stolen goods. 

Our Xurscry Rhymes. 393 

\\'\M:n good [\) King Arthur ruled the land. 

He was -a i;oodly kin;{; , 

He STOLK two |»c<ks of barley-meal 

I'o make a baj^-puddin^'. 

A l>a};-i>u(l(Iin}^' the kin^ did make, 

And sluffctl it well with [>lums, 
And in it put some lumps of fat 

As bi^' as my two thumbs. 

The king and queen did eat thereof. 

And nobles ate beside; 
And what they did not eat that night 

The ijueen next morning fried. 

Talf)' ami Tom and |ack-a-I)atuly arc now in such i^ood 
cctmpaiiN', ami tlu-ir i\|)l()its so compk-tcly justified b\' the 
moral code of tlu- Koiiml iahit.' KIiil^. made ftiniou.s by Tcn- 
n\soii. that it sii-ms aiulacioiis to sii;^«.jest to mothers anti 
KiMderL,Mrtmrs that this is a had crowd to introduce- to the 
mind ot tluir l)o\s. 

.\ftir a ihorouLjh ac(iuaintancc with these kini;I\- an<l 
j)lel)t.'ian pilferers, we are |)re|)ared tt» inttrtain thf l)o\ with 
a hroom that sings: 

Money I want, and money I crave: 

If you don't give me money. 
I'll sweep you to the grave. 

Ihr 'llold up your hantis" of the iiighw.iyman, the 
" Mone\ or N'our life " of the James j^ang. is thus easily 
adapted U^ the melodies of Mi»ther (ioose. Hut who shall 
sa\' how far it j^oes to adaf>tinji^ the mini! of the chilil to such 

ke\erence for life not onl\ the life t)f another child, 
hut of a bird, a butterfly, for life in the abstract is one of 
the hrst thinj^s to teach a chihi. Life is not man-created; 
it shoidd not imiler any circmnstances be man-ilestroyed. 
The tlisrej^ard of life, the cheapness of it. is loo painfully 
apparent to thoughtful men to-day. When an Illinois le^^is- 
lature tries to bribe bo\s to kill sparrows, b\- an offer of two 
cents for each dead bird; when a New York legislature 
spends humlreds of thousands of dollars to devise some ex- 

394 Our X ins cry RJiy/in^s. 

quisitely cruel, some intellectualh' barbarous, method of 
murder, why should we wonder at "white caps" and "Jack 
the rippers"? 

Life is sacred; its destruction is murder, whether done 
by a sheriff with a rope or an electrocuting machine in a 
jail-yard, or by a thug with a stiletto in a saloon. We can 
hardly hope to reach the murderers on the Bowery or South 
Clark street, till we reach those in our courts and juries. 
Let us begin with the children in our homes. 

I can remember the shudder of horror and the boyish 
tears after I went to bed, caused by the tale of "A Kid, a 
Kid." It was all well enough until "the rope began to hang 
the butcher, the butcher began to kill the ox," etc., etc. 
Then I shuddered. Death seems to be the only satisfactory 
thing to the poets of these old rhymes. Death, death, 
death, till our nursery rhymes seem like a slaughter-house! 
Even in "Jack and Jill" there must be a broken crown for 
the amusement of our little babes, in whom a single act of 
wanton cruelty will shock and deeply pain us. "The 
froggy would a-wooing go," but the inevitable tragedy ter- 
minates the courtship. 

An old crow watches a tailor make a coat, a crime no 
one recognizes until the tailor passes sentence of death 
upon his spectator: 

"Wife, bring me my arrow and my bow, 
That I may shoot that old carrion crow." 
The tailor he shot, but he missed his mark, 
And shot his own sow through the heart. 

We might say this loss of property was retributive jus- 
tice for the unjustifiable attempt upon the life of the crow, 
but for the fact that the sow too had a sacred life which 
has been unwarrantably sacrificed. In the following speci- 
men we have "capital punishment" run mad: 

The woodcock and the sparrow -' 
The little dog has burnt his tail, 
And he must be hung to-morrow. 

No innocence can escape the murderous man 'mongst 
these rhymsters: 

Our A'///'.w7')' Rhymes. 39$ 

The white tlovt' sat on the < astic wall; 
I hcnci iiiv l>i)W, aiul shtiot lur I shall. 

riiiii there is 

John Hall, who shot them all. 

l''.iithfiiliK-ss is a crime to l)e punished with death, when 
the faithful one has outlived its usefulness: 

Harnaby Hri>;ht was a sharp little cur; 

lie always would hark if a mouse did but stir; 

Hut now /it^'s ^rown old, and tan no longer bark. 

He's condemned by the parson tf» be hanged hy the clerk. 

When these rhymes and sonj.;s iiave been spiui out to 
the hour for retiring, a reall)' "trained nurse" closes with 

Here comes a candle to light you to bed; 
1 1 ere comes a chopper to chop off your head. 

In an A, H. C book meant to teach little ones the alpha- 
bet, I see that 

" A " is an archer 
Who shot at a frog; 

and from the illustrations we see the deadly effect of the 

Our riddles are no heller. ( )ne specimen is enouj^h: 

.\s I went "cross on London bridge 

I met my sister Ann; 
I ciT nr.K riiKoAT and sicked hkk »H)oI). 

.\ii(.l kt her body stand. 

X() matter what may be the key to a riddle told in such a 
manner, it ou^dit never to be told. 

Cruelties everywhere cruelties that are just for fun: 

The old maid is out, hanging up the clothes; 
'Long comes a black-bird and snips off her nose. 

l',\en before the baby reaches the Kinderijarten we sinj^ 
to it: 

Kock -a-byc. babv,on the tree top. 
When the wind blows the cradle will rock: 
When the bough breaks the cradle will fall. 
.And down comes ro( ka-bye, baby, and all. 

Smashed-up babies po for nothinjj, so lonj» as we sinjj it. 
I submit it to motlurs iind Kinderi^artners if the atmos- 

396 Our Xiirsity R/iyfucs. 

phcrc of nurscr)- rh)-mcs docs not need purif\-ing. I re- 
member once ni}' mother was horrified because a neighbor 
boy had told me an innocent riddle couched in language 
somewhat \'ulgar. Why so intolerant of vulgarity, and in- 
different to cruelty, greediness, murder, and all sorts of 
thiever}' in the sentiment of these rhymes? 

The pictures presented to the mind of a child should 
always be good onh' good, pure, elevating, ennobling. 
We object to \'oung men reading " blood and thunder" nov- 
els. We condemn the literar\' career of a Ned Buntling, 
who wrote one hundred and twent\' stories in which he 
killed some twelve thousand and fi\e hundred Indians, and 
ne\'er let a white man get so much as a flesh wound. Our 
nursery tales are even more of a morgue than the blood- 
curdling tales of "detectives " and Indian murderers. We 
object to our young girls reading the morbid, sentimental 
novels that infest our libraries and cheap book-stores, yet 
we teach our \-ery little girls to sing: 

Oh, don't you remember, a long time ago 
Two poor little babes — their names I don't know- 
Were stolen away one brij^ht Summer's day, 
And lost in the woods, as some people say? 
And when it was night, how sad was their plightl 
The moon had gone down, and the stars gave no light. 
They sat side by side and bitterly cried, — 
Poor babes in the wood! they laid down and died. 
And when they were dead, a robin so red 
Brought strawberry leaves and over them spread. 
And sang them a song the whole day long, — 
Poor babes in the woodsl poor babes in the woods! 

For morbid sentimentality I will j^ut that against "The 
Man of Feeling," "The .Sentimental Traveler," "Sorrows of 
Werther," or "St. I^lmo." 

From whom is reform to come? From thinking mothers, 
from conscientious Kindergartners, who, by creating an im- 
peratixe demand for more wholesome and health}' mu-sery 
rhymes and songs, will insure the supply. 


U. S. Dcpt. of Labo)\ Washiiii^toiK D. C. 



IT is not correct to add an object-lesson to the other time 
tabic of tlu- school, this other time table being made up 
of lessons coiuluctcd accorclin;^ to the oltl nu-thoil of 
school-teachiiij^. Such a procccdin}^ is nothing else than 
puttinfj a piece of new cloth upon an old garment, making 
the rent worse. There must not be a special object-lesson 
which, if treated by itself, will but rarel\- be superior to the 
other lessons of the time table. 

But ever)* lesson of the priniar\' school ou^du to be an 
object-lesson; that is to say, in every branch of tuition the 
method must be that of the true object-les.son. Now. every 
object-lesson ou^ht to consist of two parts: namely, first 
the receptive, and secondly, the creative part. Receptive 
is that part of the les.son in which the student receives, i. e.. 
perceives and cognizes, the exterior object. Tiiis cognitii>n 
will elaborate a concept, an itlea. which becomes clear to 
the student's mind when its name, ur its expression in 
words, is learned anti pronounced. 

Creative is that part of the lesson in which the student 
forms a representation; i. e.. he creates an exterior picture 
or likeness of the idea conceived in the receptive, or cog- 
nitive part of the lesson. 

The receptive part of the process is what Eroebel calls 
" internalizing the e.xterior"; the creative part he calls "ex- 
ternali/ing the interior" of the minil. "Internalizing the 
ixterior" means, therefore, what in common psychology is 
called perception ami cognition; that is, the mental absorp- 
tion of images which originate in sensation, or in the organs 
of sense. " Externalizing the interior" means what is com- 
monl\- called making or forming things, that is. labor or 
creative activitv. which is art. Thesr I>.>ebelian teriiis not 

398 Kindergarten nnd Public School. 

havinj^ been universally adopted, it seems useful to substi- 
tute for them common words. Or, in this dissertation, 
the common expressions — receiving knowledge, perceiving 
and cognizing, or reception, perception, and cognition will 
be used to signify the "internalizing"; and such common 
expressions as making, forming, creating will be used for 
the "externalizing" of the Froebel terminology. 

Cognition begins much earlier than school-teaching 
with the child. Receptive cognition begins with the first 
breath of life drawn by the new-born infant. Creative ac- 
tivit)' begins when the child commences to use his muscles, 
in causing changes of exterior circumstances such as chang- 
ing the relative position or the shapes of objects. This 
creative activit}' also begins long before a child commences 
attending school. 

It follows that the child on entering school is already 
more or less advanced in the labor of cognition. He has in 
his mind a complex image of the world in which he lives. 
This world image may be conceived as composed of a num- 
ber of part images of greater or less clearness and firmness 
and of very different sizes. These part images are divided 
from one another either b}' the conceptions of space or 
time, or more rarely, by other conditions. Thus, home life 
will form one part image; social life will form another; 
church life a third, and so on; and all these part images 
will be united by some ideas common to all of them, into 
one complex image, which was above called the world 

When new images or ideas are to be added to those al- 
ready held in the mind, they will be received with greater 
or less ease according as they have greater or less similarity 
to those already held. Similar ideas will connect and be 
assimilated and retained with ease. Dissimilar ideas, on 
the contrary, will not be easily understood, and therefore 
will not connect, not be assimilated, and be retained but 
with difficulty, and demanding a great mental effort, — 
greater than can be expected of the average pupil of the 
primary grade. 

Kintierj^dfti/i iiml riihli* School. yf) 

The educator who would not oNcrtax the strength of his 
jiupils ou^ht, therefore, to take the ideas which she wants 
to impart to her |)uj)ils, from the actual life surrounding 
ihem, i. v., from their own field of experience, which has 
already su|)plied them w ith their |)art images and their world 
ima^'i-. The farm ami its surrountlings must therefore sup- 
pi)- tlif objects for the lessons of the country school in its 
lower grades. 

Many modem educators ha\e ailopteil the proposal to 
begin school in the first grade by a consitleration of the 
"bjects contained in the school-room. Hut there is a difti- 
i. ulty in the way, which is this that the school-room is quite 
new and strange to pupils just entering school. The im- 
pressions produced by school-room objects will therefore 
leave concepts so ilifferent from the iileas alread\- helil in 
the minds of the pupils as to connect, but with difficulty, 
with them. unle.s>; the new objects are unusually striking 
anil produce impressions of intense power anil vivacity. If 
the)- are striking, or if the teacher knows how- to use them 
for the purpose of producing striking impressions, thty can 
certaiid)- be used as a starting point of primary object- 
lessons. .Mthough I'Vocbel may not have particularly rec- 
ommeiuleil them, he must not be suj)|)osed to have rejected 
them altogether. I le always useil his immediate surround- 
ings in his tuition, anil paid |)articular attention to having 
llowers, plants, anil instructi\e utensils ami instruments in 
his room, about him for such purjioses. His mind leaned 
more lo\ ingi)- to nature than \.o Imusehold gooils. which is 
one reason wh\- he preferred bringing his pupils into more 
immediate contact with nature. 

I'roebel. if placed as a teacher in an American country 
school, would most likel)' have commenceil the course of 
the first grade by a stud) of objects found in the farm-yards 
near the school, and in field and fi>rest sinroumiing the 
place. His remarkable love of the vegetable kingdom 
would prt)babl)- ha\e induced him to pa\* to it greater at- 
tention than to animals. The school year l>eginning com- 
monl) In h.uve>l time, he w«)uld probably have commenced 

400 Kindergarten and Public ScJiool. 

with the study of harvesting operations, examining mowers 
and other machines, and the produce cut by them, such as 
wheat, grass, and other produce, potatoes, beans, and so on. 
He would certainly not have overlooked the ground, with 
the differences of soil, of hill and valley, etc. 

Of greater interest than all this to the little first-grader, 
however, are the animals in the farm-yards, the cattle, hogs, 
horses, dogs, poultry, etc. Of these the pupils are sure to 
know a good deal already on entering school. And there 
is not a better way to begin enlarging their stock of ideas 
than by inducing them to tell to one another what they 
know about those living creatures which they have observed 
on their own farms and on those of their neighbors. Get 
them into the talking mood by asking them to tell the 
names of their dogs and horses and other living things. 
Ask them which of the animals is their favorite. Let them 
tell you stories of what their animals are* doing, and what 
they, the children, are doing for their dumb friends. 

If the teacher manage the conversation with an interest 
in what the pupils say and with judicious discretion, she 
will, much sooner than she would generally expect, be com- 
pelled to restrain, because numbers will want to tell her 
their own experiences, and not a lesson will pass by without 
some one telling something which is not altogether com- 
monplace. Let the teacher take hold of such a statement 
more novel and more suggestive than the average remarks, 
and try to elicit expressions of opinion from other pupils 
on the subject. If there is no difference of opinion, try 
yourself to bring about a discussion, and then, in order to 
settle the point, propose either a walk of the class to the 
farm to look into the case and examine with their own eyes, 
or, if the walk should not be possible, instruct the children 
to go there after school hours and find out and prepare 
themselves to report on the day following. When the}- 
make their report, find out how they have made their ex- 
amination and teach them how to do it systematically. 

Such discussions of things and events which the)' all 
know, will enable the teacher to develop the pupils' power 

Kinderirartin iiiut Piih/it Sihool. 401 

of discriminatioii .ind stiuly in tlu- most natural way. It 
will, furthermore, make the children feel at home at school, 
and the teacher can be sure that after she has succeeded in 
^'ainin^ the j^ood will or confulence of her pupils once, 
she can ever afterwartl retain it. and have no difficulty at 
all in maintaining {^'ood discipline, which is the surest jjuar- 
antee of success. 

As soon as the first agreement of confidence between her- 
self and her pupils has been established, let the teacher be- 
^\n bestowiuf^f her attention ui)on the lan^aiajje of the chil- 
dren; for the traininjj of languaj^e ouf.jht to ^o hand in 
hand with that of observation and coj^nition. In the bej^in- 
^in},^ corrections of lani^ua^e must be made with ^reat 
caution; they must be few and not too strict, lest the new 
pupils ^row iier\<)us and reticent. The greater liberty you 
allow in the expression of thought, the tij;hter can you hold 
your i)ui)ils in respect^of the words anil terms they use, and 
the defects of their articulation and pronunciation. And 
remembir that lantjuai^^e is thou^dit ;'',that is to say, thouf^ht 
is not clear or perfect until it has been expressed in clear 
and perfect lan^^ia^'e; or, as'far as you succeed in making 
\'our pupils use correct, concise, anil choice languajje. just 
M» l;ir will \i)u reinKr their thou}.jht] clear, lojjical. ami 

Now, exalted thoujjht is exalted .sentiment. Hy j^ooil 
languaj^e you will lay the foundation not only of exalted 
thoui,dit. but also of exalted moral principles, which ought 
to be the aim ami c\\^\ of every kiiul of etlucation. This 
l^ what Kroebel calls^the unity of life.- namely, the unity of 
thoiii^ht. principle, and comluct in a nioral character which 
oui;ht to be reali/etl through etlucation. 

.\ II. lll.lNKM\NN. 


WO equal 1}' great purposes arc to be 
|5 served in the public presentation of 
^ the Kindergarten at the World's P^air. 
P'irst, the attention of the world at 
large is to be called to the fact that 
the new education is operative, and 
the public to be shown what it is and 
does. Second, these facts illustrating 
what has already been accomplished, 
are to be arrayed before those alread}^ intelligent on the 

There are several waj's b\' which this work and its full 
force are to be brought home to the general public, which 
is to-day fully awakened to the im])ortance of educational 

In the regular educational exhibit, which will rei)resent 
the school work of the world, there will be a systematic and 
scientific display of the industrial results of all grades, in- 
cluding the Kindergarten. These results of hand-work will 
be logically arranged and tabulated and classified, so that 
the visitors may know their full meaning, and the location 
they represent. Here he who runs may read. This exhibit 
is to have space in the Manufacturies and Liberal Arts 
Building, which is centrally located and accessible. 

There will be ikj excuse for the mistaken impression 
often given by similar disjilays, that the Kindergarten 
method consists of hand-work only. The Board of Lady 
Managers for the state of Illinois have appropriated ;^3,000 
to carry the exi)ense of a fully equipped Kindergarten in 
their state building. A beautiful room has been set apart 
for this purpose, as illustrating one phase of the state cdu- 

Kindirt^ttrfcn Rcprcsintntion nt thv World's luiir. 403 

c atioiial wcjrk. Ihc decorations of the room were opened 
to competition by the committee in charj^e, and several most 
irtistic atul a|)pr()priate dcsif^ns and sketches were secured. 

The Kiiiilcrj^aitcn in this Illinois State Huildini; will be 
■ Dntiiictcd the first three months of the Fair by the Chicaj^o 
Irucbcl Association, which is under the direction of Mrs. 
Alice H. I'utnani.and tluring the months of Auj^ust, Septem- 
ber, and October, by the Chicago IVci- Kinderj»arten Asso- 
t iatioM. riicsc two associations assume the resj)onsibilit\' of 
entire work, provide the chiUlren fr(jni Kinderjjartens that 
have been operated re«jularly durinj^ the previous months 
untler the same Kinderi^artners, who will be put in charj^e 
on the <^rounds. 

Se\eral Kintlcrj^artens have been incorporatetl into the 
res^ailar State school sjstem, so that it is entirely appro- 
|)riate to ha\e this proof of the work in the state house. 
riie I'roebel Association was founded with the special aim 
to secure recoi^nition of the Kiiider;^arten as a factor of 
public education. 

The Children's HuiUliiii; will be a majjnificcnt repository 
lor everythin<^ pertainin*^ to the practical life, trainini^, care, 
and results of children. Kinderj.,Mrfrners are to be put in 
' har^e of the older chiUlren left by visitinjj parents, to con- 
duct Ljaiues. plays, ami busy wt)rk for their hours of waiting. 
The entire luildinj^ is to be ilecorateil after the fondest 
ideals of Kinilertjartners, and their spirit will dominate the 
general atmosphere of the place. 

The question of a regularl\- orjjani/eil tlaily Kinder- 
j^arten has not been fully decided as yet, but many of the 
obstacles and objections to the same are beiuij removed. 
The committee in charj^e of the buikling, as well as the 
majority of prominent workers, particularly in the West, are 
heartily in favor of havinj^ the convincinij proof of an actual 
Kinderpjarten ilaily presented to the visitors who may be 
more or less interested. Fhe Kitchen-j^arden and the 
( /"<•<•//<• will be nu>st thorouj^hl\* carried on bv representative 
professionals in these sj)ecial lines. 

The other aiul ecpuilly important line »)f wt)rk is on 

404 Kindergdi'tcn l\i presentation at the World' s luiir. 

the part of the Cont^ress Auxiliai}'. There will be. in fact, 
twx) con<^i'esses at which the KiiulcrL^arten interests will be 
fully rcprescntetl. The first will be the special congress of 
Kindergarteners, to convene one week, beginning July 17, 
which will be cxclusivxl}' in the hands of a local managing 
committee; the second, and following after the special con- 
gress, will be the 'general educational congress, at the iiead 
of which stands Commissioner W'm. T. Harris, to convene 
the third week of Jul}'. The latter assembly will virtually 
take the place of the annual conxention of the National 
Teachers' Association, which will formally adjourn in favor 
of the World's Congress of Educators. 

The special Kindergarten congress will be given over to 
a full week of discussion, pa})ers, round-tables, and general 
consideration of our cause, from every possible point of 
view. Among the speakers and essayists will be the most 
prominent workers and thinkers, supporters and promul- 
gators of the Kindergarten, from all parts of the world. 
Especial attention will be given the foreign representatives 
of the work, and most exhaustive discussion of every phase 
of both the theorj' and practice of the Kindergarten will 
be encouraged. 

The local committee in charge of this congress is made 
up of prominent, intelligent, and professional workers of 
Chicago; Mrs. E. W. Blatchford, chairman, Mrs. T. W. Har- 
vey, vice-chairman, and Mrs. A. H. Putnam, secretary. 

The topics for jjrogram have been recommended by the 
advisory council, made of leading workers evcrx'where, and 
the committee has classified these suggestions untler inclu- 
sive heads, viz: I he N^eiv Education, under which come such 
vital topics as l^'roebel's Religion; Early Education through 
Symbols; E\er\- Mother a Kindergartner; Play and Work; 
Professional Training, etc. The general topic of the Estab- 
lishment of the Kindergarten is subdivided into historical 
sketches of the growth of the work on the continent, in 
PLngland and America, its adoj)tion by public schools, etc. 
The P'uture of the Kindergarten is considered under these 
heads: Relation of same to primary school, to higher edu- 

Kiiu{ir}^nrtiii RtpnscHtotion al llic W'orlti's Fair. 40? 

cation, to missionary w«)rk, ami to the church and Sundaj- 
school. I he coniinittcc is arran}(in^ to assij^n these various 
topics to the strongest leaders and make the proj^ram as 
complete and forcible as possible. Besides this, volunteer 
papers are invited, and Round-table discussions arranged. 
This special Kinderj^artcn congress will convene in reg- 
ular morning and evening sessions in the new Chicago Art 
Institute, and will be conducted to the best possible advan- 
tage of all Concerned, and the cause at large. 


'Tis not for honors he may win 

The jxjct's songs are sung; 
'Tis not for these he lets us in 

To worlds he lives among. 

No ba)' nor laurel wouUl he wear; 

l^ut that for which he longs 
Is onlv that some one, somewhere, 

May learn to love his songs. 

J. (j. Burn KIT, 


ANCY a family conversation at the tea- 

JA^/Z/^v — ( just sweetening a cup of 
tea). — "George, they tell me our sugar 
is much adulterated now-a-days. That 
the men who make it add starch and 
other things." 

Fatlier — "Please pass me the bowl. 
Sec how it sparkles in the lamp light. 
E\er\- flash of light comes from a smooth face on the little 
grains, and while I suppose it would be possible to cut and 
polish all these faces on starch or glucose, our polished 
sugar would cost more dollars per pound than it now costs 

Kate — (one of the children, who are always interested 
in sugar ). " But Father, how do the grains get so smooth?" 
Father "Just as my little daughter gets to be a large 
girl — by groivingy 

Tom — "I thought things had to be alive to grow." 
iiW^- (examining a spoonful closely). "They all seem 
the same shape, and are really beautiful when you look at 
them closely. What makes them all the same shape?" 

Robert (who has just begun school). "Oh, I know. 
Miss West told mc. It grows in the sugar-cane away down 

Tom — "There's a book in the librarx' with a story about 
sugar-cane, and how sugar is made." 

Father "Yes, my dears, it is wonderful when wc think 
of it. Every single, unbroken, grain in this bowl has a cer- 
tain shape and beautifully smooth faces. Now, some of 
your questions are too hard for mc or anyone to answer, 
and the rest would make quite a story. .Shall I tell it?" 
^//- "Please do!" 

Sontc Common Crystals. 407 

"Robert is rij^lit. The tall i ;mc (a kind of grass) 
spreads out its broad leaves in the southern sunshine and 
strikes its roots deep into the fertile soil. It wants to ripen 
a cluster of seeds; and to feed them in their growth needs 
plenty of food. So in the green leaves - in some curious 
way we know but little about — the sunbeams take the earth- 
food from the roots, and the CO» gas from tlu- breath of 
animals and men, and build u|) little tiny bits which wc 
call molecules of sugar. These are dissolved in the water 
of the sa|). Now when the right time comes- before these 
stores of sugar are used up to form its seeds — the cane is 
stripjjcd of its leaves, cut down, anti then crushed between 
great rollers to si|ueeze out the water)' sap with its sugar. 

"The little invisible molecules are too far apart to form 
crystals like these in the bowl, so the water is boiled away 
to bring them closer. At the right time, the s\ rup is run 
into vessels to cool, and then what a time! The cooling 
syrup can no longer hold all the molecules apart, and dis- 
order is something sugar cannot for a secontl think of. 

'W ithout delay or confusion (as far as we can sec), and 
yet with beautiful precision, certain of the molecules are 
made centers about which the others begin to gather in 
regular order t«) form the sugar crystals. Could you ex- 
amiiu- the first beginning of a 'baby' crystal, its form 
would be exact, with the same number of sides ami corners 
.uul precisely the same angles for each that a 'grown up' 
crystal has, ami the sides would be smooth and glistening. 
.And if it grew larger, it wouM be, by the addition of 
more layers of molecules, evenly and exactly to the outside. 

"If Nou can find an\thing else that sparkles in this same 
way, bring it to the supper-tal)li- and I will try ami tell \ou 
of it." 

The ne.\t lea-lable all seated. 

lother "Well, Tom, what is it you have there?" 

I'otn (all excitements "Some big crystals of salt. I 
f«)untl this hun|) in the horse's manger. I know they arc 
cr)stals for they all have such snu)oth faces, even when 1 
break them!" 

4o8 S0//1C Con tn ion Crystals. 

Stifling "Dill they t^rovv too?" 

hatlier "Not in a plant as the sugar, but they formed 
when some salt water dried up." 

Robert "They are cubes I know, for we made some in 

Father "So they arc! I am pleased my little boy 

(Rock salt is mined out of the earth like coal or iron. 
Wise men suppose that part of the sea was in some way 
separated from the rest, and gradually dried away, leaving 
a bed of salt, which became buried beneath rocks and earth. 
These mines are very interesting and much more beau- 
tiful than other mines, because of the pure and glistening 
salt on every side; the floor, roof, and sides of the chambers 
sparkling as if sprinkled with diamonds.*) 

Kate — "See the fine grains in our table-salt sparkle! 
Are they crystals?" 

Father — "Examine some through this lense. Are the 
grains regular in shape?" 

Kate — "Yes indeed, and most perfectly formed cubes. 
Did this come from a mine?" 

Father- "^o, such fine grained salt is usually made by 
drying off the water which comes from salt beds below. 
This is pumped up through wells or flows in springs. Why 
are these crystals so small?" 

Robert — "I guess they were pretty young, like me." 

Harvey - (holding up a large crystal of sulphate of 
copper). "Here, Father, is a fine old cry si^X J' 

Father — "True enough, and still not so very old, either. 
Sometimes they grow quite rapidly when well fed, as some 
I saw once, at a refinery for gold and silver. The gold, 
after being separated from the rock it was in. and melted, 
was rolled into a very thin ribbon. There was still some 
copper and other metals in it; so these ribbons were coiled 
up and put in dishes of acid able to dissolve everything 
but the gold, which was thus left pure. Instead of throwing 
the acid and its dissolved metals away, it was (after some 

^♦See Bayard Taylor's "Salt Mines of Wieliczka."; 

Sophi' Common Crystah. 4OQ 

preparation ) run into tanks in uliicli lon^ strips of Icatl 
were luni}^, and clusterinj^ on these were many large and 
beautiful blue crystals. 

" Hut time forbids nje to tell of the lonj^ (|uart/. crystals 
Pxla brought from the Mot S|)rinj;s; the jjlistcning sheets 
of mica Stirlinf; discovered in the stove door; the rhomb 
K)[ calcite I'apa brought, aiul which made the letters of a 
paper it was laitl on, read double; the beautiful cubes of 
pyrite Kate found in some stone; Tom's agate marbles 
and the "frosting'" »)n his Christmas card; of the stone 
Harvey broke open (geode) and found lined with crystals, 
or the sj>arkling surface of the broken window light. ( )ne 
and all had the same marvelous story to tell of orilerly 
growth into sjinmctrical shapes with polished faces. Some 
it is true were changed and distorted, but even they —poor 
things had done their \ery best against unfavorable sur- 
roundings. Would that we all were as true to the best that 
is in us." lunvAKD (i. IIowk. 





IN the consideration of this subject I have desired to 
quote freely from Froebel, and I cannot refrain from 
giving here a charming bit from the "P.ducation of 
Man," showing the evolution of drawing: 

"A child has found a pebble. In order to determine by 
experiments its properties he has rubbed it on a board near 
by, and has discovered its property of imparting color. It 
is a fragment of lime, clay, redstone, or chalk." 

"See how he delights in the newly discovered property, 
and how busily he makes use of it. .Soon the whole surface 
of the board is changed." 

" At first the boy takes delight in the new property, then 
in the changed surface, now red, now white, now black, now 
brown, but soon begins to find pleasure in the winding, 
straight, curved, and other forms that appear. These linear 
phenomena direct his attention to the linear properties of 
surrounding objects. Now the head becomes a circle, and 
now the circular line represents the head; the elliptical 
curve connected with it represents the body; arms and legs 
appear as straight or broken lines, and these again represent 
arms and legs; the fingers he sees as straight lines meeting 
at a common point, and lines so connected are for the busy 
child again hands and fingers; the eyes he sees as dots, and 
these again represent eyes; and thus a new world opens 
within and without. P'or what man trios to represent or do 
he begins to understand." 

"The perception and representation of linear relations 
open to the child on the threshold of boyhood a new world 
in various directions. Not only can he represent the outer 
world in reduced measure, and thus comj^jrchcnd it more 

. //-/ /'rinii/>lis of the KindergarUn. 411 

c;isil\- with his t>cs; xmA onl)' c;in he reproduce outwardly 
what livis ill his mind as a reminiscence or new association, 
but the knowledge of a wliolly new invisible world, the world 
of forces, has its tenilercst rocjtiets rij^ht here." 

"The ball that is rolling or has been rolled, the stone that 
has been thrown and falls, the water that was dammed and 
conducted into man\' branching ditches, — all these have 
tauj^dit the child that the effect of a force in its individual 
manifestations is always in the direction of a line." 

"Thus the representation of objects by lines soon leads 
the child to i)ercei)tion of representation of the direction in 
which force acts. ' 1 lere Hows a brf)ok '; and sa\in{.( this, the 
child makes a mark indicatinj.j the c<»urse of a brook. The 
child has drawn lines sij^nifyin^ to him a tree. *Merejjrows 
another branch, aiul here still another'; ami as bespeaks he 
draws forth the tn-i-, as it wen-, the lines imlicatini; the 

" Ver\- sii,Miilic.intl\ the chilil sa\s, ' 1 lere comes a binl 
tl\inj^.' and draws in tin- direction of tlu- sujjposed flit^ht a 
wimlini^ line." 

"Cii\e the chilil a bit ol chalk. i>r the like, and soon a 
new creation will stand before him and you. Let the father. 
too. in a few lines, sketch a man. a horse. This man of lines, 
this horse of lines, will j^i\ f the child more joy than an ac- 
tual man, an actual horse, would ilt). " 

"Mothers and attendants, woulil nou know how to lead 
the child in this matter? see and observe the child; he will 
ti-ach you what to ilo." 

•' I lere a child traces a table by pa.ssin^ its fin^jers alon^ 
its edi^es and outlines as far as he can reach them. Thus 
the child sketches the object on the object itself, as it were. 
This is the first, antl. for the child, the safest ftep by which 
he first bicame aware of the outlines and fi>rm of the ob- 
jects. In like manner he skcti hts .uul studiis tlu- ch.iir. thr 
bench, the wiiuUiw." 

" .Soi)n. however, tlu- child .uU.ince.s. lie ili.iu> line> 
across four-sided boarils, the table, the scat t>f the chair or 
bemh. vai^uely anticipatinj.; that this is the method for 

4^2 Arf Principles of the Kindergarten. 

retaining the forms and relations of surfaces. A little later 
he draws the form in reduced measure." 

" Behold he has sketched the table, the chair, the bench, 
and man}' other things, on the table top. (It was formerly 
not uncommon to find table tops made of large slabs of 
slate stone. There was such a table in my father's house 
when I was a boy. I still connect with it many a fruitful 
memory of earnest studies of form and outline, of delight- 
ful trains of fancy, and of \'igorous struggles of invention 
that made the ugliest weather a boon. A small portable 
blackboard is an excellent substitute for such a table. It 
will accomplish more for the child's understanding of things, 
and for the \igorous development of a healthy imagination, 
than the most earnest talk and the most ideal story-book 
would do. )" 

"Do you not see how he developed and grew spontane- 
ously to this attainment?" 

Froebel has always treated the evolution of drawing 
most delightfully in "The Mother Play and Nursery Songs," 
where he depicts "The Little Artist." No one who exam- 
ines the spontaneous drawings of little children will doubt 
that they quickly perceive the essentials; and not only this 
is true, but the power of ideality shows itself in a marked 
degree. The accompanying illustrations show what the 
child will draw, and how his thought will ascend. We arc 
often dull of perception as to the wonders of the child's 
mind. At the upper left there are plants, with much appre- 
ciation of beauty of curvature, and below the seasons. Spring, 
Summer, Autumn, and Winter, are well symbolized. At the 
upper right the power to draw whole scenes is shown in two 
e.\am])lcs. The drawings show the growth of thought 
and representation; the wings of the butterfly carry the 
children up the golden stairs, and in the sky an angel is 
lound with wings and a golden crown. " Heaven lies around 
us in our infancy." 

Thus far we have considered onl\' the Kindergarten 
principles of creative self-acti\it)-, how the external may 
l)c made internal through the stud\' of t\'pe forms connected 

.Ir/ rrimiplt's of the Kindirgarten. 


with tlic eiu ironinciU, ami liou the internal may be made 
external through the various means of building, tablet and 
stick laying,', modelinj^ and ilrawin^. 

The)' were selected from man\" similar drawings by Kin- 

derijarten chiUlren. kiiulU' lent !)>• Miss M. K. Lombard, 
formerly one of the tlircctors of the' Kindergartens in Bos- 
ton maintained by Mrs. (Juincy A. Shaw. 

There is ai\«)ther great principle b\- which Irocbcl was 
governed, lie has called this the law of contrasts, or the 

414 ^^''^ Principles of the Kindergarten. 

law of opposites. It v\oulcl seem to be in its ultiniation the 
law of harmony, for it requires always a mediation of oppo- 
sites. The first law of all phenomena is the law of oppo- 
sites. This is the endowment of every essence that comes 
into existence, and particularh' of man as called into con- 
sciousness. He, in spite of his inner relation to God and 
nature, stands as an indi\-idual essence in the relation of 
opposite to the universe of nature on the one hand, and to 
unit}% or God, on the other. The law of connection is given 
at the same time with the law of opposites. Connection 
(joining b}- union of members), or the balance of all exist- 
ing objects, is the ground law of the uni\erse, in the visible 
and invisible, the material and intellectual world. 

Ever)'thing in the organic world subsists in the member- 
ship of its parts in a whole. These parts always stand in 
an opposite direction from each other, and are connected 
or bound together by a common medium; for example, the 
leaves of the flower, or the stem of the tree, which connects 
the root with the crown. The limitation in space of ever)' 
x'isible phenomenon or thing conditions the opposite by 
the relation of the limits, as below and above, before and 
behind, right and left, etc. 

It is the same in the world of representation and thought; 
every proposition demands its opposite, and both demand 
their connection. Thesis, antithesis, and synthesis are the 
conditions of all logic. 

Man, on the other side, is a representative of this law, 
since he stands midway between God and nature, between 
the creator and creature, on one side as a product of nature, 
belonging to the world of unconscious being, on the other 
side as mind destined to self-conscious being united with 
God, or mind free from God's mind. Onl\' because he 
carries within himself the essence of both is he capable of 
knowing both, and is at the same time called upon to 
make manifest the divine in the universe, as the Good, the 
True, and the Beautiful; he is called as creature, to be also 

Tlic law of opposites taken by itself leads to what is 

Ar/ Principles of the Kinderf^arten 415 

known in art as symmctr}', and the mediation brings har- 
mony, witlioiit which there is no true art; for the highest 
(lualities of art correspond to the hij^diest (]ualitics of life, 
fhc law of opposites has been most faithfully carried out in 
tin- Kindergarten, and the principle of symmetry prevails in 
all their work; but the law of mediation, which brings l)oth 
harnioii)' and unity, hail been much o\erlot)ked. There has 
not been always a knowledge of specific application of art 
principles shown, but the Kindergartners are realizing that 
the development of their various occupations accortling to 
art principles of arrangement and color was much desired 
by I'Voebel, and they are now laboring earnestl\'to that end. 

I'roebi'l laid down the princi|)Ie of harmony in a general 
\\a\', lor he says, "As (iod the Creator has everywhere in 
ireation placetl ojjposites siile b)' siile in order to work out 
liarmon)', so man must proceed in like fashion, in all his 
works, if he is to produce h.irmon} . All art is based on 
the principle of contrasts. The musician itt the trichord 
connects two discordant tones. The artist in his picture 
blciuls light and shade, dark tints and bright ones, by means 
of the midille tints, etc." 

The Baroness .Mareidiol/ \'on Hulow says: 

" I constant!)* obser\e this feeling for harmony and 
beauty in h'roebel. who had not been educated to the prac- 
tice of any art. In nature, nothing escapeil him; every 
graceful cur\ed line, every blending of color, every lighting 
up ol the hea\ens. cverN'thing, indeed, whicli expressed 
beaut\- and harmonw was perceiveil b\- him. ami often served. 
on our walks with the scholars, for some deep interpretati<»n 
of nature, and some enthusi.istic praise of (lod's creati«^n. 
which made an indelible impression on them. Hut on the 
other the smallest want of harmony was annoying to 

" 1 miss harmon\' of color here." he saitl once as we were 
passini; a bid of dahlias in which all the colors were con- 
lusedl\- mingleil." 

In seeing such results, which .ire now f«irtunatelyaPK)t cur- 
rent, we c.innot lulp but feel that considering how sensitive 

4l6 Aft l^riiuiplcs. of the Kindcrij^artcn. 

Frocbcl was to discord of color, such arranj^cmcnts as we 
find sometimes in Kindergarten work could not have ema- 
nated from him. It is a relief to read in the Introduction to 
Seidel's edition of the "Menschen Erziehunj^." that the play 
gifts were only partly worked out by Froebel, but many of 
the so-called Kindergarten results were originated by Louise 
Froebel, Stangenberger, Goldammer, Schmidt, etc. It is also 
delightful to read these words of Froebel. He says: "Con- 
trasts must come, therefore, in their whole sharpness in order 
to be connected and balanced. We are not so far along 
yet; each one must work out his own little piece of work," 
— so leaving his followers the better and higher working 
out of the principles which he so broadly laid down. 

And with all these F'roebel would bring a sunny, cheer- 
ful spirit, and to the teachers he would say, with Coleridge, 

O'er wayward childhood wouldst thou hold firm rule. 
And sun thee in the light of happy faces, 
Love, hope, and patience these must be thy graces, 

And in thine own heart let them first keep school. 

In closing I would like to bring together the Kindergar- 
ten principles which have been presented. 

1. The greal principle of creative self-activit\-, which re- 
quires the child to observe and thus make the external in- 
ternal, and then to express from within and not from with- 

2. The use of type forms as leading to the ideal. 

3. Freedom in doing, thinking, and expressing. 

4. The law of opposites and their mediation. 

It is to these Kindergarten princii)les that we must look 
for the foundation of Art Education, the princi})le of crea- 
tive activity being the all-embracing one which Froebel 
would develop to the highest art. I'\)r this he laid his foun- 
dations broadl)'. He divided all forms into forms of knowl- 
edge, forms of life, and forms of beaut\-. The forms of 
knowledge are the ideal forms of geometr\-; the forms of 
lite are the forms of our environment, including not onl\- 

the forms of nature, but also those of all the aceompani- 

• . . . . . 

nients of lite; the lornis ot beauty arc e\i)ressit)ns from 

. //-/ Pn mi pits of the Kindergarlen. 417 

within. Here- I'rochcl. thou^'li without art training; and 
study, shows himself in close c<Minection with the hijjhest 
idc.'ils of art. lie makes beauty a spiritual essence, and from 
it would l)riii^' forth "beauty of line, beauty of lijjht antl 
ilark. beauty of color." 

Hence we see that b\' art, I'roebel did v\kA mean at all a 
rc|)resentation of nature, althouj^di he was second to none in 
a love for nature, but rather the working out of an ideal 
from within. .Speakinj^ of himself at the age of twenty-five, 
he sa\s: 

"I so li\e(l in nature that artistic or human work did not 
exist for me. Therefore it cost me a lonj( stru^^le to make 
the consideratitm of the work of man a subject of elemen- 
tary culture." 

"It was for me a j.jreat wideninj^ (»f m\' inner anti outer 
si^ht wlu-n at the expression "outer world' I thoui,dit of the 
realm ol luiin.ui work." 

".So aftirwards 1 souj^ht to make e\ erNthinij clear through 
man, through his relation to himself and t<» the outer world. 
l'"(»r in i-\i-rythin_L;. in life and relij^ion. hence also in art, the 
ultimate atid suj)rcme aim is the clear representation of 
man as such; for it aims to represent in everything, particu- 
larly in and thrt)U|,.;li man. the eternally permanent, the di- 

Thus a careful stud}' «)t I'roebel sho\\> that the princi- 
ples of the Kindergarten ari- the highest art principles, antl 
hence should be the fountlation for art education in the pub- 
lic schools. .M AKV Daw Hi(K>. 




N 1732, on the 22d of February, George 
Washington was born to Augustine 
Washington and his second wife, 
Mar\' Ball. He was the oldest of six 
children, married Martha Dandridge, 
the widow of Daniel Parke Curtis, 
died December 14th, 1799. 

In his youth he wanted to go to sea 
as a midshipman, but gave that up to 
stud}' surveying. As a young man 
he took great interest in training the 
militia of Alexandria and many of its 
people went with him on his march 
against Fort Du Quesne. 
He was much in Alexandria, it being near the estate of 
Mount Vernon, and was always very enthusiastic in helping 
put out fires. While riding through the town in the last year 
of his life he saw the "Friendship" engine proceeding to a 
fire, but going very slowly, from its being insufficiently 
manned. Calling to a group of well-dressed men standing 
near — "Why are you idle there, gentlomen? It is your busi- 
ness to lead in these matters," he leaped from his horse and 
seized the ropes ( Un the\' were not drawn by horses at that 
time). His action created such enthusiasm, that the old 
engine went to the fire as it never did before or since. 

When the .Second Continental Congress met in Philadel- 
phia. May 10, 1775, George Washington was appointed com- 
mander-in-chief. At Cambridge. Mass., July T,d, beneath the 
spreading elm. ever since famous in song and story, Wash- 
ington assumed command. He was a tall, finely formed, dig- 
nified man, with a noble air, and dressed according to the 
fashi(jn of the time in a blue, broadclotli coal, buff small- 

*'l'lic lolliiwiiij; skL-tcli ol Wasliiii^tou's life has been arranged fur special reference 
help i)f teachers, ami has been gleaned from atiUientic SDurces, and can ue adapted into 
song or story by each indi\idiial. 

(hoTf^c Winhingtoii. 419 

clotlus, silk stockinj^s, anil a cocked hat. As he wheeled his 
horse .111(1 (In u his swurd. a sh<jul (if joy went up from the 
crowd. Mrs. Adams, who wilnesse*! it. wrote: "These lines 
of Drydeii instant!)' recurred to me: 'Mark his majestic fab- 
ric; his a lcmi)lc sacred !>)' birth, and built b)* hands divine; 
his soul's the I)eil\' that lodj^^es thrre; nor is the pile un- 
worthv of the (iocl.' *' 

Duriiij^r iliis uintir Washington was quartered at the 
house of Isaac I'otls. One da)' while I'otts was on his way 
up the creek near b\-. he heard a \-oice of i)ra\er. .Softly f<d 
lowing its direction, he soon ilis(-"o\ered the general upon 
his knees, his cheeks wet with tears. Narratini^ the event to 
his wife, he added with much emotion: "If there is any one 
to whom the Lord will listen, it is Geor{^e Washington; and 
uniler such a leader our indepenilence is certain." 

After the close of the war. before Washington left for his 
"beloved Mount \'ernon, " he summonetl his officers, to meet 
anil take their farewell. Col. Berr\- Tallmatlge. in his Meni- 
oirs. gi\es tlu- f(»ll()wing account: 

" Tlu\' had been waiting but a few moments after the 
a|)pointed time, when the general entered the roojn. .\mid 
breathless silence he turned to his otVicers and saiil: 'With a 
heart full of Iom- and gratitude. I now lake leave of you. 
I cannot come to each of \()U. but shall feel 
obligeil if each of \'ou will come and take me by the hand.' 
(ieii. Knox, being nearest to him. turned to the commander- 
in-chief, who, suffused in tears, was incapable of utterance, 
but grasped his hand and the)' embraced each other in 
silence. In the same affectionate manner every officer in the 
room marched up to. kissed, and parteil with his general-in- 
chief. The)' then followed him to the barge, where a crowd 
had assembled to witness the departure of the man who, 
under (iod, had been the agent of establishing the glor)- and 
independence of these L niled States. " 

Although he preferred private life, after five years he was 
again called into public life b)' the unatiimous wishes of his 
fellow -citizens, who insisted that he alone was wurthy to 
become the I'lesident of the I'nited Slates. 

420 (n'oi'i^r ]\'tis/iiiii^/o/i. 

He retired Marcli 4, 1797, returning to his home at Mount 
Vernon, wliere he spent the hist two \-ears of his life in put- 
ting^ his household in order, seeming to ha\-e a premonition 
of his approaehing end. 

Washington was a great man in small things e\'en. He 
attended scrupulousl)- to the details of life. 

He regularly voted at all elections, always making it a 
point to \x)te earl\-. An anecdote is told of the election in 
1799, the last \'ear of his life. The polling-booth was in the 
second stor\- of the building, and the flight of outside steps 
b\' which it was reached IkuI become old and shaky. As 
the general reached the steps he placed his hand on the rail- 
ing, and gave a shake to test its security. Instantl}- a score 
of brawn}' shoulders were placed beneath the steps, and not 
a man mo\-ed until the \cnerable chief returned to firm 

At his death, Europe and America \ied with each other 
in doing homage to his memory. Said Lord Brougham: 
"Until time shall be no more, a test of the progress which 
our race has made in wisdom and \irtue will be deri\-ed from 
the immortal name of Washington." It has been beautifull\- 
said that "Providence left him childless, that his country- 
might call him father." 

KiM)i:k(..\ki I.N i.i-.(,i>L.\ri().\. 

IT is quite ^fr.itif)'iii}^ to the oUlcr workers in the Kinder- 
f^arten cause to reco^ni/.c the rapidly increasing; senti- 
ment in its favor. It has not been many years since it 
was <|uite coninion to hear proniitient educators speak of the 
Kindergarten as a mere fad, and prophesy that it would be 
short lived, and would soon give way to old methods. But 
now ever)' intelli^a-nt person who has taken the time or 
trouble to inform himself on the subject recoj;ni/.es the fact 
that the Kindergarten has come to stay, and that it soon is 
to be a comj)onent |)art of the public schools. 

lO appreciate what a rapid change of sentiment there 
has been in a few \ears in the minils of prominent educa- 
tors, we need but remember with what opposition the Kin- 
dergarten was made a tlepartment of the National Educa- 
tional Association onl\- eight^years ago. and ntite that now 
no other dei)artment is so Iargel\' attemled. and in no other 
is there so much interest ami enthusiasm. But a few years ago 
onl)' a very small number of the leading educators would 
have caretl to risk their reputations by speaking in public in 
favor of making the Kindergarten a part of the public 
schools. But at the international meeting of the Canadian 
anti United !^tates Teachers' Association in iSt)i the pas.sagc 
of the folU)wing resolution elicited roumls of applause from 
thousands of the leaders assembled at the time: 

Ki'so/vii/, That we view with pleasure the spreatl <if Kin- 
dergartiii principles and metluxls, and trust they may bo 
generall)- introduced into the public schools. To this end 
we recommend that the ilifferent states secure the necessar)* 
legislation that will enable communities to support and 
niaintain free Kindergartens at public expense. 

A similar resolution was atlopleil at the national meelinu 
in 1S92. At the meeting of the Illinois State Teachers* 
.Association in \Hiyo the following was ailopteil: 

W'lutriis, We deem it highly ilesirable that the Kinder- 
garten instruction slmuld form a part of the public school 
sNstem of the slate, therefore be it 

4~^ Kindcrgiv'tcn Legislation. 

Resolved, That the General iVssembl)' of the state at its 
next session be requested to pass a law makini^ it possible 
for school authorities to make suitable provisions for the 
instruction of children from four to six j-ears old. 

And at the large meeting of the same body held last 
month at Springfield a similar resolution passed, and the 
State Superintendent of Public Instruction was requested to 
present the matter in proper form to the Committees on 
Education in the Legislature. The same sentiment has 
been growing in the minds of parents and the masses in 
general, and in many places the people have established 
free Kindergartens in connection with their schools, not- 
withstanding the fact that they were obliged to violate the 
law in so doing. Thus it will be seen that the people are 
ahead of the laws, and the demand is imperative that legis- 
lation shall be had. 

In 1891 a bill for establishing Kindergartens was intro- 
duced in the Illinois Legislature and was favorably reported 
by the committees and passed to the third reading with 
little or no opposition, but failed to become a law on ac- 
count of the abrupt adjournment of the Legislature. A 
similar bill has recently been introduced in the Illinois State 
Legislature now in session, and the prospects are that it will 
become a law during the session, provided the friends of 
education make their wants known to the men they have 
helped to send to Sjjringfield to serve them. 

A similar bill is reported to be also before the Legisla- 
ture of Colorado. Michigan and Indiana have had suitable 
laws for three or four years. Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota, 
and several of the other western states have no restriction 
in regard to school age, so Kindergartens are gradually 
taking their proper place as a part of the public schools in 
all these states. 

From the above it will be seen that the peojile demand 
a recognition of the Kindergarten, and that the laws are 
everywhere being shaped with reference to the demand, 
and it cannot be very many years till the Kindergarten 
must be a component part of the public schools wherever 
free schools exist. ThKJMAs Charles. 


\o KiNDEKOARTNER Can afford to be without the Januar)- 
nuiulK-r* of tin- (cntury Mai^arJnc. It contains one of the 
most valuable contributions made to current Kindergarten 
literature. It presents a full, comprehensive survey of the 
Ki^dcr^^-lrtcn movement from every possible stand|)oint. 
Own a half dozen copies and loan them to your ignorant or 
skeptical friends. 

Taixott WJi.i.iAM.s. the author of this article, has flooded 
it with so much excellent literary and artistic merit, that it 
must be given a place among the permanent literature of the 
da\-. The opening illustration of Froebel, the originator of 
the Kindergarten, is an effective half-tone reproduction of the 
picture owned by Milton Hradley, and familiar to hundreds 
of little children who have kept the Froebel birthday in our 
own Kintlergarti-ns. 

What a compendium of Kindergarten facts, fiction, and 
history this article proves to be! We find broad compar- 
isons between old anti new methods of ctlucati«)n; we are 
given glimi)ses of l-'roebel's life, work, and philosophy: the 
history of its rise from small beginnings in little Switzerland, 
to the sweep of statistics which prove it a universal move- 
ment; a sketch of ever\' other ct)untr\- where it has touched; 
its phases as a missionar\'. educational, religious, and com- 
mon school factor. 

Till, man who shrugs his shoulders ami says the Kindcr- 
garti-n is a woman's fad, may safely be referred to this 
article, ihe school board or superintendents who 
eyes and ears to its claims, that they may not be ilisturbed 
or disjjlaced in their old ways, can have no better remedy 
than this array of facts. The thousands of good folk all 
over this country who have never heard of the Kindergar- 
ten, or who think at best it is but a local movement, can be 
drawn into line bv the souiul lestimonv of this article. 

4^4 Editorial Xotcs. 

Quote this statement seven cla}s in the week: In iS/o 
there were onl\' fi\'e Kintleri^artens in this country; to-day 
there are 3,200. 

TuEKK is a grovvini:^ demand among manufacturers for 
manual training school students, to put in charge of factory 
work of all kinds. The leading manual training schools of 
the United States have more orders for positions for their 
graduates than they can supply. Through the statistics of 
the United States Department of Industrial Education we 
learn that ninet)- per cent, of employers inter\-iewcd as to the 
comparative usefulness of trained or untrained workmen, 
state the qualifications of the former far in advance of the 
latter. From the same source we learn that the wages are 
forty per cent, higher for first-year graduates than for un- 
trained men of the same age. The Girard School, of Phila- 
delphia, taking orphans to educate and father, pledges to 
care for them until twenty years of age, and secure posi- 
tions for them. Before the manual training department 
was added, it was with difficulty that permanent work was 
secured; to-day there is no difficult)', and the boys and girls 
keep their jjositions and are in demand, because of their 
practical training. 

KiXDKKC.VKTNEKS are awakening to their responsibility 
toward legislative education. They should unite in their 
efforts to petition state legislatures to investigate the ques- 
tion of early training, even though they secure no imme- 
diate results. The action of the Kindergarten Club of Chi- 
cago is an excellent precedent of procedure. Local option 
Kindergarten bills should in time reach every assembled 
legislative body. 

The three great names of Washington, Franklin, and 
Lincoln present themselves for February consideration, 
and in the columns of the Kindergarten Magazine and the 
Child-Garden we bring materials concerning these lives that 
will greatly emphasize the patriotic thought of this month's 
programs, r'rankliu, the practical idealist, who was first 

liditorud So Us. 425 

tu raise liis hands in benediction of our land as a nation, 
first to trust and first to serve, is to this latest hour blessing 
us in his wontlerful and practical demonstration of electric- 
ity. The life and deeds A Washinj^ton arc a never-less- 
ening dcli^dit to the children, and verv little can be added 
to what is ahead) in use. Then comes that star among 
the men of our own time, Lincoln, with the tale of eman- 
cijjation and humanit)* such as histor)' can scarcely have 
repeated. It is so closely related to our j)resent conditions 
that it must lend a wonderful store to the month's work in 
the Kinilergarten. I'ehruarv' marks an epoch in each Kin- 
dergarten year, where patriotism, love of fatherland and 
home mingle in one heart-throb, antl the yoimgest child, as 
well as its guide and teacher, comes under the spell of the 
woiulerfui timt-. 

OiiKi.M. NoTKT.. The management of the special Kin- 
dergarten Congress, to be helil in Chicago from July 17th 
to the 24th, desires the help of all students of chilil nature, 
in bringing to this congress the best results of imlividual 
study aiid experience. 

To this y:\\^ it has been determined to ask most ear- 
nestly, that all who may feel tlisposed to ilo so, prepare short 
theses for presentation at this congress, upon an\- phase of 
child culture, the same to be subject to approval of a sub-com- 
mittee appointed for that purpose, from the Ailvisory Council. 

The rules governing this sub-committee are as follows: 

1. All papers must be in the hands of the Chairman 
before Ma\- i ;. 

2. Theses must be limited t<> 2. 500 words. 

^ The committee reserves the right to appoint a reader 
for the papers, should it be deemeil necessary. 

The exact time for the presentation of these essays will 
he amiounceil in the oflicial program. 
[ Signeil 1 Mks Iv \V. Hi.mciikokp. 

ChiiirtHint Lot til Com. Kimit'ri^trrtiH l\f>t. W. I . .1. 

Mrs. a. H. Pitxam. 

Cor. Stt r. 

Room .MO. Home Insurance Uuildtng. Chicago. 



The following twelve leading questions have been sub- 
mitted as a practical test of the general as well as the spe- 
cific knowledge of Kindergartners. For the best answers 
to the same, written out in plain, readable English, and 
mailed to this office before March ist, we will send three 
yearly subscriptions to the Kindercjarten Magazine or 
Child- Garden, to any address named by the successful writer. 
The answers may not exceed fifty words each, numbered 
according to the questions. The most worthy answers of 
this list will appear in the Kindergarten Magazine. 

1. What is the special gain in moral development, 
through the child's attendance upon a good Kindergarten? 

2. Does this training develop a love of truth? 

3. Does it make the child kinder to other children, and 
more humane in his treatment of animals? 

4. What influence does the Kindergarten have upon the 
happiness of the little child? 

5. How does the Kindergarten aim to train the eye, the 
hand, and the voice? 

6. Does the child who has been trained in the Kinder- 
garten, as he grows older, see more in nature than the child 
who has not been so trained? 

7. Do you think the Kindergarten should be made a 
part of the public school system? Why? 

8. Are children made less easy to control through hav- 
ing attended the Kindergarten? 

9. Are some of the objections that have been urged 
against the Kindergarten, due to the fact that some have 
entered upon the work without qualifications for it, and 
without adequate training? 

10. In the absence of Kindergartens, at what age should 
children be admitted to the j^ublic schools? 

Practice Work. 42 J 

11. Ill i^rviii cities, is it safe U) let those children who 
have not //c///^' instruction, have j/>rr/ instruction until they 
arc six years of aj^je? 

12. What is the influence of a well-conducted Kindergar- 
ten upon a small community? 


.\ half-dozen Kinder^'artners, all like-mintled and equally 
full of enthusiasm, have arranged to come together once a 
week, or whenever the convenient season is arrived, to dis- 
cuss all the ijuestionahle |)oints of our work. Our first meet- 
ing took place in November, and the subject for our serious 
and candid consideration was the following: "How much 
of the mother-element should a Kindergartner bring into 
her work?" The following points were made, back and 
forth, by the members of our free-speech club: 

What are we to uiulerstand by the "mother-elenient "? 

Of course we do not for a moment think it to mean the 
coddling or sugar-sweet way of treating children, which 
some peo|)le call motherl)'. 

I uiulerstand it as I'roebel expresses it so many times, 
the thoughtful, earnest care or guardianship of chiltlren. 

Can an\' one but the real mother have this? It seems to 
me not. 

Hut we certainl)- pretend and iman to do as well for our 
Kindergarten children, or better, than their mothers at home. 

It comes to me that if we have the simcrc 'wish to ilo all 
that is in our power for the chihlren in charge, that we will 
put the right kiiul of mother-feeling into our work. 

\'es, but we must be wise ami intelligent, too. in carrying 
out our noble ilesircs. 

I know a huly who strives to be a most conscientious 
mother. She is with her little daughter constantly. She 
reatis to her a great deal, ami finds it .so difficult to find sto- 
ries and rhymes that are all right to read through! She 
leaves out some parts ami atlils others. WouKl \ ou call her 
a wise, intelligent mother? 

42<S rracticc Work 

Yes; mothers ljo by instinct. But teachers are not 
always so keen. 

I think the child can be held as an individual, separate 
and apart from his mother, and that there is why we do not 
need to be to him as his own mother. 

Froebel teaches us that each child is a spiritual creation, 
and that the individuality of each must be held as sacred 
as that of the greatest men of the age. 

We are apt to forget this when in the thick of our work. 
Surely the time has come for us to believe it so strongly 
that we cannot lose sight of it for an instant! 

The child lives in his feelings; he feels first, then thinks. 
The motherly influence, it seems to me, should touch his 
feeling, his forming thought. We certainly should envelop 
all our work of the Kindergarten in motherliness in its truest 

When giving a gift-lesson, the feeling often comes to me 
that I am failing entirely; that I am not giving the children 
anything but husks. Even when they do just about what I 
hoped they would, and when the connections are all properly 
made, there still haunts me the thought that it is all vanity. 
How would you explain that? 

Perhaps you have not been feeling what you do. Or it 
may be, that you were trying to teach the ciiildrcn, instead 
of helping them to express their feelings. 

Get the feeling right, and )^c)u ha\'e a beautiful lesson 
every time! What we are trying to do is, after all else is 
said and done, to get ourselves and our children back to 
right feeling —spontaneous and genuine feeling. 

Then I should say that the mother is the one \\\\o feels 
the needs of her children, antl sup[)lies these according to 
her sincerest feeling. 

Do you know Miss C? She is one of those blessed 
teachers who bring real motherliness into her school every 
day. She is not sentinu-ntal, but strong and genuine. Seey 
Round Tnhlc. 

PnuHic Work. 


I \Kk\ l).\V IN Till-; WKKK. 

After "Gootl-mornintj" 
has been said and sun({, 
\\\\.\\ other favorite sonjjs. 
Annie comes up with the 
information that she knows 
wliat tla\' it is and what her 
' -~' mamma is ^oinj; to do to- 
ilay. Hut will she tell? 
No, she wants me to in- 
troduce the subject before she parts witli her news. So I 
bcf^in: It reiiuircs a great amount of work to keep a home 
looking well. Sometimes the rooms look so untidy and 
the lloors so dust)! Tlien it is quite time something should 
be done. Who can tell me what? This is the time anti 
place for which Annie has been waiting. ".Sweep!" she says 
with importance. "And what other name has sweeping 
ilay?" ," l*"rida\:" Annie speaks again, and now rests satis- 

Who can tell me a little stor\' abt)Ul Iridas'. sweeping 
da\? Let the children come as you name them, to tell in 
simple sentences some experience of that ilay. 

Walton tells "My mamma has two brooms ami a ilust- 
pan." We encourage him further, by asking what mamma 
does with them. Nellie sa\s, "My mamma sweeps the 
kitchen e\ery day. ami puts the ilirt in the stove." This 
will help the children to right e.\pressi»)n, and show 
wluther or not the\' ha\e been observing. In time the\' 
will tell easil)' everything that occurs within their own e.\- 
|)erience. After the chililren have told us their different 
stories we will play some of them, putting on our sweeping 
caps and aprons, then showing how we use a brt»on». carpel- 
sweeper. antI duster. The chililren enjoy choosing one 
chilli ti> go into the circle and show some of these actions, 
while the rest tr\ to guess what he is representing. To-ilaj- 
we will let them represent any day in the week, and see 


Practice I Vork. 

how quick we will be in guessing whether it is Monday. 
Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, or Friday, and what act of 
what day is being represented. If the pianist is apt, she 
can help also, in giving us a rubbing, smoothing, or dusting 

When we have returned to our tables, give the children 
an opportunity to tell what they think our work is to be 
to-day. While listening to their suggestions, if you think 
them feasible, let them carry out their own ideas as regards 
sweeping day, or else include them in the work you have 
already planned. 

With the third, fourth, and fifth gifts sticks, beads, or 
other suitable material — let the children make the furniture 
for the sitting-room. Each child could make 
one piece and move it to the center of the table, 
or each child could make the entire set, just as 
seems best. 

"These rooms certainly need straightening. 
Elsie, whatdo you think would be the first thing 
to do to get ready forsweeping day? Get the 
broom and sweep dust all over everything?" "Cover them 
over with a sheet," says Paul. "Put the chairs in the hall," 
says Ida. "Tie a handkerchief 'round your head." The 
suggestions come thick and fast now, so 
after discussing ways and means we decide 
it would be best to make something to put 
over the hair, to keep it from getting 
dusty. We find some of the mammas wear 
caps, others handkerchiefs, and still others 
nothing. We will have both round and 
square folding papers, letting the children choose which 
they prefer, and make either caps or handkerchiefs as they 
wish. The squares are folded neatly into triangles, while the 
circles are creased and turned side-ways on the diameter 
and diagonals. 

Some of the children want aprons also, so cutting paper 
and scissors are passed and the)' go to work with a will, 
cutting (free hand) aprons. .Some arc l)il)lcss, others have 

Prni'ticc 1 1 'ork. 


strings, sleeves, ;iinl jjockets, sliowinjj how 
each chilli carries out his idea of a particular 
apron he has in mind. 

"Ilnwcaii we make a hrooin? < )f what 
uoiihl \i>ii make it?" "A .-^tick for the 
haiulle" hesitating. "I kn«)w: a half rinjj 
for the top, ami small sticks for the straws." 
We trv it. and are not exactly satisfied; hut n«)onc can think 
of a better way, unless we draw anti cut <»ne nut of paper. 
While we were talking; about the broom, Austin has been 
making a very j^ood dust-pan with his material. 

I sh(jw them how to make a feather duster by snippin<.j 
the ed}.;e of a paper strip. rollin<^ it ti;.jhtl\' around a stick, 
ami fasteninj.j the eilj.(e with paste. '•'Fhis is only to dust 
the pictures with." The pia\- now bei(ins of mo\in^ some 
of the furniture awa)', coxerin^ tlu- other 
with handkerchiefs and papers, sweeping 
thorouj^hl)- in t)ie corners, alltjwinij the 
ilust to set'tle. and rearranging the furni- 
ture as onh' housekeepers tlo. I have 
seen a child take the second s.(ift. use one 
of the little sticks for a broom, sweej) out the corners of the 
bo.\. dust off the stove, put the other stick throuj^h a cube 
and call it a carpet-sweeper. i,Mt over the floor a;.;ain, and 
finally arranj^e the so-called furniture, with .dl the /est ami 
thorouj^hness of a real housekeeper. 

Kui^s can In maile trom the weavjn;^ 
mats, floor be laiil with w«>«)den tablets, 
and entire sets of furniture from card- 
board modeliti;^ or folilinij papers. 
After the children have foldeil from 
^ paper the piano or hi^h chair, and 
taken it home. the\' will often ci»mc 
back the next ilay with the entire set 
made from newspapers, by papa, who has been interested in 
examinins; the Kinder«^.»rten foUlini;s. One little i;irl had 
her wt»rk arrans.jed in .i starch l)«i\. with paper dolls standinjj 
around in a s<»ciable wa\ . 


Pr(?(ti(i' Work. 

Ill our own Kiiulcrs^artcii there are many things for little 
haiuls to do, in keepini^ tlie rooms orderl}'. We always 
keep a little broom in the corner, and it is considered a j^rix- 
ilegc to be allowed to sweep the sand from untler the sand- 
table, dust the piano or desk, or wipe off tlie wash-bowl. At 
Christmas, when ever\- child received a little broom, the 
mothers tell me they were appreciated more than their books, 
dolls, or toys receix'ed at home, and the enjo\-ment was more 

The children are so hel})ful about the Kinderi^^arten, that 
I know the\' could be an actual helj) at home, if mamma 
would only trust them with little tasks and see that they 
were always ])ro[)erl\^ finished, rememberinf^ both for herself 
and the child, that — 

Who sweeps a room as for Thy laws, 
Makes that and the action tine. 

— jSIarv li. lilv, Aniioiir Kiiidcyi^artcn. 

TWO su(;(;kstive isooks. 

"The Stories of Our Country," ami "Ten Great I^Lvents 
in nistor}'," by James johonnct, will be found most helpful 
and suggesti\e reference-books for Kindert^artners in pre- 
paring^ their work on patriotism and home history. Mr. Jo- 
honnct, who has defined so man\' thinij^s clearly and lucidl}-. 
says this of patriotism in the ])refaces of these books: 

"The Icelanders, who li\e amid the cold and desolation 
of almost perpetual winter, ha\e a ])roverb which says that 
'Iceland is the best land the sun shines ujion.' In spite of 
nil their hardships and privations, they cherish an intense 

rr.hti,. Work 433 

|()\ c- ()1 I ()iiiUr\ , ami \\ liLii lraii-^|)<)t ltd l<» mou- ;^<Ml»aI climes. 
man>' a |)()()r exile has piiud a\va\' his life fnun pure home- 
sickness. Tlic Icelaiuler loves his country; not for what it 
produces, not for its f)eaut)-. not fc»r its riches, but because 
it is /iomi\ In the littK- hut. half l)urie<l in the snow, he was 
born. an*l tlure he '^'rew u|) under the watchful providence 
of ni()ther-lo\e. Around him were loving kindred, father. 
brothers, sisters, i^rand-parenls. and all ami in this s|)ot. 
where home-lo\e was i)orn. arc concentrated the profounder 
emotions of his nature. Mut the home reaches out to other 
homes, ami |)atriotism. or Io\f of country, is born, and be- 
comes a (It)MiiMating sentiment in his heart and brain." 

There is a hint here to all teachers, of howtobe^in in the 
home, in the small circle, to foster that disposition which 
shall enlari^n- into a national patriotism. Mr. johonnct con- 
tinues: "This sentiment of lo\'e of countrN' and loyalty to 
its interests is not tlu- monopoly of a nation ux a race, but 
belont^s to all men and all a^es. Having its birth at the 
fireside, it is nurtured by the stor\- of the darini;, the suffer- 
int^. the. couraL,'i-. and the endurance which made homis 

"Patriotism, or lo\e ot country, is one i>l llie lots of no- 
bilit\- of character. N«) threat man e\er li\ed that was not 
a patriot in tlu- hij^hest and truest sense. From the earliest 
times, the sentiment of patriotism has been arouseil in the 
hearts of men. b)- the narratixe of her(»ic «leeds, inspired by 
love of country, and love of libert\." The chapters of the 
"Fen (Ireat I*!\ents" co\i>r the historical den«»unK'nts from 
the I lomeric-Cireek period down to our own Hattle of I.ex- 
inj.,fton. i;[i\es a connected \ iew of the vital epochs in his- 
tor\ . j^ives the reader a most comprehensive anti philo- 
so|)hic re\ iew. in the lij^ht of which he or she cannot fail 
to maki history interestinj^ to the children. The closini; 
1 ha|)ter «tf the luiok. *' I.exini^ton ami Hunker Hill." is a 
most spirited ami j^raphic acctmnt of the Anurican Revo- 
luti«)n. preparatt)rN- to histor\ work for (ieorjje Washinij- 
ton's birthd.av ;^laiui is described as the parent. New 
l'",ni;land as the son. We quote .iiLj.iin: 

434 Practice Work. 

"So sped the )cars until after the French War until 
the last of En«^land's rivals had been effectually subdued. 
Now England, for the first time, seems to have been brought 
face to face with her sturd)' offspring. Now she deliber- 
ately planned to make him useful — pay her debts, fight her 
enemies, subserxe her interests, first and always. Here 
trouble began. The son had an equal share with the parent 
in Agincourt and Magna Charta. He was confiding and un- 
suspicious, but the experience of three generations in the 
wilds had accustomed him to freedom, and had given him 
hardihood. His shoulders were broad, but it was difficult 
to bind burdens upon them against his will. As the policy 
of the parent dawned upon him, first came incredulous ques- 
tioning: 'What does this mean?' then protest, showing the 
injur)-, and suggesting, 'There must be some mistake!' Last 
came conviction of intended injustice, the hot wrath, antl the 
emphatic statement, 'I will not obe)'.'" 

This gixes a little touch of the figurati\e but lucid st\'le 
of the book, which utilizes all the strong poems bearing 
upon its theme. "Paul Revere's Ride" is inserted in this 
chapter, thus letting the poet tell how the news of self-rights 
was carried through the country. 

".Stories of Our Country" takes up the historic narrative 
here, and follows out the facts and acts in spirited and 
natural stvle. 


In using the Second-gift forms in play with the little 
child, I find there is danger in dramatizing too realisticall)' 
with them. I'\)r instance, dressing up the forms in little 
])aj)er shawls or caps to make them appear like children or 
people, seems to me is an extremity which the Kinder- 
gartner falls into, when she is suppl)-ing all the ideas and 
not trusting sufficiently to the chikl's imagination. 1 heard 
the sphere once called a "dear, chubb\-, fat, little mamma." 
I should sa}- the comparisons should be made according to 
the activities of the objects rather than to passive (jualities. 
The child left to himself imitates \\\c activity ('>'i things and 
people as a rule. lleplax's steam-engine, because it is a 

Practice / / 'ork. 435 

j^oin^, spec-din^ ihinj^. I Ic drives fiery horses, beats a drum 
most vi^jorously, prefers the soUlicr 011 the march, and the 
busy c()l)l)Icr to less acti\c creatures. In dramatizing with 
the ^ifts, thc\' should be used as materials to the eiul «»t 
producing, workinj^, constructing, or, as in the case of the 
Second (lift, as represent inj^j the activities of units. 

The following little st(»r\' has been adapted from a play 
^i\en ill a Kindcrjjarten at .San Uiejjo. It should be ac- 
companii'd l)\- the forms clearl\' illustrating ever)- thou^^ht 
su^'i^H-sted, and these latter should be drawn little b\- little 
from tlu- chiiilren. who in this case are the l)abies of the 

" Are nu' children all readxr When I went to the cup- 
l)oar(l this M^o^nin;^^ some little folks there whispered in my 
ear that the\' would like to come and \"isit \'ou to-ilaw 
Vou can imaL,nne that I toiti them \ ou ut)uld be \ery hap|)y 
to see them. Now tluse little people li\e all together in a 
nice brown lu)use. which is just lartje enou^di for them all 
to j^et inside and close the door upon them. The)- lia\e 
enough room for iMch oiu- to keep his own place, anti no 
more. Tlie)- have just come t«) sav, I b)\\ -do-\'ou-do to-da\' '" 
This much ma\- be said b\' wa\- «»f introducing the three 
forms, which an- new to the chiiilren. the Kinderjjartncr 
keepiu}.; the sinj^le bo.x in her own hands. When the chil- 
dren ha\e all piiped into tlu- box. let them j^ive a }.juess at 
what the little \ isitors are like. It ma\ be tjuitc time to 
put them away at thi>^ point, although the len|.;th of talk 
ami lime must be adjusted t«t the interest of the chiiilren. 
10 continue in the same wa\' as before. ha\e a little chat 
o\er the forms of the j.;ift. on these topics in turn: 

What the\- look like. 

W they sa>-. 

\\ hat ihey can do. 

What shall we call them.' 

"Our little visitors can speak like yourselves. IJsten 
ijuietl)- and \-ou will hear the\- have to say. This one 
can speak so loudl\- all can hear him. anil so softb" that 
oiiU the (Hie he is talking to close b\-. can unilerstand. He 

436 Pnutici' Work. 

will conic to each one of \'ou. and I am sure \'oii will answer 
his How-do-you-do to-ihi}'?' Do \ou hear hinir llow-do- 

This presentation of the sound of the forms is more con- 
trolled than the action, and if carefulf}' filled with meaning 
and interest will prevent much of the rollickin_f^ noisiness 
which is apt to accompan}' later individual play with the 
forms. llax'inL;- put meanint^ in the sounds in this wa\', and 
bei^innin<^ ritj^ht with the babies, will L,n-eatl\- obviate the 

"What can they do? This one is ready to play and 
frolic. She runs, hops, skips, and jumps, like boys and 
twirls. Vou will have to be pretty nimble to catch her at all. 
When she stops just a minute she seems to shake all over; 
then \'ou i^ive the <j;entlest little push, and away she goes." 
In this wa}', at the children's own prompting all the activities 
of the sjiherc ma}' be brought, which is no more or less than 
the dramatizing or picturing the chiklren's own doings and 
goings and playing, and at the same time brings about an 
anal}'sis of the forms. 

"Listen to the stor}' which this one, standing here so 
still, can tell, lie is \'er}- wise, for he has been all o\er 
the world. 1 le has \isited all sorts of children; has been 
in the gardens and houses of great kings. lie has li\ed in 
high trees ami looked down upon children playing in the 
shade. It has made him strong to see and know so many 
wonderful things, and now he likes nothing better than to 
carry heavy loads." Tlu: pla}' with the cul)es may be thus 

The suggestion of the materials of the forms will come 
little b}' little to the children, ami these facts should be the 
means to the end. Later, plentv of free pla}' and imagina- 
tive constructing with these solids will follow naturally. 
Mere fanciful comparisons of these to other things are 
unnecessary, since the forms ])resent in themsehes such a 
variety of general, common (jualities of things. These 
([ualities will compel a name from the child for each dis- 
tinctixe form, and his own name for them will otten be 

Practiie U'tn-l. 437 

fouiul t(» he more sujj^fstivc ami comprehensive in mcaninj; 
than the schoo'-acceptecl terms. A. H. 

now 'KiNc. wimkk" was i.i\i:i) 01 r i\ olk kinokk- 


It was ver)' warm weather for Decemher. I'he children 
on their wa)' to Kindergarten were seeing the unusual spec- 
tacle of dandelion "ni^^ht-caps" the size of beans, dottin^^ the 
still ^reen lawns, when the Kindeij^'artner told the '■M<>ther 
Nature" story ( as printed in the |anuar\' number of the Kin- 
DKRCAKTEN ), ami as usual there came requests to "let us pla\ 
it." .So one child was asked to be Mother Nature, and thost 
who wished mi^ht be her plant chiUlren. and the others were 
sunbeams danciii}.; around anil amonj.^ the warm, thirsty. 
restless, though slee|)in}.,'. little plants. Ihere was a pans\ 
and a daisy anil a crocus or two. anil a j^ood man\' "tiandies. 
Mother Nature had her hands full, coverinjj ami tucking; in 
whene\er she saw a head pop up. Then the sunbeams were 
changed into plants, anil the plants into sunbeams, .so that 
all mi}.jht share the activity. Seats on the circle were re- 
sumeil, and the sonj.j "Where do all the Daisies j^o?" was 
sunii '*>■ ll^«^" i>iano, the children first listeninjj. then hum- 
n)inj.j softl) the air. I'he younj^jer chiltlren then went to the 
saiul-table (ilry. to-day K and. after a free handling;, the 
assistant in charge be^an to pla\' that her finj;ers were plant- 
children asleep under the earth covers, some of them liftinj^ 
their heails to see if .Sjirinj^ hail come. This provixl attraci- 
i\e. and the little tmj.jers all around the table were .soon 
buriiil. ami then one by one cominj; to the surface. It was 
suj^^Ljested one of the munber be Jack l*'rost. ti> touch 
the restless little (lowers .uul send them to bed a^nin. This 
proved suj.jj.jestive of other ideas, and the sami was. in suc- 
cession, a river full of fishes and water beetles, ami a lake 
with swimming ducks. The seniors meantime are at their 
work-tables with {•'ourth (iifts, representing; trees, a winding 
river, a lake and solitar\ duck, a jj;roup of thicks, the water- 

438 Practice Work. 

trough, a house for the ckicks to l(o into at night (the box 
representing the corn-bin ); followed by free-hand drawing 
of the story-incidents on the blackboard. During the dicta- 
tion at beginning of lesson, number, direction, and measure- 
ment jHizzles were given. How many blocks does it take 
to make the sides of the water-trough? How man)' twos 
does it take to make four ducks? How long is the corn- 
bin? How high? How many inch cubes could you put 
inside? and so forth. The connecting class ha\-e been given 
thirt\'-two ( ecjuilateral ) triangular tablets each, and have 
made a falling maple leaf and then drawn it on rough paper 
with carpenters' lead pencils ( e.vtra soft); have seen antl 
read the sentence "This is a leaf" on the blackboard (all 
being known words except leaf), and ha\'e written it from 
mcmor\', the new word included. All grades are now called 
to the circle, and their bodies exercised and minds rested b)' 
skijiping, followed by any game they choose to play. The 
juniors then go to their work-table and sew a circle of radi- 
ating lines in )'ellow. to represent the wakeful dandelion. 
The seniors fold gray and white ducks (table-cloth series), 
first from direction and imitation, then from memory, and 
paste the grouj) on a sheet ol blue paper for their book. Con- 
necting class arc making sets of Hailmanne number mats to- 
day, beginning the nimiber six. The}' wea\c from direction, 
paste on book sheet, and then read. Mrst child reads first 
row by "and" two and two and two are six. .Second child 
by color four (of one color) and two (of the other color) 
are six. The next child b}- di\ision six di\ided into twos 
is three." Next b}' minus si.x minus four (covered up) is 
two. Then write it by figures. .All grades come to circle 
to sing, antl are dismissed. 

Tuesday. The words (jf the song- " Where do all the 
Daisies go?" were given and sung. The children were asked 
to tell the stor)'. and Mother Nature's call on King Winter 
was dramatized, the children being allowed to pki)' it as 
they thought best, with a suggestion or two from the director 
or assistants. One child suggested telephoning to Winter, 
and that was done. Jack Frost was chosen antl sent out on 

Practice Work-. 439 

the poin- (his own sl<nU Ic^s ), and some children were 
trees, their fiiij^crs bciii^ the few dried leaves. Others were 
the fishes, w.iter beetles, froj^s, and turtles. Some were dan- 
delions with raised heads, and Jack stopjjed to let them flee 
his cold finder. Then all were chanj^ed to whirling;, danc- 
'\\\\^, wind-blown leaves, that final!)' settled quietly on the 
chairs and were changed to people. One child is called to 
the center of the circle and asked to shut his eyes. He is 
told that he will receive soniethinji that Jack saw on his 
wa\ . .\ witheretl leaf or bare twi^ is j)ut into his hands to 
see if the)- will tell him what it is. Other sense tests are 
made, and then the juniors take their chairs to the table, 
and are j^iven the First (iift. The balls are sleeping tlijwcrs 
that are too warm, anti are pushing the covers (the child's 
hands) off. Jack {^oes around the table and touches them. 
Then the balls are leaves on trees (arms held above heads 
lor wind-blown branches) and drop quietly down, and then 
are swiniminij fishes, crawling turtles, jumpinj^ frojjs. swim- 
ming and tl\ inii ducks, slidinj.,' children, snow-balls to be made 
and throw II uj) and cauj^jht. The lesson to be followed by free- 
hand ilrawintj with colored chalk. The seniors are employed 
with the sand-table (wet). I'.ach child is encouraj^ed ti> 
work out a landscape such as Jack Frost traveleil thn)U|jh, 
ri\er. island in river, lake, mountain, duck-ponii; then, level- 
\\\^ the surface, trace w ith finj^^ar a picture, trees and mount- 
ains and farm-house, or the picture on the farmer's window. 
The connecting class have maile a barn or farm-house with 
sticks, have ilrawii the outline, measureil it. niaile number 
puz/les. learned to read a sentence with same foundation as 
before, anil new worti "barn," and written it. After the cir- 
cle [^ames. which are not conncctetl with the subject unless 
the children ilo it themselves, the juniors arranjje and paste 
loloretl circles and the seniors sew an outline iluck. 

Wciincsiiity. On Wednesila)- the chililren. after sin}»injj 
the sonj^s they choose as "jjood ones" for our story, tell the 
part of the story they wish to ilramati/e. To-day J.ick finds 
the thick. A circle of children ft»rm the poml on which 
floats the duck. Jack calls, and he follows to the farm-yard. 

440 Practice Work. 

findi;i^" the three tame ones. The\' are kind to him, and 
give him some of their corn. Sense games are played; grain 
and sucli things as ducks like to eat are used. Then for an 
activit)'. we are all wild ducks going south. We fly until 
tired, and then stop to rest and eat and drink and bathe, 
and go on again. The juniors are given the Second (jift. 
and play the ball is a beaver swimming around in the river; 
finds a tree (a c\linder) growing on the bank, and cuts it 
down, floating it to make a beaver dam. The cube repre- 
sents the beaver's house. The beavers may work on their 
houses, going for mud. di\ing under water (in laps under 
the table), etc. The seniors ma\- ha\e the Fifth Gift and 
make Winter's palace. 

Thursday. — Let the children tell more of the stor)-. and 
dramatize the picture drawn on the farm-house window.— the 
children seeing it in the morning, — going to feed the ducks 
and finding the slide. For an activity all can try the slide. 
The juniors may have the Third Gift and make the farm-house 
furniture, — a window, fire-place, chair, bed, etc. The seniors, 
with obtuse isosceles triangular tablets, can make Jack's cap. 
Winter's crown, rows of icicles on the farm-house roof, and 
draw the same on boartl ( in mass); and for occupation they 
may weave a carpet for the farmer's children, while the 
juniors fold jack's cap and shoes from the triangular 

Friday. — On Friday the story can be told by the chil- 
dren, the Kindergartner beginning it, and each child who 
can, telling a little of it. r\)rni the children into a cloutl- 
ship, for Winter and the .Snow King, and let them sail 
slowl}', throwing out snow on the earth. Change all into 
children, who shovel ])atlis, sweep walks, play snow-ball, 
and finally go to ride in a big sleigh with jjells. The juniors 
may have four-inch sticks, anti represent anything the}' wish 
about the stor\-. and then draw it on the board. The seniors 
may have a choice of material to make anything they wish, 
relating to the story. The circle games ma}' begin with 
skating to waltz music, and the occupation will be cla}'. 
The children w ill be guided into connecting their work with 

Practiic Work. 44 1 

the story, lliu director will probabl)' make a duck, or 
beaver, or beaver's house, or a window with a frost picture 
on it, or a dish, or basket of corn for ducks. 

The children shoukl have [gained b)- the week's work an 
itiea of the frientllincss and use of the Winter season, and a 
new concei)t of Jack I'Vost, whr* is too often pictured in a 
wa\' th;it s«'cms to put a prtiuium < »ii mi^( Iiitf Iturn M, . Irf/inr 


J III W'as/iini^ton Monument. ( .\ i^ood name is rather to 
be clio.sen than ^'ii-.ii n'l lu-s, ami loviii«^ fnvr>r rather than 
siUcr or ^old. ) 

"ChiUhen, do you know any one who is not living now, 
but whom we remember with love?" 

"(jrandma," one sa\s; another, "Abrahani Lincoln," 
and other different rei)lies. 

Titulitr. \'cs, 1 would much rather have a good name 
than houses, horses, farms, or money. Suppose this house 
should all burn up some time w hen you are at home. In the 
m«)rning you would fiiul lU) little chairs, no little table. 
nothing for \-ou to work with. 1 woulil go then to tinil 
another house, and 1 woulil tell the man that had the house. 
1 have not any mone\-. but as soon as I h.ive. you shall h.ive 
it. Then I wcuddgo to the furniture store anil say. " I'urnish 
my house and I will pay you as soon as I can." They would 
j)erhaps s.i\-, "We know that you always do as you promise 
to ilo. and you can have what \ou" 

Now \*ou see, children, although my house and furniture 
burneil up. my good name tliil not. Now wc arc going to 
buikl a monument for a man wh«» left a good name, and you 
have all heanl it. I think. His name is George Washington, 
whose birthday comes this nu)nth. He was always ready to 
tlo evt'r\thing that was for the good of the people. He »lid 
not care if he was paiil for his work or not. and alt people 


Pmctiic Work. 

were glad to follow him ami lake iiis athice, because he hatl 
such a good name for being truthful and honorable. In a 
beautiful city called Washington the}- have built a monu- 
ment which is the highest in the world, that every one who 
looks at it may remember how brave and honest and true 
Washington was, and wish they might be like him. (After 
having opened the -'^^^^^ — -?-.__ Fourth gift, chil- 

dren are led to "^^^^^L^^:;^ ^^ ^^^^^''^^ • °^''^ e r v e that 
there arc four ^'^y-^~~~-^-~-~Jlf^~Y^^C*^^^^^^'''^ of two bricks 
each, provided the L~-^_^^^ oblongs are ly- 

ing on their largest faces. One layer is taken off after the 

other, the 

fi r s t t w o 

1 a y e r s 

for m i n g 

an oblong, 

also the third and fourth, which are joined together to form 
a sciuare.) 


begin to build a z' i i "^s ■>> t^^^;< 

part do w e 

the roof or the 

What part 

ing do you think we have made? The foundation? (The 
square is p u s h e d 
away a little and the 
Third gift box is 
opened. The eight 
cubes form two lay- 

or half tlie cube is lifted 

w hen w e 
house what 
build fi r s t , 
of our buikl- 


ers only, the first Ia}'er ^ 
up and placed in the 
mental square. Half of 
small cubes are then 
the ' two front cubes, 
cally up and down into 
half is [placed on the L. 

middle of the funda- 
the remaining f o u r 
lifted up and placed on 
This is divided verti- 
two pillars; the right 
^^^ foundation in the center, 

and then made higher by placing the second pillar abo\-e it.) 

Practiit 1 1 ork. 


Now, chiUirt-n. whose irnin- 
umcnt have wc made? That 
of Georj^c Washin^'ton. But 
do you think we need a mon- 
ument to remember him? 
( Teacher may have an anec- 
dote ready of his life, show- 
injj how brave and true he 
was as a boy. Perhaps the 
one where he tried to break 
a favorite sorrel colt of his 
mother, etc. I I' 


The discussion of practical musicians and their iluty 
ill the Kinderi,Mrten has been continued by the principals 
of the .Chica^'o I'ree Kiiuler<,Miten>. Let us e.xamine 
the (liffereiil chords, in their varying positions, and find 
what influence they sui^'tjest. The restful effect of the tonic, 
the rousing (lualil)' of the dominant, the ^rave. subduing 
sub-dominant, were all |)laye(l and recommended for careful 
home stuil\-. 

The ipiestions were asketl. '•What is it that the child 
feels in music?" " Is there iu)t j^reat danger in over-taxinj^ 
the emotions of the children throuj^h the music?" Pure, true 
music ne\er o\er-e.\cites. What do we "children grown" 
gel Irom musii ? What ilo we hear apart from our critical or 
lecliniial appreciation? Tr\- l«> listen as a child would who 
is aitualeil !))• feelings rather th.m b\" thinking. 

"What should be the standard of the music played in 
our Kindergartens?" .*^uch worn-»>ut compositions as"*Maitl- 
en's Prayer," «»r the temporal snatches calleil "the latest." 
are excusable onl)' untier abst)lute pressure i>f circumstances. 
viz., when the pianist knows iu» others. These are not. as 
a rule, pure music, and take up the time and opportunit\ 

444 Practice Work. 

of better thini^s. The child, in hearing" the tinklini,^ and rapid 
runnin_s^ of cheap nuisic, de\eh)ps a taste for the trixial and 
excitable. Music has its psycholo<^icai causes and effects 
as well as other educational lines. Those pro\-idin'^ the 
music in the Kindergartens to-da\'. are settin_<( the musical 
standard for a i^^eneration of men and women twent}' )'ears 
from now. 


In connection with the color talks our children had seen 
the spectrum colors cast on the wall by means of the i^lass 

Six of the ciiildren sitting;' in a rin<^ were given balls of 
the spectrum colors. We sang: 

Here we have the colors all; 
Red, orange, yellow, green, 
iilue and violet all are seen, 

the ball of each color being held ready for rolling as it was 


Now then, children, let them all 
Come together at the call. 

At the last word the children roUetl the balls to the 
center of the ring, trying to roll them gently so they would 
meet, in which they succeeded very well after the game 
had been played a few times, learning to measure the force 
needed. Then they repeated the first words, after which 
six of the other children took the balls cjne by one and the 
game was repeated. H. P. 


A department of information and teachers' l)ureau has 
been opened by the Kindergarten Literature Compan\-, 
with sjiecial management, and we are jirepared to advise 
Kindergartners as to positions and engagements. A com- 
plete survey has been made of the whole field and man\' 
positions are already oj>ened for applicants, among which 

Praittti Work. 44; 

arc ([uiti- a number for summer work in the vicinity of 
Chicago, and for next l-"all in rejjular sclmols. The readers 
of the KiNDKKCAKTKN Maca/.ink dcsirinjj positions arc 
invited to rej^ister, sending; their references anti statinf^ what 
position the}' desire. Fhe most careful recommendations 
will he made, and the greatest of pains taken to brin}^ the 
rij^ht parties into correspondence. T^j our rej^ular sub- 
scribers the initiation fee is but Si; to anyone not on our 
list, Si. Those dcsirin}^ summer work should apply at 
once. Api)lications must be matle and references i^iven on 
separate sheets, and not incluiled with any other business. 
Correspond with Kinderj^arten Literature Co., Woman's 
Temple, C'hii ai,^). 

KiNDi.Ki.AK iMiKs who are not iiMilnii^ the (//////- 0<//-#/t// 
ari- missini^ a i,freat man\- \aluable contributions to their 
rei^uiar work. It is i-\j)re>sl\' desiijned to jjive the month's 
proLjrain «)f the Kinderi^arten to the children in the home, 
as well as supplenuiit with fresh stories ami rhjnies this 
rej^ular Practice Department, as its crowded paj^es cannot 
hope to do. Kinderi^artners should not depenti too com- 
l)letil\- on olil proj^jrams, tales, anil rh\nies. The creative 
work of tin Kiiuler^arten demands new stories, fresh appli- 
cations, and oriijinal adaptations of e\er\- phase of the tiaily 
j)rotjram. and that is just what Chilii-dtirdtn aims to j^ive. 

I'ki/i; I'«> W amki). \'ci>e.s between ciijht ami 
twent\-four lines, for a collection to be set to music b\- the 
most eminent composers in luirope anil America. The 
verses njust be within the }.jrasp of the chilil. anti not al>out 
children; .sentiment and form to be true and tellinii. Alnive 
all the «>pen \owel must predominate, to render the wonU 
iMsily sunj^j. h'or accepted 5lO wdl be paiil. and the 
better ones will appear in the KiNHKK(i\KTKN Ma»;a/.IXK and 
( hilti-Cnirtiin. 

Till. Practice Department of the March issue promises 
splemlid contributi(»ns to the "trade-life" itemonstrations of 
the Kinderyjarten. There will also be a foretaste of Sprini; 

446 Practice Work. 

botan\' work. Our readers everywhere who ha\e special 
work in this direction should send in these suggestions 

See stories of Franklin, Washington, and Lincoln, in 
Child-Garden for February, written with special reference to 
the month's patriotic program. Cliild-Garden is Si a year 
in ad\"ancc. See special offer among advertisements. 

Do NOT fail to look up our Fcbruar}- bulletin of books 
and freshen your reading and illustrations for the months' 
work. Our advertising pages are full of information of a 
practical sort, and should be carefulh' examined. 

To ANY one ordering of the Kindergarten Literature Co., 
Woman's Temple, books to the amount of J85, the Cliild- 
Garden will be sent free. For a $10 order we send the Kix- 
DEKGAKTEN Ma(;azine free. 

For portraits of Washington, Franklin, and Lincoln, also 
Froebel, send six cents each to Kindergarten Literature Co., 
Woman's Temple, Chicago. 

Read the story of how paper was made, in Cluld-Garden 
for February. 



W ithiii c\cr\ «)iic lies the pcnver of rij^ht feeling, right 
thinking, and right doing. It only waits to be awakened, or 
called out from itself, to manifest this truth. 

Since the time when I'roebel tliscovered little children 
( in an educational sense he did discover them), slowly but 
sure!) the right feeling, and folh)wing as a necessit)' the 
right thought with reference to child culture, has beeli 
growing; and where thought and feeling are united the 
result must be harmonious work toward the realization of 
the highest ideals. So the future holds woiulers for us in 
this direction. I- irst, there were few great teachers, espe- 
cially the followers of I'roebel. then mothers who through 
their children or eanest Kindergartners, have been led to 
stud)- child nature and hjok deep into the new thought 
in eiluciition, until iu»w, we ma\' count the teachers by 
thousanils and mothers by hunilnds who earnestly stud\ing 
the laws of child development. 

Hut perhaps the brightest promi-M- we ha\e i> the lad 
that the f.jthers, who, though oxerburdened with work ami 
mental application in other directions, are one by one begin- 
ning to realize that the subject demanding the most pr»»- 
found thought anil loving care, and which will yielil the 
richest returns, is true child iii/htn; and that the noblest 
work is to help little chiUlren in every possible way to 
express the highest and best within them. 

In this age, and especially in this, the year of the 
C olumbian celebration, when e\er\" one is taxed physically. 
mentall)-, and mor.ill\- to his utmost, it is a surprise a glad - to see fathers taking up the thought and work of 
the Kindergarten. Hut we shall see greater and happier 
surprises than this; li>r the time has surel\- cinne when little 
children lead .md te.ich us. Not only the power of right 

vol » NUO ]} 

448 yi others' Department. 

feeling and right thought has been awakened, but the work 
may be seen going on all around us. 

Recently, in one of the suburbs of Chicago, where a new 
Kindergarten was struggling to exist, a father, whose two 
little children had attended for a time, withdrew them from 
the Kindergarten. The few earnest women whose business 
it was to look after the finances of the enterprise, sadly 
missed the few dollars thus lost to the treasury, and could 
not understand why he should keep the children out. It 
was my pleasure to call upon him with reference to it. 1 
found him in the office of his large factory, just outside the 

. After introducing myself, 1 said, "Mr. B., I called to 
ascertain why \'our little children are not in the Kinder- 
garten. Have )'ou any criticisms to offer?" 

"Oh no," he said, "the Kindergarten is all right, for any- 
thing I know, and the children both enjo)'ed it when they 
went; but as the Winter is coming on we decided to keep 
the little one at home. Just about that time I had sent 
home from the factory a load of wooden patterns, which 
were out of use here, and which we could use for kindling. 
Would you believe it, the older little boy has been amusing 
himself with those ever since. Now, with a hammer, a few 
nails, and that kindling, I think wc have a good Kinder- 
garten in the woodshed. 

"So it is, as far as it goes," I said; "but there is much in 
the Kindergarten that he does not find in the woodshed." 

"Well, now, 1 should like to know the difference," said he. 

In brief, I tried to show some of the adx'antages of the 
Kindergarten. I explained how that the de\elo|)ment 
should be three-fold. Here in his woodshed the lx)y had 
physical training, it is true, but the chikl is a social being 
and needs the companionship of his jieers, which he has in 
the Kindergarten. 

In his woodshed he exercises his best thought and skill 
for his own amusement; there all his powers are called into 
action to reach a higher result for some one outside ot him- 

Mothers Dcpartttunt. 44Q 

Here he is alone, his wcjril is law, liis will and motives 
are unquestioned; there he is in a community. Iearnin|{ to 
adjust himself to the {^^reat world about him. to jud^jc of 
rif^ht and wron^j, and to submit to the rij^ht until it l)ftome> 
such a habit that he chooses the right. 

Here, the whole tlay is given to work with the kindling; 
there the time is iliviileil into periods, with the varying occu- 
pations that he needs for his complete development. 

Here, he is handling many different ant! complicated 
forms with no thought but his own to make classifications; 
there he handles a few typical forms until he knows them 
and can use them as a basis of classification for all forms. 

Here, his thought is centered in self; there all his affec- 
tions are called into action through sentiment, .song, and 
princii)le, and find expression in loving deeds for others. 

In the woodshed his hand may become skilled, his 
thought excited and his heart made happy, all of which are 
good; but in the Kindergarten his hand is skilled in many 
more wa\'s and his thought develojjetl in logical sequences. 
His ideals are ever higher and higher because he tries to 
live them; so his inner life is ever growing and he is capa- 
i»le of more and higher enjoyment each day. 

"Well." said Mr. H.. "this is a revelation to me; 1 hail 
no idea of the Kindergarten before, and I assure you m\ 
children sh.iU ha\e the benefit of it hereafter." 

This is onl)' one of many cases where the fathers are 
beginning to awaken to the value of the new thiuight in 
education, and to work for th«- Kimlergart«-n !/'» (^ /■ 

" iiKn.irn.MNi. i r. 
Around a Kindergarten table ten cheery-faced little ones 
worked as onl\- ten earnest Kintlergarten children can. 
One of them, making an iinention ("convention." she called 
it ), seeing her card looked rather ilull from lack «»f bright 
color, said. " IMease give me a little re«l to brighten up u\\ 

450 Mothers' Department. 

The Kindergartner, seein<^ the bent of her mind, said: 
"And you want your card bright and pretty, do you? Is 
there not something else that is prettier by being bright? 
What is it. do you think?" 

After waiting for a reply, and none coming, she said: 
"Little children's faces — are they not prettier when bright? 
Tell me how they can be brightened up and made beauti- 

Answers came from all around the table, one saying, 
"By having rosy cheeks;" another, "By laughing." 

The Kindergartner, smiling, said: "Yes, rosy cheeks are 
pretty, but a smiling face is prettier still. Our faces can 
look dull and homely, like the dark sewing-card, or bright 
and beautiful, just as wc 'brighten them up' b>- being cheer- 
ful and hai)i)\-. And now, children," she went on, "how 
does everything look when it is going to rain?" 

All, speaking at once, — "Dark and cloud}-." 

" True. Suppose we let our faces look dark and cloudy, 
as if the sun were not shining." What a contrast! Ten 
little faces, gloom}- and sad. 

"Now let us brighten uj) our faces, and look like when 
the sun is shining." In a moment the smiles were ripi)ling 
over every face, and the Kindergartner has the expression, 
" to brighten up," that will be availing with these precious 
ones in time to come. A. Bcalcrt, Lexington, Ky. 


The following suggestive paragraphs are culled Irom an 
article which api)eared in the December Literary Northwest, 
written by Mrs. A. Adams, who is not a professional Kin- 

We can iiiKi.ninc the j^-nive. lari;c-cycd ncw-comcr thinkinj,^, " My 
mamma fancies I can do nothinj( but eat and lie still. What does she 
know about me? I can think some now. I am K"'"K t" think more. 1 
am ifoing to walk, and I am >(oin<; everywhere to look at everything 
above and below and round about, and to lay my linj^^ers upon all I ran 
touch and /io/(/ all I (an." 

Mothers' Dipnrtmcut. 451 

Tliis is literally true in about the order named; and of late, particu- 
larly since the influence of P'roebel has been felt, the mother can find 
it all philosophi«ally analyzed. I remember once seeing a set of siati»- 
tics, matle (»ut by an observin>j physician, who had tabulated the phys- 
ical and mental progress of the average baby. The co-ordinate use of 
the eyes he de< land to be attained at four months, the ability to under- 
stand all speech a|>pertaii)inv,' t«i its own surroundings and desires at 
twelve months and so on. Now. many writers have taken up this 
subject as to the ethit al and asthetu al manifestations of a child, as 
well as the athletical. and the mother can be fortified by the wisdom of 
great minds to meet her child's developing intellect. 

In the "multitude of counselors there is wisdom." and, while not 
anticipating the practical methods of the Kindergarten system, would 
it not be well to take advantage of the vast amount of liteniture which 
has recently been suggested by the princ iples upon which that system 
IS founded ? 

Theiie writers tieclare the unaided maternal instinct to l>c of no 
value here, and we can readily agree with them. We might as well 
expect it to leach us to solve a problem in algebra. • )ne writer says: 
"The training in the family is left very much to chance, is dependent 
on the greater or less natural capacity of the parents, the best of 
whom have no sure guide of action, while the greater number proceed 
without anv tliought whatever." Ibis is unjustly severe, as the author 
applies it to both moral and mental training, but it is strictlv true if 
referring only to the latter. 

.M«)st children when they enter school life, if questioned by the 
teacher with regard to their mintls. miglit trulhfullv answer like Topsy: 
"They just growed." If members of an intellectual household, they 
have absorbed a vast amount of information, but in a desultory and 
unsystematized fashion. The father is a fully occupied person, and the 
mother seldom takes this matter seriously 

We should always tenderly prote«t the rights appertaining to special 
indiviiluality. .\ »hihl. like a tree, siuiuld be allowed free growth, and 
not be clipped like an oltltime hetlge in a formal garden, into a gro- 
tesc|ue imitation of what it is not. Original things are not so common 
in this world that we can afford to destrn\ them, and to ruthlessly 
meddle with certain personal traits is as unw.irrantable and cruel as to 
mutilate the features. 

Let me say. for our mutual encouragement, that an .\mencan 
mother has a right to expect a preponderance of good, and not evil, 
in her children. The chances are that hvx\\ she and her husltand are 
descended from a long line of New Kngland ancestors, whive courage 
in danger and ttdelily to conscien* e form a priceless inheritance. H. 
in the family emigrations, their blood has been mingled with the var\- 
ing streams from the .Southern .ind (^>uaker civilisations which has 
maile Ohio men ami women the uinners in manv a recent race for 

43^ Mothers hcpiirtniciit. 

precedence, the new element renews the blood and gives her another 
reason for sanguine hopes. Only the eccentric bias given by genius or 
insanity or a most demoralizing environment can account for ruinous 
deviations from this sound heritage. Many of you are, doubtless, 
familiar \\ itli the inscription upon a monument not many miles from 

"This stone and several others have been placed in this yard by a 
great-great-grandson, from a veneration oT the piety, humility, sim- 
plicity, prudence, patience, temperance, frugality, industry, and perse- 
verance of his ancestors, in hope of recommending an imitation of 
their virtues to their posterity." 

There is probably not one of my readers whose forefathers would 
not be worthy of a similar inscription. It is an illustrations heritage of 
virtues, and however it may be diluted by prosperity and the security 
of the times so dearly bought, its virile force is in the bone and sinew 
of our children, a strong basis of character to found upon. Let us, 
therefore, build with cheerful patience and good hope, broadly, as they 
who build for a large purpose. 

THF. UNITY woman's t:i.LT>. 

Up on the North Side of Chicago is a neighborhood 
which, seven years ago, was known as " Little Hell." .Sit- 
uated on the river, overshadow^ed by great gas wells and 
grain elevators, surrounded b)' railroad tracks, coal, stone, 
and lumber yards, it was one of the waste places of the 
earth. In fact, the only clean thing around was a brick- 
yard, where six days in the week the childhood of our gen- 
eration had the creative experience necessary to a develop- 
ment of the spiritual nature. But the brick-yard had to 
close in Winter, aiitl the work in clay and sand had to gi\'e 
way to weather. 

A good man, Mr. Kli H. Bates, discovered the need for 
a light about which to gather the fluttering moths in the 
darkest time of the year to people of this class. Thought, 
with him, culminated in deed, and he left a fund which 
built the "Unity Church Industrial School." Within its 
walls have been gathered the children of the neighborhood 
ever since, and in Creche, Kindergarten, sewing-school, 
cooking and dressmaking classes, they have been kept 
from the street and started (n personal habits of order and 

With uisdom iiiid tonMi^'ht Mr. Hati^ ha«l nali/cd that 
j^jn-at reforms to l)i- |)crmaiu-iit must begin with the children. 
A \iar at,'(> an effort was matU- to draw the mothers of 
ihesi' chihireii toi^ethir. to talk with them about the j^reat 
principles iinderl\iiij^' tin- work with their children, and to 
<y\\v them a c hanre to lift their eyes from their wash-tubs 
and sewin^f-machines, to the higher side of their life. As 
wives and mothers tlu\- had the same duties to perform as 
tin universal woman. The emphatic point at the start was 
to givi- tlu-m ri'cognilion as mothers and one pleasant after- 
noon awa\' from work. This lifting of vision, which the 
more thrift) classes find so necessary, and .seek to obtain in 
church, theater, opera. societ\'. tra\el. or study, came to 
these wonun in this one h«)lida\ time of the week. 

;\t tirst. those in charge trusted mainly to the clean, 
fresh rice|)tion-room. with tlu- coz\- I'pen fire, the spotless 
tea-tal)le wiili its daint\- howl of flowers, and a sympathetic. 
hearty recejjtion committee. The wa\to g(» forward would 
he made clear. Their plan was highl\' successful. As they 
began ti*) know the woimn they saw the needs of their life. 
.Strongly indei)eiuknt. the wives of laboring men. they 
came as woimn of all classes conu- to their societies and 
clubs for light, mon- light! The meetings, to which any 
wlu) wislu'd might come, grew frt)m a fortnightly a.ssembly 
to a weekly stud\-lu)ur ami social hour; from a miscella- 
neous gathering to a woman's club; from a charity to a self- 
supporting an»l in its turn missionary institution in the 
neighborhood. .\t the meetings have been studieil prob- 
lems in social science, hygiene. pliN'siidogy, meilicine. and 
most of all. that wonderful stutl\- ft»r mothers, of child- 
nature, its instincts. an<l tlu- right means of developing 

In turn, the effect has been cr>stalli/ed in the homes. 
ami cle.m cotton curtains have been hung at the windows, 
ami tlu- rooms h.ue been scrubbed. The baths have 
exteiuleil to the children and parents, warmer undercloth- 
ing has been put on the chiKlren. anil the women have 
l.iken on another aspect. The three-cornered shawl that 

454 Mothers' Departme7tt. 

once crowned head as well as body, and betokened a gossip 
in some neighboring kitchen, has come down to its proper 
elevation on the shoulders. A simple, plain hat or bonnet 
has taken its place on the head. These are only a few of 
the good signs seen and felt by all in the neighborhood. 
The success of the movement has been due to several 
causes : 

1. The study of the women and their needs- 

2. Hearty recognition of the women as a part of God's 
creation, appealing to the mother-element in them. 

3. Giving them no thought or entertainment that was 
not worthy of noble, serious womanhood. 

4. Participation with them in these pleasures and inter- 
est in their own experiences. 

An afternoon at the club now gives one an hour 
with some good writer or lecturer, a half hour when tea 
and wafers are served by a club committee, and during 
which there is music, and a half hour of conversation. A 
magazine club has been recently added to give the mothers 
the means of entertaining their fourteen-year-old boys and 
girls at home during the evenings. The healthy and whole- 
some strength of the movement is evidenced by the steady, 
increasing membership, the enthusiasm and interest felt in 
their club, which has given these mothers an added sense of 
dignity and worth. One of the Club. 


The following appeal comes from Gunnison, Colo.: 
"Dear Madam I feel that there are many like myself 
with but one child, who would like some hints or plans from 
time to time in using or adapting Kindergarten plays to 
that one child. Our neighbors are all far away, and it is 
practically impossible for my child to get Kindergarten 
instruction, except at home from myself. If you do not 
care to put the hints in the Magazine, can you and will you 
give us through the Magazine the names and addresses of 
some mothers who have successfully solved the problem? 
Sincerely." - J/nv. F. J. Outcalt. 

Mothers.' Dt'partfni'nt. 45; 

In answn lu the above letter. I would sujjjjcst the " Kin- 
dcrj^artcii (iuide, " by Matlain Kraiis-H<jclte, as an aid to a 
mother who has not had Kindergarten traininj^, and who 
yet desires to use the gifts and materials for her child. In 
regard to tiie plays, the best plan is to dramatize simple 
little stories or songs, such as Emily Poulsson's Finger 
Plays. The great secret of success lies in the mother's 
entering heart and soul into the spirit of the game, letting 
the child plan and conduct it as far as possible. The most 
essential thing is the cultivation of the play spirit; in other 
words, to he as a little chiltl, as happy, as joyous, and as 
free. .-/ mother who hus tried and iuccccded. 




I'"i\e white lambs without the folil. 

Sinigl)' cuddled together; 
When wind »>f the north is growing boM. 

There will be storm\- weather. 



An enipt\- folil Oh, where are the\- 

That should have comfort in it? 
Hoy shepherd, search for the lambkins stray. 

Nor wait a single minute. 

( )ne and all, brought home in peace. 

Insiile the fold are lying; 
Is it hunbs like these that grow a fleece 
White as the sn«)wflakes flying? 

- lutl'initl /.. GtHHiiiin, J<o.\toM. 


The Chicago Kindergarten Club. A review of the work of the 
club for the past three months shows the following results: It has become 
a component part of the International Kindergarten Union. A com- 
mittee has bejen appointed (Miss Elizabeth Harrison, chairman) to con- 
sider Kindergarten principles in -Sunday-school work; also a committee 
appointed to suggest to the Local Kindergarten Conunittee of the 
World's Congress Auxiliary, topics and speakers for the Kindergarten 
Congress to be held the third week in July. V^aluable suggestions have 
been. given, which will be incorporated in the tentative program soon to 
be issued by the local committee, of which Mrs. E. W. Blatchford is 
chairman. A conmiittee from the club has been selected to meet rep- 
i-esentatives of the various women's clubs of the city, to present a bill to 
le""islature favoring the incorporation of Kindergartens into the public 
school systefn. The literary exercises of the first division of the year, 
consistmg of ten lectures on "Mental Training," by William George 
Jordan, were largely attended and highly appreciated. Full syllabi of 
these lectures may be had by applying to Mrs. Page, 2312 Indiana Ave- 
nue, Mrs. Putnam, 4815 Kenwood Avenue, or at the club-room, 179 Van 
Buren Street, on the first and third Saturdays of each month. Price fif- 
teen cents. According to a recent action taken by the club, meetings 
during the remainder of the season will be held on the first and third- 
Saturdays of each month, hours 10:30 to 12:30. The list of probable 
lectures is: Prof. Small, University of Chicago, " Morals in the School- 
room"; Mrs. J. C. Stirling, "Home Reading"; Mr. ?1G. Howe, " Science 
in the Kindergarten"; Miss Elizabeth Harrison, "Relation between 
Higher Literature and the Kindergarten"; Miss Mary Burt, " Litera- 
ture for Children"; Miss Ball, "Form and Color"; Mrs. Elizabeth 
Palmer Peabody, subject not known; Miss Margaret Morely, "Physical 
Culture." Froebel's Birthday, April 21. i-. m. Kindergartners from 
other cities visiting in Chicago are cordially invited to all regular meet- 
ings of the club. (3fficers: President, Mrs. Charles L. Page, 2312 Indiana 
Avenue; First Vice-president, Miss Anna M. Snively, 4320 Lake Ave- 
nue; Second V^ice-president, Mrs. K. H. Watson, 319 S. Robey Street; 
Recording Secretary, Miss Mary J. Miller, 4407 Greenwood Avenue; 
Treasurer, Miss Hattie Phillips, 4407 (jreenwood Avenue; Chairman 
Board of Directors, Mrs. Alice H. Putnam, 4813 Kenwood Avenue. 

From Toledo, Ohio': "In September, 1883, we opened a private 
Kindergarten with eight pupils. Two Kindergartens which were hav- 
ing a feeble existence at the time, suspended in a few weeks, leaving us 

possession of tlic titltl. lor four years wc (gradually increased in num- 
bers and influenre, until there was a demand for more srhools and more 
teachers. In 1888 the Cnitarians opeiic<l a free Knuler^arten witfi 
one of our tearhers as dire«tor. In the same year aiMithcr ^laduatr 
found a position with the Y. W.C. T. I'.as pnnripal of their Kinder>;ar 
ten. In iS<p thf iiuliistrial sriuK)! opcne<l a Kinderj^arten, and another 
{graduate found her pla<e ready for her. In iK«^j St. Paul's Kpis«-npal 
Church made rof>m for another. In the near future the Day Nursery 
expects to join these ha|>py philanthropists. Two private Kindergartens 
are carried on in connection with the training class, and three other 
graduates have private Kindergartens in various parts of the city, mak- 
ing nine active, living Kindergartens in the city as the result of the 
small beginning in 1S83. an average of one a year, with no deaths to re- 
cord. A rtourishing Kiiulergarten 111 Samlusky, and othen. in various 
places, indicate the power of Kroebels philosophy when thoroughly un- 
derstood. The pupils of the training class have been drawn from the 
best element in the city, young women of culture and retineinent. who 
are a credit to the profession. The alumna- have organized themselvcrs 
into a Froebel society, for further study and for the purpose of influenc- 
ing public opinion in favor of Kindergarten methixis in the public 
schools. .lA/zT /T. /.itw. 

" I HK |)leasantest sight I ever saw in my own tenement-house inves- 
tigations," writes Lucia True .Ames in an article <»n " The Home in the 
Tenenu'iit Mcuise." in the Jaiiuarv .Vt-^r /f//<,'/<//f»/ .lA/^Mr/'/i/-, " was in one 
of the Cherry .Street iiuxlel tenement houses in New York, where on a 
fiercely hot aftern«K>n in June, when the mercury stixnl at ninety-six. tw«> 
little girls, perhaps ten years old, were amusing twenty or thirty tiny 
children who were their neighlxirs in this building. In a large room 
used in the morning as a Kindergarten, they had gatheretl the little ones, 
and in patient, orderly fashion were guiding their charges through the 
games and songs with which all were more or less familiar. The gentle- 
ness and wisdom shown by these little teachers in their self-imposed 
labor, and the gotitl humor and gcHul behavior of the four-ycars-old chil- 
dren, were touching and most inspiring. Without suiA a play-room as 
this in the tenement, all this beautiful civilizing and missionary work 
would have been impitssible. and the children would have Ihhmi left to 
tumble about the dirty streets or tonnent their tiretl mothers at home. 
In the evening the riMMn was used by the older tenants; and if I rcmem 
ber rightly, the gift of a piano making music [xissiblc, singing classic 
were conducted and various kinds of club work made |Hissihle." 

TuK Chi«ago Literary School held its annual session during the holi- 
davs with greater suc«-ess than ever. The opening discussion of the school 
was of the " International Revival of Literature." of which the existence 
of this school Itself was the best testimonv. Prof. Richard Moulion 

45^ Field Notes. 

opeiiecrthis'discussion, followed In- the leaders of literary thought, who 
took up the subject of Shakespeare in every detail. Prof. Denton J. Sni- 
der, Dr. Harris, and Mr. Hamilton Mabie were the most conspicuous lect- 
urers. The discussions after each paper were varied and spirited, and 
brought out the feature of all taking part with exceptional prominence. 
The school attracted many strangers to the city, who are more than glad 
to find the seat of this progressive work, contrary to traditions, in the west. 
Mr. Moulton's plea for the literary study of the Bible was received with 
great feeling by the school, and was emphasized anew in the climax of 
.Mr. Mabie's closing lecture, in which he stated the qualities, purposes, 
and aims of true education, viz., "to make a man the visible represen- 
tative of God, to do some positive work, and to do it in the divine spirit." 
A complete copy of this and other lectures brought before the school 
can be secured by addressing Tkc Parthenon, United States Express 
Building, Chicago, in which journal they were published. 

Conspicuous among the i)rogressive organizations of the day, whicji 
reflect the growing interest in true education, is the Art Industrial Asso- 
ciation of Chicago. 'I"he main object of this association is the uniting of 
artists and persons engaged in art industries, for the mutual protection 
and advancing of their interests, as well as the best interests of art and 
art industry, the encouragement of schools and other institutes and ex- 
hibitions of art industry, and the promotion of social intercourse among 
the members. In sliprt, the aim of the .Art Industrial Association is to 
bring together all painters, sculptors, architects, artistic iron-workers, 
draughtsmen, etchers, decorators, engravers, artistic embroiderers, au- 
thors of art literature, photographers, and all other industries connected 
with art. The ultimate scope and force of this organization can be 
prophesied to be infinite and invaluable. Its work is co-operative with 
that of the great manual training schools and institutes, the Kindergar- 
ten movement, and the entire renaissance of education. We should be 
glad to supply any interested parties with the circular of the association 
containing the charter, constitution, and by-laws, which in themselves 
make up a valuable and suggestive document. 

CoM.MlssioNKK W'm. T. IIahkis lias the following to say of music as 
taught in the schools of ihc District of Colunihia; " It seems that vocal 
music is almost entirely confined to the learning of musical notation. 
Kven this is taught to pupils in the lowest grade, while the pupil is tak- 
ing the first step of learning to read from printed words. It would ap- 
pear that nuisical notation ought not to be begun until the third grade 
at the very earliest. The special music teacher ought to teach a large 
number ot choice songs by rote, taking care to secure good expression 
from the pupils and to correct the errors which are always taking root 
in class singing. Another very important reflection forced itself on the 
attention of the commissioner and his assistants in this investigation. 

h'ielii SoU's. 439 

Special teachers should rarely if ever be employed for any other pur- 
pose than to reinforce the work tif the rejfular teacher. The music 
teacher should instruct in new sonjjs, correct bad tendencies, and chiefly 
by his lesson show the regular class teacher how to conduct the singing. 
So, too, in the case of teachers of drawing, sewing, physical culture, and 
one would be glad to add manual training and cookery, but cannot at 
this stage of the (le\ fiopMUTit of those branches." 

Thi. St. Louis Kroebe! .Society is in active operation this \\ inter. 
The present otticers are: President. Miss McCulloch; N'ice-president. 
Mabel .\. Wilson; Secretaries, Mabel Shirley and Sallie Shawk; Tre;is- 
urer, .Susan Simmons. At the October general meeting a full exhibit of 
Kindergarten work gathered for the state convention. Kvery detail of 
this e.\hibit was discussed as to results and good |Hiints. It ha^ been 
the experience of our society tlwrt many good lectures have been put 
before us, but have not always been fully comprehended. We have 
therefore made the plan to have an adjourned meeting after every spe- 
cial lecture for the exhaustive discussion of same, as well as the adapt- 
ing «)f it to our own work. We have sele«ted a.s a rule inclusive topics, 
sui h as physical » ulture. color, science, story and talks, practical psy- 
( hology and art principles. There are now two hundred paid teachers 
in the St. Louis schools, with salaries varying from £1400 to $700 per year; 
some sixty-hve of these are directors. We afe by no means living on 
past reputation, but are seeking alive and progressive measures only. 

Tiii' (Iraiul Kapids, (Mich.l Kindergarten .Association is a wonder- 
ful example of what organized efTort is wurlh. Only a little over a year 
ago it t(H)k its start, but so generous was its p«»licy toward the work that 
it immetliatelv began t«) contribute to lesser points. The principal, Mrs. 
I.. W. Treat, during the first year praitically touched the nu*st Mn[HU- 
tant cities in the state, largely at the expense t»f the asstHiation. giving 
public talks, addressing mothers, etc. The Summer work at the lin\ 
View Assembly was under this direction, and the fall year of i8«)2 openeti 
with large auxiliary classes in Muskegon and Detroit. Mich., and al»u 
in Columbus, ( ). Calls have come for organi/ation fn»n« mon* places 
than (hey are able to lill.aiid the as>ociatioii at ('•rand Kapids is calling 
ill iissistaiice t«) c«»ver the territory. I'his interchange of sub-aKS«M'iatioiis 
with a central class brings a live, fresh enthusiasm into the work, which 
is of mutual benetit, and of the greatest advantage to the local work 

Xwv organized Kindergarten training provided for mothers by the 
Chicag«i Kindergarten (.ollege has been thoroughly successful. Since 
the first class was «»pened oxer three thousand mothers have attended 
the central class, and as manv more ha\e been enrolled in the suburban 
tributarv classes. Miss Kli/abelii Harrison superintends this work, and 

460 I"icld Xotcs. 

each lecture delivered in person before the central class is sent out in 
manuscripts to all the sub-classes, so that the work co-operates thor- 
oughly. Arrangements are being made at present to supply the same 
through correspondence to any individual mothers who. may wish to 
avail themselves of the opportunity. The detailed announcement of 
this plan may be found in tiic college advertisement on the cover of this 

Thk following resolution was unanimously passed by the school 
board of Humboldt, la., some time since, which might be set as an excel- 
lent pattern for lesser communities everywhere to imitate: "Resolved 
hy the Board of Direetors of the Independent Distfiet of Humboldt. Iowa, 
That we regard the Kindergarten conducted by Miss Amelia Murdock 
as a valuable auxiliary to the public school, and we earnestly commend 
the same to the patronage of the public." The local paper adds the 
following comment: "When people become posted on what a Kinder- 
garten can do for a child they are fast friends of the school, and there 
is a demand for one in Humboldt." This public commendation and 
appeal will do much to enlarge public appreciation of the work. 

MissAmalie Hofkk of the Kindkrgakten Magazine, started on 
January 30 for a trip through the East, answering a general call from 
associations for lectures and public talks. She touches the points, 
Muskegon, Grand Rapids, and Detroit, Mich.; Columbus and Toledo, 
O.; Buffalo, Rochester, and Albany, N. Y. In Boston she attends the 
convention of state superintendents of the United States, and also visits 
Pratt Institute in Brooklyn. After visiting Miss Susan Blow and pioneer 
workers in the East, she returns to Buffalo to complete her work there. 

There has been an effort made to secure the co-operation of the 
German Kindergartners, to the extent of conducting a " Froebel school " 
after their native manner, during the coming Chicago Exposition. It has 
not been found expedient, and the plan has been abandoned. However, 
Frau Schrader, of the Pestalozz,i-Froehel Halts, Berlin, will be in this 
country during the entire time of the Exposition, and investigate Amer 
ican methods as well as reveal the secrets of her own success. 

Mrs. Fanme Barne.s will be in Chicago during Feb- 
ruary, for one day, at the office of the Kindkrcarti'.n Ma(;azine, to 
meet the parents of lur pupils, also to receive personal applications. 
On her return she will take with her any additional pupils. Those inter- 
ested will receive direct information concerning Warwick Home, by 
addressing Mrs. Barnes at Flkharl I'. ()., Wis. 

The new .\rmour Institute of Chicago has received the Kree Kin- 
dergarten Association of this city as its regularly equipped Normal 
Kiiidci^arten Dipailinent. Tlit- ;isso(iation hv 110 means loses its 

hit hi \oUs. 461 

identity, l>iit maintains all thi- rights of its well-established policies, and 
adds tlif privileges of thi- Institute, viz., those of libran', gymnasium, 
special Icctiircs, etc. 

Lam ( >i lobcr the School lk)ard of Cohocs, N. Y., decided to open a 
Kindergarten in connection with one «)f the public srhrN)ls. to be on trial 
until the Christmas vacation. Miss Frances Crawford in char)je. .\t the 
January inectiii;,' of the schtxil board it was decided to make it a per- 
inaitent department. 

I r.ACHKKS visiting' Chica>;o next .Summer should apply immediately 
to Mrs. .S. Thati her, Kiver Forest. West Chica^jo. III., for information 
( oncernin}^' the dormitories to be opened for their especial benefit 111 
the school buildings of Chicago during the Kxpositioii. The rates will 
be almost nominal. 

TlllKTKE.N cities are now represented in the International Kinder- 
garten Cnion. The action of the union to issue memberships to associ- 
ations and societies rather than to indix iduals has added great force to 
its w<»rkiiig ability. 

Wi-: have received eight gooti contributions for general uewspa|>er 
distribution; these will be sent out, edited and ready, to as many gcKxl 
weeklies about the country, where we are certain they will have g«»od 
effect. .M^\KV lu.v.tif the Chicago .\rmour .Mission Kindergarten, has 
made a trip among the Kindergartens of prominent eastern cities, and 
reports most interesting experiences among her various visits. 

.Miss Jii.ia .SriKiiKS. a graduate of the Silver .Street Tniining School 
of .San Francisco, has a flourishing private Kindergarten in Santa Mon- 
ica, Southern California. 

I'm-. Col«)rado State Teachers" .\ssociatioii has formed a special 
Kindergarten department, of which Prof. Snyder, of (trecley, was chosen 

Miss \i\mi I.i-wi-ns i>( the ( hu aj^o Kindergarten tollege has 
gone to Hoiistiin. lev., tn take < harge of a private Kindergarten. 

(Hn \(.i» IS tin- c\pr( i.iiit point III all educationists. Jfukm llo\J 


The weekly Si/wo/ Jour/ia/ oi jununry 17, devotes its editorial depart- 
ment largely to a plea for the due appreciation, among teachers, of the 
" play impulse" so common to all men. It says: 

The utilization of the play impulse in education was a conception of 
the innnortal Froebel. A study of play has been made by Herbert 
.Spencer and other philosophers, for it is seen to be a common trait in 
both men and animals. Schiller seems to have been the first to have 
discovered that the a'Sthetic sentiments originate in the play impulse. 
In all attempts to teach art in the schools, there nuist be felt that it is an 
unfolding of |)owers resident in the human soul. It must be observed 
that the more we educate, the more is the need of art. .\s the race de- 
\elops, the play impulse de\elops; for th^t re(|uires leisure, a surplus of 
\igor, a surplus of time. The increase in the effort to teach art within 
later yeais shows that the opportunitv for exercising the play impulse 
has arisen. But how shall art be taught? It is plain there nuist be 
spontaneity at the bottom. The little e.xamination of the subject given 
here indicates that the main thing is to direct the play impulse; that art 
is play nnist be recognized, and also that it demands freedom and spon- 

Thk characterization ' Tlie New Education" is applied by its vota- 
ries to that body of educational doctrine exemplified in its first stages 
by the Kindergarten, higher by object-teaching, sloyd, and manual train- 
ing, and- ultimately by seminary methods generally always one and 
the same princijjle. This name has been adopted by a new magazine 
which appeared in January. T/ic Ni'io Education would aid parents, 
kindergartners, teachers to guide educational practice to a faithful fol- 
lowing of this principle. " It would diffuse helpful suggestion and care- 
fully fornuilated precept; it would arouse enthusiasm, sustain courage, 
establish steadfastness, secure efficiency." It is edited by W. N. and 
K. L. Hailmann. Simjjson & Co. are the publishers. .Mr. and Mrs. Hail- 
mann need no introduction to our readers, and educational literature is 
to be congratulated in advance for the good editorial work to be ex- 
pected from the joint pens of these two i)ioneers of the new education. 

A \ ai,i;ahi.k PktI'KK of (iKoKCJi-; Washin(;t()N. We know of no 
better picture of Washington for school-room and home use than the 
large platinum (11 x 14) print which rejiresents the general on his white 
horse, receiving a salute from the army after battle. He is sitting erect, 
with hat in hand, looking earnestly over the men. The print has been 
copied from a twentv-year-old engraving, wliich was most valuable in 
its time, and of which there are no more than six copies in existence. 
.\ copy of this reproduction can be secured by jjlacing an order with 
.Miss Netta Weeks, Room 7, Central Music Hall, Chicago. The un- 

I.ittrtiry \'otes. 463 

nif)uiitcd copy costs Si. 50; inouiitcd uii a handsome board, j(2, express 
charjjcs not included. The money must arcom|>any order, which can 
be filled two weeks from time of placing;. 

The Harper's Weekly for January 13 contains an excellent illus- 
trated article on Modern Iron Work. The artistic side of this wonderful 
work is set forth as well as the practical means of working, and facts of 
the ^'rowth in the use of same. It is one of those iiuxiern industries 
which combine the work of artist and artisan. 

Thic " I'ranj; Primary Course in .Art Kducation" appears m part 1 of 
a series of practical studies for school-room use. The editors are Mar) 
Dana Hicks and Josephine C". I.ocke. There is a litenir)', poetic Havor 
to this handbook, which is brimming' »>ver with sufjjjestions of sonjjs, sto- 
ries, rhymes, and typical lessons. 

" Kdi'CATIonai. l'svcn<u.()(iV " is a treatise for parents and edut a- 
tors, on this ali-im|)ortant factor in modern school work. The author is 
Mrs. Louisa Parsons Hopkins, of Moston. than whom there is no prac- 
tical teacher who may speak with },'reater ;iuth<)rity on this topic. The 
book is published by Lee & Shepard. 

Tlir. January .'>'<r//^//«v".v contains •'Sonic Kenniiiscences of Lmcoln," 
a timely and most suj^^estive article. 


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^;|^ . 



roi. /'. .1/. /AT//. /S(^j. \o. 7. 

TIN-: Sril)\' ()!• •Dll-: MLIli K IND KOSK- 


I^< HIS l)«M.k is IrcquciUiy announced as 
s " a simple record of the daily actions 
of a niotlui and her chiUl." Wherein 
tluii lies the difticulty of its study? 
I think we have the answer to the 
tjiiestion in the description of the 
mother as "one whose insight into 
the rational ends of life guides her 
directive action." The occurrences rci»istered, as is well 
known, are not the excejjtional acts of an exceptional 
child, hut the commonplace, every-day actions of chiliHuxtti. 
Hence the material out of which to evolve the hii^hcst edu- 
cation for l)od\'. mind, anil s<»ul is at hanti for c\ery one 
who undertakes to {.juide chiUlren. The material for ever)*- 
thinj.^ i.;reat is around us in all the commonplace objects and 
events that meet us day In- ilay. What we lack is the capa- 
bility to direct the experiences arij^ht. What xvc need is 
the "seeing e\e" and "hearing ear" that will give us power 
to discern the great in the small, the lofty in the low; but 
thus richly entlowed is I'Voebel's ideal mother, and from the 
book we gain the conception of standard development. 
Every earnest student must turn from this recortl of child- 
hood to the children, with deepened reverence and a heavy 
sense <»f respojisibility. Their simple .ictions become exaltcil 
as we ilctcit in tluiu the iiisi-o.n.ilil<- Ke-Miminvs froiu uhiili 

468 The Study of ''Die Mutter unci Kose-Lieder." 

life and eternity shall result. How shall we be able to do 
our part towards the creation of this endless life? Only by 
gaining an "insight into the rational ends of life." With 
this ideal mother we too must look afar into life; then the 
simple event will become luminous, the whole will gleam 
upon the part, and in its light we shall read the meaning. 
But this at once shows us the difficulty. 

Life is no simple affair; each single life is interwoven 
with the whole life of the imiverse. Many sided are the 
relationships, but no adequate beginning can be made, with- 
out some knowledge of the end. All mothers may sing to 
their children of stars and sun, of flowers and birds; the re- 
sults gained will depend largeh' upon the mother's realiza- 
tion of the place all these ihings hold in the general life. 
Froebel's mother knows that nature is the broad pedestal to 
which her child must mount as he makes the upward ascent. 
There, nebulous and faint, is diml}- outlined wtiat the future 
holds for him. Each lower stage in nature trying to be 
something more, struggling to free itself from fixed limits, 
reaching up towards free self-moyement, is trying to tell 
him of himself, and, properly directed, tvill tell him. Stone 
and flower and animal in their strivings are but prophecies 
of the "divine dissatisfaction" that must mark his upward 
progress. Under the direction of the wise mother, his 
loving union with nature, in the songs of "Die Mutter und 
Kose-Lieder," shall ripen into scientific knowledge. With- 
out understanding, nature is the ruler; but comprehended, 
she becomes the loving servant who ministers to his bodily 
wants, thus making possible a higher attainment. But the 
mother does not stop here; nature's purpose is higher than 

This beautiful workl is a dream of God's own life, — that 
life in which we all share, and the dream must not be lost. 
Rightly directed the child shall see in nature a \'ision of his 
own higher life, and shall hear, ringing out from it, soft 
echoes of his sjjirit; these are the budding promise of his 
growing self-consciousness. This is the knowledge, in brief 
outline, that enters into the nujther's educative work, and 

rite Study of " l>u MiittiK unit Kosc-IJedcr!' 469 

thus she tonus in licr child, through the active, habitual 
experiences indicated in this \v<irk, a tt-/// that shall valiantly 
set (Uit to conc|uer the world of kno\vled{^e and the world 
of duty. We cannot therefore ex|)ect a plain. sim|)le account 
of this intricate life. "Die Mutter untl Kosc-IJeder" in 
what it su^^ests is as unliniitctl as life itself, pointinjj to the 
whole realm incUuled under the triple classification 01 
nature, man, and God. 

The difficulties attendinj^ the stuilv of this book. then, 
are the result of its subject-matter life in its relation- 
ships, and this subject-matter establishes its claim as a true 
work of literary art. Uo the j^reat writers reveal their 
secrets to the reluctant, hast\-, sujierficial student? To the 
stutly of this book, then, we must brinj^ willinj^ness and con- 
stancy, based by intelliLjence; and with all this, its meaning 
must be lar^eh' tliscovered by s/>intuul sympathy. All high 
W(irk is deeply rooted in the heart as well as in the intel- 
lect, ami tliscloses itself most full)- to the kindred nature. 
We are able to comprehend somethinj^ of (ioil's nature as 
we enrich oan- own lives by his attributes, and we interpret all 
hii^h thini^s by kindred feelin<^s and aspirations; for the soul 
is more than the minil. "There are truths," saitl Ue Maistre. 
"that man can onl\- attain by the spirit of his heart." I-ong 
at^o we felt the full force of this, as we notetl the marvelous 
insij^hts into the sjjirit anil meaninj^ of "Die Mutter und 
Kose-Lieder" gaineil l)\- Miss Blow. All that a highl\- 
i^ifteil nature could iK) for those less favored she tlid for 
us. Herself a liviu}^ example of the truths she interpreted, 
she inspired us with hope, and stimulateil us to action, 
riius she has leil man\- up the path "steep and craggy." as is 
ever the way of the goils. More she would ni>t have done. 
e\en hail it been possible, for well she knew that all the ji>y 
comes from the climbirii,'. Only to feel that every addeit 
step brings us nearer to the summit brings pleasure. The 
treasure sought is nothing less than a knowledge »>f human 
consciousness in all its relations. \'ague anil tentative must 
be our efforts, and strive as we may. our progress is slow. 
Often we are discouraged, for the instinct of unity is strong 

470 I lie Study of " Die Mutter uiui Kose-IJeder!' 

within us and \\c cra\c the whole. I^ut let us not doubt 
that toiling patiently we shall each find some glittering 
fragments that will fit together, and like the great structure 
that unites in its completeness material from many different 
sources, so blending our separate \iews, shall one day arise 
the fair temple of truth. Then will come the easy part of 
the work as we turn to the children; for faintly written upon 
their hearts are the same wonderful truths for which we 
have toiled, and in whatever guise we present them, whether 
as truths of number or shadowings of the divine law, there 
comes a quick affirmation from the soul of the chikl. 

"Die Mutter und Kose-Lieder" puts before the child his 
three-fold connections to nature, man, and God. These 
constitute the beautiful ivJiole of life, and if ever)' human 
being could but thoroughl)' understand his fitting place as 
a part, the sum of all wisdom would be reached, with its 
resultant harmonw "What is this relationship?" every 
earnest man questions as he strixes to understand himself, 
and in that understanding comprehend the general facts of 
human consciousness. Civilization is the still incomplete 
answer to the partially solved question. As the world has 
proved itself the true educator, with civilization for the 
result, we must take it as a model in all limited schemes of 
discipline. .Self-actively, men have learned by slow degrees 
to understand and use its material; thus intellect has de- 
veloped and science arisen, for in the mind mastery of the 
world, mind grows into knowledge of its own powers. Self- 
actively, men have learned to understand the binding 
force of duty to their fellow-men, and from conforming to 
this knowledge has resulted the creation of character and 
its embodiment in social organizations, where the sweet 
verities of love and duty become crystallized. Thus insti- 
tutions, the universal forms of life, give a new meaning to 
law as the highest expression of these individual facts of 
love and duty, organically united into one expression, and 
the\' give a new meaning to love ; for as love is expressed 
t/iroui:^li l(7%i\ they proclaim in trumpet tones that the true 
life of the indixidual can only be reached through the man- 

I III- Study of"l>u Muttir uml Kosi-Licdtr." 471 

ifcst.'ilioii of love-, not love as an unjjovcrncd individual 
caprice, but as an iininutahle obligation, binding; upon each 
ami ever)' lininan beinj,'. 

We see, then, that the objective world has been the 
au.\iliar>' to man's self-activity, in producinjj intellect. 
Hi^dur than his intellect in the spiritual scale is his charac- 
ter, and lor its creation that life nia\" be actualized throujjh 
love a higher world, the uorld'of man, meets him. Civil- 
ization sums up attained results and shows us the full 
expression in science. The individual expression of love 
and (hit)', as so main' single strugjjles, so many different 
aspects of the "t)rganic total" of self-consciousness, are 
discloseil to us in the form of social institutions. As the 
laws of the ph)'sical world are revealed in science, so the 
laws that ret^ulate action are embodied in social orj^aniza- 
tions; therefore, in "Die Mutter uiul Kose-Lieder." Froebel 
brinj^s the world in its tlouble aspect as science and institu- 
tional life to the child. Thesi- experiences are not left at a 
f^reat distance, and mixed w ith numberless impressions that 
mif^ht confuse ami mislead, but selected, preparetl. .system- 
atized, ajul put before him in a series. Not only iloes he 
touch, and look ami listen to, these tan«jible experiences. 
but i1k\- an- broui^ht into his \ery life through npresintation. 
and out of them he begins the process of self-creation. Thus 
the child is met in s)'ml)olic form b)' a twofold world, and 
out of it the highest phase is evolveil. The worltl of 
nature wakens the feeling of (ioil. the worlil of man gives 
o|)p()rtunit)' for its expression in the lo\ ing acts that make 
the firm rounds of the lailtler leading up. These three 
aspects of life meit him in umlifferentiateil unity, as otu\ 
•Later, even in the Kimlergarten separation is indicated, .is 
in llu- different exercises we find the emphasis now ujmn 
one, now upon another of these different aspects. Subse- 
quent eilucation will still further specialize; but in its full- 
ness life will take up the separate strands, recombine. and 
nature, man, and (iod will be seen as one. 

In the songs of "Die Mutter unil Kose-Lieder" it fol- 
lows thai there must of necessity be a typical fact. Such 

472 I he Study of "Die Mutter und Kosc-Licder^ 

are the experiences selected b\' Froebel, and as he handles 
them with the skill that marks his great intellectual vigor, 
lo! they are transformed. The \alue of these fundamental 
facts lies in the endlessness of their suggestion. A beau- 
tiful object or experience is totalh- without worth if it tells 
us of nothing but itself. The simplicit}' of the illustrations 
is very marked. In the song of "The Weather Vane, " a 
common experience of childhood, there is only a child 
watching the vane as it turns upon the tower, and moving 
his hand in imitation. For most children that is all; the 
typical fact, so full and fertile, has no hand to unfold it, 
and the feeling aroused in the child by the symbol sleeps 
again. But the delicate touch and clear insight of Froebel's 
ideal mother is here. The child questions her, "What 
makes the vane move?" "What is the wind?" With sub- 
tle skill in her answers, the one impression left upon her 
child's mind is that of the real "I" that causes the move- 
ment of his hand,- invisible, powerful, and the cause of all 
that he does, as behind the moving vane, and all the many 
things that the wind moves, is the infinite will that moves 
the universe. His own movement helps him to comprehend 
the power that moves the vane. 

As the single impression expands, gathering to itself 
many more which it typifies, the child will gradually realize 
that the true meaning of everything is hidden from his 
senses. Nature and life are thus constant incentives to 
God, because they plant faith in his heart. From the in- 
visible mute workers in life and nature comes to the child 
his first apprehension of one "whom not ha\ing seen, we 
love." In everything there is a life unseen, but powerful. 
A subtle power tinges the flower, yet look as often and as 
long as we may, we can trace no hint of it in the earth 
around; more wonderful and inspiring than the tale of the 
wise man's wanderings is the soul oi the "Odyssey," and we 
lament that Pan is dead, because of the fair workl pre- 
figured by the gods of Greece in those N'oung da\'s when 
the world felt as a child feels. 

The mother knows the force of that i)ower within her 

//// Sfiitiv of " hit- Mutter uml Kosi-lJii/t'r." 473 

chiUI, the force that tells liis hand to move in imitation of 
the vane. It will make or mar his life, as he freely uses it, 
but she knows that his will is only free in the true sense as 
he ])erforms the actions that will lift him out of the bond- 
age of time ami sense. Following in quick succession 
come the "Songs of Time" anil "Songs of the .Senses." As 
man is the servant of nature until knowledge gives him 
power, so too he is rutlel>' driven b)' time until he learns to 
master it by right use; and his senses enchain him until 
he learns by proper cultivation to exercise them upon 
higher things than sensual gratification. 

Thus Froebel throughout the book guides and inspires 
the mother to help her child to fashion his will, by leading 
him to the acts which raise him above slaver\' to lower 
things, into true freedom. 

As we have seen, the mother, bv means of a typical 
moral fact, has led her chilil from \ isiblc appearances to in- 
visible reality. By means of a typical intellectual fact she 
rcj)eats the process. The child notices a simple fact, that 
the wind blows the vane. The mother lead» him to notice 
the many things that the wind is blowing, for she knows 
that without classifying and finding "the one in the many." 
there can be no possible conception of the world, or of 
life in ;in\' f«)rni. Fherefore he is beginning to comprehend 
the varietl world b)- unif)ing and at the same time creating 
for himself a reason and a will. '\\\c basal fact replaces all 
the many particular facts which would otherwise burden 
the iniiul. thus freeing it from unnecessar\' weight, but at 
the same time calling it int(» higher action, because, as facts 
are condensed, greater intellectual vigor is required, and 
reason comes into action. \\'i/i must of necessity follow, 
because reason gives the unlimited view, sets the iiiea free 
from sense perception, realizes what may be done with it 
as it shows in its universal nature. l*'eeling its broad possi- 
bilities. li>oking at it from ever new standpoints, the will is 
spurreil to action by the ever varying views of what was so 
latel\- a single sense impression. Again the single fact has 
expaniled as it drew to itself all the facts that it typified. 

474 1^^^' ^tndy of "'Die Mutter iind Kosc-Livdcr." 

Therefore through grouping, lead a child to see the unity 
of cause, and you make an idea a real possession. Inven- 
tion, a definite act of the will, follows as a logical necessity. 
In passing from sense impression to the abstracted idea, 
the child has moved again from visible appearance to 
invisible reality. 

The symbolic structure of the book brings us to the 
pith of the subject. We know that intellect and character 
are not aggregation of loose units, but organic growths 
from small, almost imperceptible, but fruitful beginnings. 
Look at the condensed life in a seed, homogeneous though 
we call it! The fruitful sources of knowledge and action 
are within the child, but inactive, as the seed would be with- 
out fitting environment. We stir the inactive power into 
life by means of symbols: for his intellect, mathematical 
types which hold, as it were, the w'hole material world; for 
his character, symbols which hold all truth, as the seed 
holds the tree. Thus we direct growth by the formation at 
the root of typical ideas which gradually unfold their possi- 
bilities. Every new element is derived from these starting 
points. We tell him nothing; we simply direct his atten- 
tion and stimulate his energy by the establishment of these 
central points, so full in their potentialities, radiating until 
the circumference includes everything in the world of matter 
and of spirit. This is the significance of such fundamental 
ideas as the symbols of moral truth, and as the few t)'pes 
that base the endless variety of the world. To possess such 
ideas, with their untold wealth of possibilities, systematizes 
and develops force; for realizing e\'en imperfectly their po- 
tentialities calls out the dormant will power and spurs it to 
action. The abstract square is the child's free, unlimited 
possession; holding to what is essential about it, almost 
endless are its possibilities, as he freely gives it size, mate- 
rial direction, color, divides and subdivides, and combines 
it with other ideas. Each little song holds a moral of 
truth as fertile in possibilities for moral action as is the 
intellectual truth for his mind's activity. These furnish the 
necessary stimulus to the will. 

The Study of"I)ii Mutter um/ Kose-lJeder." 475 

I lie cduciitioii of cljikllioocl, fuuiitlccl upon symbols, calls 
lor lii^h tlevclopmcnt. In undiffcrcntialctl unity nature, 
man, and (iod exist for the child. They exist a^ain. after 
nian\' scjiarations, in far hij^her unity for the developed 
man. The high i.s always the reason and the explanation 
of the low. Nature exists because man is, and from his 
own conscious and realized life he reads there, mystically 
expressed, the truth 'of his own life. Only in this way can 
the symbol be trul)' seized. Thus <^aineil we can reverse 
the process, and hold it as a mirror to the child, to rouse 
into stronj.jer life the etjually va^ue truth within him. Only 
as we walk b\- faith, which is "the substance of things 
hoped for and the e\ idence of thinjjs not seen." can we ade- 
quately present the symbol of "the weather vane." Only as 
we ha\'e realized (ioil and freedom iiithin ourselves, can we 
hojjc to flash their earliest fleams from the " son^s of lij^ht" 
upon the child's responsive soul. 

Cakoiink M. C. Mart. 


■'. has been content to show us what his eyes 
can see, and not what his hands can do." — ^S7. 
James Gazette. 

The abov^e is quoted from a criticism of Mr. 
Whistler, and gives us at once an insight into the 
mind of the critic, for we realize that he does not 
see the very close connection between the eye 
and the hand. 

The eye and the hand must be so trained that they can 
work in harmony, for it is the eye that is to determine the 
direction of the hand. The hand can be readily made the 
servant to the eye, therefore we must first cultivate the eye; 
or rather, cultivate them both at the same time. 

Sir Thomas Lawrence, the eminent English painter and 
president of the Royal Academy, commended the pictures 
of a young artist and then said to him: "You have 'round 
your room two or three rough, clever, but coarse Flemish 
sketches. If I were you, I would not allow my eye to 
become familiarized with any but the highest forms of art." 
This advice is just as true today as it was in the time of Sir 
Thomas Lawrence, and we want to surround ourselves with 
all that we can that is beautiful and of an elevating nature. 
Our schoolrooms should be made attractive, and upon the 
walls we should have photographs and castes that have a 
connection with the studies carried on in that particular 
room. If the eye and the hand are to be cultivated together 
we must have work for the eye as well as for the hand, and 
whatever is made attractive to the eye will have its effect, 
even if we arc unconscious of it at the time. It is this train- 
ing of the hand and eye that is being worked out in the 
manual training schools, which are now recognized as im- 
portant factors in advanced educational ideas. The broad- 
ening influence derived from a cultivation of the eye and 

Mtt final Irnininf^. 477 

hand caiuKjt be overestimated, for throuj^h these means wc 
develop the all-important faculty of observation, which 
faculty if hij^hly developed will of itself produce a liberal 

The teaching of the academic studies only has a tendency 
to cramp the development. For a lonjj time the Kn^lish 
preparatory schools were considered the best schools of 
their kind, the boys coming from them with a physical 
ilevelopmeiit that enabled them to eiulure more severe men- 
tal training. Now our manual schools accomplish this and 
much more, for while getting the physical training they are 
at the same time learning other things which are beneficial. 

The manual training school is simjiU* one form of the 
Kinilergarten idea that is being grafted on to the regular 
school work, and shows in its demand the necessity for the 
work. A )<)ung chiki is naturall)' observant of its surround- 
ings and has a tendency for investigation which wc should 
try and ilevek)j) in the right direction, or this s|)irit of in- 
vestigation may become a detriment. 

What is the particular mission j)f the manual training 
school? i« a c}uestion often asked, ami I shall try and ntake 
my answer as simj)le as possible, believing that simplicity is 
one of the important, but often overlooked, factors in edu- 

We will sui)i)ose the case of a pupil who has passed 
from a lower-grade school to one where the cultivation of 
the memor\' alone is carried out, ami watch the results of 
his education, lie is able to give \ou facts t)f history, but 
will have no tlu)ught of the broad principles of humanity 
that have matle that histor\', and. as a rule, thinks only of this 
particular stud\' as a pleasant empl'.)yment for a part of his 

Literature is. unfortunateU", so seldom taught that the 
beauties of the poet's imagination have little irjtluence upon 
the student. . Mathematics are maile uninteresting, and 
when a school of this sort has been "gone through" there 
remains simpK' a confusetl recollection of memorized ideas, 
and it is often dilTicult to separate the memorized facts in a 

478 Manual Training. 

logical way. It is to take the place of this mistaken method 
of education that we find the niamial training schools taking 
the position which is accorded them. If you will notice a 
child, no matter how young, }-ou can always find that he has 
the desire to create something; children are invariabl}' trying 
to represent an idea in some tangible form. To be sure, these 
attempts are often very crude, and to one unused to chil- 
dren it might almost seem that there was no expression of 
an idea in the child's mind. Let such an one, however, care- 
fully watch the child and he will nearly always find that the 
idea is onl}' being worked out in the childish wa\' and in a 
manner equal to his ability. 

Some people as a cljiss liave these ideas naturall}- more 
expressionable. Take for example the Japanese, a people 
that we do not give enough study to, and a people we are 
apt to ignore from an educational standpoint. Their life is, 
one might almost say, a grand school of Kindergarten and 
manual training from the cradle to the grave. Those who 
are acquainted with the earl}- life of the Japanese will at 
once understand to what I refer. Their early association 
with the beautiful, and also their familiarity with the various 
handicrafts, can only be productive of good results, as I 
think their work shows. Their intense love of nature is a 
trait which we might all cultivate with much profit to our- 
selves as well as to those with whom we come in contact, 
and the modesty and simplicity of life is most charming to 
contemplate. Froebel taught us we must train the child to 
see beauty, and one way to do this is of course to surround 
him with that which is pleasing, and to show him what the 
good features of his surroundings are. 

It is in this connection that the study of drawing takes a 
prominent place, for to teach drawing well one must not 
consider the mere representation of objects by lines the 
end to be desired, but instead that broad field of thought 
which has been represented by painting and sculpture and 
the kindred arts. In connection with drawing of itself we 
must try and learn those facts which are best expressed by the 
term "feeling." I have been told that this feeling is some- 

Ml/mill/ Jniifiinff. 479 

tiling caiiiiol be taught or karnctl, but experience has 
shown mc that it can be cultivated to quite a degree, for 
this artistic feeling is to a j^Tcat extent only the love of 
the beautiful; and remember, there is nothing so plain but 
that \vc ma\' find some element of beauty in it. As in the 
youn{^ .chiiti so with those a little older, the creative activity 
is ever present, and the wood ami iron work of a manual 
school in a measure satisfies this desire, at the same time that 
it teaches order, precision, observation, and kindretl traits. 
all of which are ver)' necessarv to a successful life. A man- 
ual training school must not be confounded with a trade 
school, for in the latter the work is not conducteil on eilu- 
cational lines, but for the purpose of n)akin^ workmen in 
some particular branch. A traile school is to take the place 
of the i^uilds which so lon^ ai;o j^a\e the apprentices their 
education. I lo\\e\er. our motlern method of tratle schools 
would not, I am afraid, proiluce a Quentin Mas.sys or a 
lUiueiuito Cellini. 

The Chamber ot iJejiUties of I'Vance \oted, in 18S2, in 
favor of makini^ manual training oblitjatory in the primar\- 
schools; thus we see that the stantlin;^ taken by the French 
in rej^aril to this matter is much in ad\ance of ours, for it 
will be, apparently, a number of years hence before manual 
trainini^ will be reco;^ni/.ed as a necessity in all of the j^rade 
schools t)f this countr;^. However, the manual scIuh>Is 
alreatly eslablishetl have been so very successful that they 
are bein^' copied all over the ctiuntry. anti thus we .see the 
mo\ement to be rapiilly j^aininj^ i;round. It is a pro\en 
statenunt that those pupils wlio have hail the advantaj^es 
of manual trainini.;, when enteriiiij other schools take pre- 
cedence over those who ha\e been ilrilled upon the olil 
academic lines, and if our education is for the purpose of 
wiileniiiLj our mental hori/«)n. those methods obtaining the 
best nsults are to be conuuendetl. 

Ill tlu- hrcnch schools modeling is considered one of the 
necessities and is ci>ntiiuieil throughout the eritire course; 
and it seems most deciiledlw t«) me, to belong in the curric- 
uhini alongsiile of ilrawing. There is in modeling a tangi- 

4^0 Maniiijl 7nu/ii/ii(. 

bility not to be had in drawing, and this training is most 
beneficial, and in a majorit}- of cases it ser\es as a prelimin- 
ary step to drawing. 

Pupils who take manual training have a physical develop- 
ment that is very helpful towards a sound mind, and renders 
more easy of acquirement the various studies. It is always 
a punishment to the pupils to be kept from their manual 
work, and the interest they take is often quite surprising, 
wishing frequently to be allowed to do extra work in both 
the shops and drawing-rooms. The di\-iding of the school 
hours by the manual work gi\es recreation at the same time 
that the pupils are learning some new fact, and they come 
back to their recitations with their minds refreshed and 
clear, ready to undertake their studies with renewed zeal. 
I do not say that this is always the way, but it is found to 
be the tendency rather than the exception; and when pupils 
go from one department to another with pleasure, a great 
deal has been accom})lished towards their education. 

The nobility of work is one of the first things learned, 
and a democratic spirit is developed, for the son of a rich 
man has to learn the same kind of work as he of poor par- 
entage; and while the one may never become a workman in 
the ordinary acceptance of the term, he has a more brotherh' 
feeling towards those who are, and this is of itself a benefit 
to all who come in contact with hifn. 

As it is the object of education of the man to make him 
a good citizen and member of society, it is these traits that 
should be brought out; for we must aim to consider ourselves 
parts of one great whole rather than indi\iduals. To be 
sure we must not lose our indi\idualit\', but must subordinate 
it to the universal. 

The development of society towards unit}- is one of the 
aims of this generation, and must be accomplished, in a 
measure, by the education of the young in the right direc- 
tion; and until we can conxince the rising generation that 
labor is not onl\' honorable, but the proper condition, we 
cannot hope for success. 

The manual training school is doing much in this direc. 

ilii Willcy's Iahsoii. 481 

tion, at the s.imc time that it is laying the foundation for a 
most liberal education. 

Let us ho|)e that the luiinber of manual schools will be 
rapidU' increased, for the ^ootl of modern education. 

Fkkd'k N i:\vi on Williams. 


Till'. \ Al.l.lA's L1-:.SS()N. 

l-UNl'". in a ilarkenetl \alle\- 

i\ tiny lake sij^hin^ la\', 
Nor dreamed that the mighty t)Cean 

Was scarcel)' a league a\va\'. 
Naught of the sea's wild beauty 

That inland lake could know, 

I*'or with shadow antl frown 

The hillsides brown 
Curtained the \ale behiu. 

Hut an echo of jubilant music 

A song-tide ebbing away 
Like voices in blemled rejoicing 

Came to her, da\' b\' da\-; 
And she longed, with a lonel\' )earning. 
To rise from the vale ami be free; 
Then, triumphant aiul strong. 
To join in the song 
That came from the surging sea. 

She crieil to the stars in her sadness: 

"Oh, give but a comforting w(»rd 
I'o one who can only whisper 

The praise of our King and Lortll 
Can it be. in this dark seclusion. 
That I am forgotten here? 
That my da\s must be spent 
In this sore disc«»ntenl. 
So helpless ami gloonn and drear?" 

482 • ///(' / tr/hy's Lisso/i. 

Biij^htly thc\' smiled as they answered,: 

"Dear little mirror true, 
Take heart, for the mother-ocean 

Is beatin;^ her way to you. 
The sound that we hear in the distance 
Is only her billows' spray; 
As it rises and falls 
On these earthen walls, 
It is wearing your prison away. 
"Then silence your heart's repining; 

The fetters will break ere long; 
You shall join in the great thanksgiving 

Of the wonderful ocean-song." 
Above all their swelling chorus 

Comes the voice of the mother mild; 
We can hear her say 
O'er the dashing spray, 
"I am coming to thee, my child." 
On came the waves, yet nearer; 
Weak grew the walls of sand; 
Louder the song, and clearer. 

That came from the joyous band. 
At last, on a golden dawning, 
Their labor of love was done. 
The lake found her place 
In the sea's embrace; 
The mother antl child were one. 
Dear Father, bear with us. thy children, 

Impatient for rest and home; 
Oh, help us to cjuiet our niurnuirs 

And wait till thine hour shall come! 
Vouchsafe us thy light-gi\ing spirit 
To teach us this day that we. 
With our foolish needs 
And our inland creeds, 
Are but part of thy love's vast sea! 
Df-fyQif Wm. Howard Montgomery, 

A MooriJ) (^UKSTION. 

TIII^RM was held last >uininrr. at one of <jur Summer 
schools, a nieetinj^of primary Sinula\-school teachers. 
it was perhaps a typical gatherinjj of its kind. Of 
those present man)* were representative women from differ- 
ent parts of the coiintr)'. The)- nil were enthusiastic, intel- 
lii^fciil. ami refined, each one. without iloubt, holding the 
rulin^f power of her life to be that broad, deep, noble thing 
which we call Christian principle. 

The discussion of their subject, " 1 he Needs of the Pri- 
mar)' Teacher," was \er>- tliou^htful. earnest, and sincere. 
tfs fur ns it iK'cnt : her sj)iritual nteds, her reliance upon 
(li\iiie help and Iom- for tin- work, were carefully consid- 
ereil; the externals of the work were dwelt uj)«»n exhaust- 
ively; the lessons, their presentation and a])plication, were 
^Mven due cUliberatioii; hut iluriii«^' the entire session not 
a monuiit Was spent nor one stronj;. con\incin<^ word spoken 
concerninj^ the menial nei-ds «»f the Sunda\ -school teacher, 
along the line of hi-r work; not a whisper about her need of 
an intellitjint, clear ct)mprelunsion of the laws which gov- 
ern the religious developmejit of .i child; her need, in fact. 
of an umlerstanding, tt) some degree, t)l \.\\c science oi religion 
and of how to appl\- it in a j)ractical way. One listeneil in 
vain for a word about the child's point of view in these 
matters; about his instincts, his en\ iri»mnents. his budding 
aspirations, hopes, aiul fears; the\ were ignoreil. Why? 
.Surel\* it was not due to any design on the part «>f these 
good women. The majority of them would shrink at no 
sacrifjce to gain their object, to fiiul the best and truest wa\' 
to bring the chililren tti a consciousness of Ciod's love and 
His di\ine purposes. The conclusion was. therefore, that 
the)' ha«l i;ottc*n hold i>f only half the truth, and that white 
the)' full) appreciateil the necessit) of a faithful, patient 
study of the .Scripture lessons, and of the methods of presep- 


4^4 A Mooted Question. 

tation, they forgot or did not realize that these are only ex- 
ternals, and, though vastly important, exist only as a means 
of growth to that which is within — the mind, the soul, the 
breath of God, which is greater, purer, diviner than any truth 
which feeds it, or any institution or method by which truth 
is brought to it. But these particular women are not alone 
in this one-sided or biased view of the subject. A thought- 
ful study of methods as they are set forth in our Sunday- 
school Quarterlies, and of the practical work as it is carried 
out in our schools each Stinday, has led us to believe that 
much valuable energy is being wasted, because the zeal 
which prompts it is not balanced and controlled by that 
all-around knowledge of the subject which is indispensable 
to an)- li\ing. progressive work. 

The da}' is past when the untrained, inexperienced 
teacher can successfully compete with an experienced grad- 
uate of one of the normal schools for a position in our pub- 
lic schools or Kindergartens. Ts it not time that as high a 
standard should be taken in our Sunday schools? Is it not 
time that the distinctively religious training of children 
should be as carefully considered and as wisely done as 
their so-called secular training? We do not advocate — save 
that it is a stepping-stone to something higher — that slav- 
ish obedience to half-understood laws met with sometimes 
not only in Sunday schools but in week-day schools, but 
rather that broad, comprehensive insight that shall make 
the teacher mistress and not servant to the demands of the 
situation. There should be. in the mind of every conscien- 
tious primary teacher of today, a strong purpose, no matter 
what the cost, to poise her zeal and love and consecration 
with a knowledge worthy of it; to have an intellectual as 
well as sympathetic understanding of that which, according 
to the words of Jesus Christ, is the divinest. most heaven- 
like thing in the universe, — the child mind. 

To grow in knowledge, as to grow in love, is to become 
(iodlikc, for the All-h'ather is Omniscience as well as loxe. 
To do this work from a i)urely intellectual standpoint is to 
on!)' half do it; it must be animated, xixifieil, impelled b)' 

A Mooted (Jiusfion. 485 

!ovc, love for God ami luinianity; but so must the love- 
work, however self-sacrificiii^i and zealous, be tempered, 
governed, and {guided by an intellijjent understanding of 
the true needs of the case, or it also is only half done. 
That general culture gained from a college training, from 
opportunities to travel, and from social intercourse with 
lofty minds is very desirable, antl already- possessed by 
numerous primary teachers; but than such, we would choose 
rather that they have that culture which is acquired by a 
special consideration of the subject in hand, the develop- 
ment, from beginning to end, of man's religious nature, 
than which no study can be more important, for it embraces 
all the others. 

She who takes this point of view will fit herself in both 
mind and heart for her work; she will begin at the right 
end of it, and give attention, first and foremost, not to the 
lesson nor the manner of presenting it. but to her chil- 
dren's needs, from every standpoint. She will have a deep, 
inner consciousness that it is just as futile to teach God's 
power and benevolence, Christ's love and sacred mission, to 
a child with a starving mind as to one with a starving body; 
that she, to righth- follow Jesus' injunction to Peter- "Feed 
my lambs" must know that the xcholc chikl is fed antl nour- 
ished; that not until he is, can that divine seed, the Christ 
life in him. awaken antl grt)w antl ctime tt> blossom and 
fruitage. Ihen, having realizetl this, with pra\erful eager- 
ness, reverence, antl humility will she search not only the 
VVf)rtl of (iod, but His works also, for some simple idea, some 
clear, tlefinite thought, that shall be apropt)s, that shall just 
fit the present need t)f the chiltl or the class: antl fintling it. 
her presentation will be et)uall\- simple, clear, antl tlefinite. 
and her metluxl of fixing the imi)ressit>n will be in acct^rtl- 
ance with natvire. No forced, mechanical efft>rts will be 
neccssai;)-; there will be nt) neetl tt> heap useless material 
upt>n little luimls alreaily tia/ed anil bewiUlereil by the mul- 
tituile of iileas antl impressions beftire which they slant! 
helpless antl tlefenseless. Her aim frt>m first tt> last will be 
perfect simplieit\- antl naturalness. It is alnutst painful to 

486 A Mooted Question. 

go into some of our primary classes and see the various 
methods that are dev^ised to make interesting not only the 
lesson, which is often far above the childish grasp, but 
much extraneous matter besides; dolls are dressed to rep- 
resent the Apostles, each having some symbol of his occupa- 
tion (we have seen Judas with a rope around his neck to 
suggest his tragic end). Pictures of almost everything, from 
angels to apples, are pinned upon the blackboard to illus- 
trate the lessons; the Apostles' Creed is set in verse, that the 
sounds of the icords may the more readily appeal to childish 
love of rhythm; the Lord's Pra}'er is printed in brilliantl}' 
colored letters to make it more attractive; Kindergarten 
materials, without the principles, arc often introduced; and 
besides these, the children are diligently taught the ten 
commandments, the twenty-third Psalm, the books of the 
Bible, the golden texts, the "memory" \erses of the lesson, 
and other exercises, until even the adult mind is over- 
whelmed and stifled; the soul of the work seems nearh' 
crushed out by all this — tnaehi/iery ; and one cannot but 
sigh in disappointment: 

I thought it was divine, until I heard the creakiiig^ of the wheels; 
Then I knew 'twas not divine. 

Let us not be misunderstood; these things, these exter- 
nals, this machinery is, without doubt, good, and much of it 
absolutely necessary; but should it not be something kept 
in reserve, used only as we use the oars in the sail-boat, 
when the wind of heaven ceases to fill the sails? Are we 
not in danger of losing sight of the end, the aim of our 
work, by our increasing slavery to "advanced methods"? 
Ought we not rather to keep in mind that we are called to 
be primary teachers, not for the sake of perfecting an insti- 
tution, but simply to feed the^ lambs? 

A few people, notably Kindergartners, ha\e long been 
realizing this, and have been trying, in single-handed fashion, 
to work out a more natural plan, not of teaching Scripture 
and theological doctrines to infant minds, but of making 
the truths therein practical and applicable to childish needs; 
a plan, in fact, to make our primary classes more like the 

A Mooti'd QuistioH. 487 

old-fashionccl mother's knee, wlicrc the pictures in the 
Bible, a llower from the jjarden, a whispered word of 
thaiil<s}^M\ iii}^', and a simple hymn furnished ahun<lant ma- 
terial for a wholesome, healtiifiil. rational hour spent in 
character building. 

We are thankful to say that there is a growjn^ interest, 
a widespreadin*^ feelinj^ in rej^ard to this view of the mat- 
ter, amonjj those outside the ranks of Kinderj^artners, and 
their desire to know more concerninj^ it- as well as a desire 
on the part of those most deei)l\' interested to brinj^ it to 
(lu- attention of i)rimar\- teachers everywhere - has led to 
the invitation of some of the Kinilerj^artners who have had 
much experience and have <,fi\en the matter mucli thought, 
to come befon- the ^aeat International Convention of 
I'rimar)' Teachers, to be held in St. Louis ere \o\\^, and 
also before the Kinderj^arten Congress at Chicago, during 
the world's I'air. I'",\er\- thoughtful, progressive primary 
teacher will surel\- be interesteil and give them God-sj)eetl, 
for no one will deny, if there be a truer way of tloing the 
Master-Shepherd's work, that she wants to know it. If 
there be a higher iileal in this work than we have compre- 
hended, we all want to see it. for the highest ideal is ever 
the truest real; though the way thereto retjuires the most 
patiiiit, practical plodding, the most persistent reaching; 
and alwa\'s 

A man's reach should exceed his jjrasp; 
Or what's a heaven for? 

Antl n«»t t)ne of us can afford not to reach. We must all 
together - 

Strive, and hold cheap the strain; 
I.earn. nor count the i)an>j; dare, never >jrud>je the throe! 

Frances E. Newton. 


ME cJiild from its infancy unconsciously loves, 
and lives in and with, the ii'Jiolc of nature. Froe- 
f% bel, the lo\er and student of childhood, saw and 
appreciated the sympathy existing between the 
child and all life surrounding him, and conceived 
the plan for his natural development which ga\'e 
birth to the Kindergarten. 

Reading Froebel's " Education of Man." we 
find in his Kindergarten the little botanist in the 
child of the gardener who wishes to assist in the 
weeding. The father leads him to distinguish the 
plants from the weeds as he separates them; he observes 
the difference in the coloring and form of the leaves, the 
odor of the plant, etc. The botanist again appears in the 
forester's son, who observes the difference in the growth and 
properties of the trees. Froebel sees the miniature miner- 
alogist in the child who discovers a pebble that makes white 
or red marks on a board. We are introduced to a Kinder- 
garten zoologist when the child comes to us with a twig on 
which the caterpillar has spun his cocoon; again in the child 
who watches the snail slowly creeping along carrying his 
house upon his back. 

This nature study cannot but furnish means for the 
awakening of the s[)iritual growth ; likewise the inborn poetry 
of the child is called to light as he associates with the birds, 
bees, and flowers. Froebel, in arranging his gifts for the 
development of the child, obserxes the typical forms of 
nature. The form of the " First Gift" is symbolic of the 
earth itself. The cylinder of the "Second Gift" symbolizes 
plant life, while the cubical form is found in minerals. Froe- 
bel takes for his "Ninth Gift" many natural objects: beans, 
lentils, leaves, pebbles, etc. In his every thought Froebel 
connects the child with the life surrounding him, and he is 

\iituri- Work in the /'rimary School. 489 

constantl)' hoUlinj^f hcforc the mother and teacher the demand 
and need (A tlie chilil to be brouj^ht in tlirect s)'n)|)ath\' witli 
this life, and to be brouj^lit to it in the rijjht way. 

We need not ^o into the country to see nature and her 
wonders; on an)' little ponil of water ma)' be found a skip- 
per, and the grasshopper is bound to make himself con- 
spicuous in city and country alike, while the plant is as 
willing to send forth her shoots in the window-box as in the 
field, if we but furnish the jjroper nourishment. 

We need not confine our nature work entirely to the 
.Springtime; the talks and obser\ati<)ns of the evergreen tree 
before and after Christmas offered the child as much, if not 
more, pleasure than the beautifully decorated Christmas tree. 
A week before Christmas one of the Kindergartens was fur- 
nished with a little "white pine." The following program 
gives some idea of the amusement ami knowledge the chil- 
dren derived from their association with the little tree. 

A morning's talk was taken up with the pine tree and 
forest from which it was taken. The children observed the 
shape of the leaves and their arrangement in clusters; the\' 
counted the number of needles in a cluster, etc. 

On the circle the children played they were piiie trees; 
the body was the c)'liiulrical trunk, the arms were the 
branches, and before the Kindergartner could offer the sug- 
gestion, the children exclaimed: "Aiul our fingers are the 
five needles in a cluster!" 

The occupation for the day was the drawing of the pine 
tree; here again the number five was emphasized. 

In another talk the bark is observetl; a piece is cut from 
the tree that the children may .see the white wood. The 
pine cones and the seeds contained therein are also investi- 
gated. Hans Aiulersen's stor\' of the Christmas pine is told, 
and the children illustrcite it at the tables; and so the work 
continues thn>Mgh the week, growing more interesting each 

The pine tree is a source of great ilelight to the squirrel. 
and here we arc led directly into another interesting depart- 
ment of natural history. A live stjuirrel, however, is nt>l si> 

490 Nature Work in the Pri/ndrv Sc/ioo/. 

easily obtained as a pine tree; but after a great deal of per- 
suasion the proprietor of some restaurant or bird store may 
be induced to lend one of his pets for a day for educational 
advancement. The size of the gray squirrel is observed, the 
coloring of the under part of the body and limbs, the bushy 
tail, looseness of the skin, quick movements, etc. 

The children are shown pictures of the different members 
of the squirrel family; the red, black, and flying squirrels, 
the chipmunk and woodchuck, are each in their turn talked 

Kindergartners as a rule do not advocate the use of 
stuffed animals, since it is of far greater value to the child 
to observe his own live cat than a stuffed fox or squirrel. 
Then it furnishes the children untold delight to bring their 
own pet kittens to the Kindergarten, though it is always ad- 
visable to have but one kitten at a time, for experience has 
proven that even the harmonious influence of the Kindergar- 
ten is at times lost on strange kittens. 

A little book entitled " Letters from a Cat" has been 
found to be very helpful in introducing talks on the cat fam- 
ily. The letters addressed to the cat's little mistress are 
changed from mere amusing incidents to descri^')tions of 
different relations of the feline tribe. The following is one 
of Miss Puss' letters: 

"My dkar Helen:-" I have a very wonderful thinj,^ to tell you. 
There is a circus in town, and I heard your grandpa say that Puss had 
some very grand cousins in the large tents. I never dreamed I had a 
cousin, so I thought I would go over and take a look at them. I climbed 
up on a post that supported the tent, and looked through a little open- 
ing in the cloth. Oh I I was nearly frightened to death. There, in a 
cage, walking back and forth and looking very cross, was a lion. 1 
heard a man tell a little boy that this fellow was a lion and belonged to 
the cat family, so I knew it was one of my cousins. He was very big 
and his tail was very long, with a tuft of black hair on the end. His 
coat was pale yellow, but I did not think it as pretty as mine. He had 
a long black mane just like a horse, and 1 thought he must be angry, 
for his eyes flamed just Hke fire. He stretched out his claws; they are 
shaped like mine, -but oh, my! they are as long as your papa's fingers. 
I am sure you would be afraid of him. You know, Helen, how I some- 
times lick your hand, and you say my tongue is rough. Well, my cous- 
in's tongue is so rough, that if he should lick your hand it would tear 

Nature Work in the Primary School. 491 

away the skin. I did not talk with him, as I felt somewhat afraid; but I 
heard the man tell his little boy that the lion, like the cat, spends the 
day in rest and sleep, and hunts at ni^ht. I did not like what he said 
very well, for I do hunt in the daytime you know; but I will tell you 
about another cousin in my next letter. 

Your mother put the red ball we play with in the bottom drawer of 
the little work-stand. She then turned around to me and said, " Poor 
I'ussy, no mure ^ood plays for you till Helen comes home," and I 
thought 1 should certainly cry. I will tell you more in my next letter. 
( iootl-by. Your lovinj( 


Hau.s Andersen's story of the pen blossom furnishes an 
excellent Spring; lesson. The children soaked the pease, 
examined them under the, found the embr>'o, planted 
lluir j)case in a window-box, caretl for them, and observed 
their j^rowth. Amon},^ other occupaticnis, the children cut 
paper ])ods in which they arranged five lentils for the pease. 

Another interesting talk was the stor)' of blind Huber 
and his close obser\ ation of the bees. The children brought 
li\e bees to the Kindergarten in their pockets; they were 
allowed to fl\* about the room, and for weeks the happy 
voices t>f the little ones were accompanied by the hum of 
the bees. Strange as it ma)' seem, not a single child was 
stung. The tongue, eyes, and jaw of the bees were exantined 
under the glasses, and the chililren discovered the little 
brush anil pincers, implements with which the bee works 
among tin- (lowers. Hee-hives were made of the Third and 
I'ourth (iifts, anil all had [)aper bees that they might learn 
to distinguish the queens, ilrones. and workers. They sewed 
the three different bees, and the hexagonal cells of the honey- 
comb were sewed anil drawn. I'he end of this sequence 
was very realistic, as the closing scene revealed each happy 
chilli with his own small plate of honey, rapidly cultivating 
the sense of taste. 

For weeks the children had live fish, cray fish, clams, 
snails, tadpoles, etc.. to obser\e. 

In the Spring they hatl talks and observations i>n the 
oasque-flower. Jack-in-the-pulpit. pitcher-plant, tulip, etc. 
These were pictured with lentils, sticks, rings, and repro- 
duced by sewing, drawing, and clay modeling. 

492 Xntiirc Work in the Priinary Scliool. 

Field lessons are of the greatest value to the class, and 
there is really no limit to the nature work that may be 
accomplished, and the good that is sure to be derived from it. 

And Nature, the old nurse, took 

The child upon her knee, 
Saying, "Here is a story book 

Thy Father has written for thee. 

"Come wander with me," she said, 

" Into regions yet untrod; 
And read what is still unread 

In the manuscript of God." 

And he wandered away and away 

With Nature, the dear old nurse, 
Who sang to him night and day 

The rhymes of the universe. 

And whenever the way seemed long, 

Or his heart began to fail, 
She would sing a more wonderful song 

Or tell a more marvelous tale. 

Juliette Pulver. 


b^ f ^'' ^^^^ '' siiljtilc. curious thinjj it is to be dressed — 
['-^^p»j well drcsscil, I mean! Clothinjj is worn for two 
^1 ostensible reasons, protection anti comfort, h\x\ 
ill reality for its attractive qualities or beauty. 
- =j^^^^- Can you tell me what has taken place when a 
olJV* woman is charmin^'l\- attired, even if it is in a 
(^ cheap gt)wn? Two points must be considered 

b)' every woman who would be rcj^^arded as dressed with 
elegance,- that is. with fitness: First, the place uJurc the 
garment is to be worn; second, suitable material for the use it 
is to serve. While selecting her fabric, a thousand consider- 
ations occupy the miiul ot a trul\' artistic woman. She notes 
the color, the pattern, beauty of texture, the ease with 
which it may be laundered, the durability of the fabric, the 
beauty of elegance of ilrapery; and the result is. that when 
arrayed, this woman of artistic perceptions is a joy to 
beholders. • 

The ad\ ice given b)' Polonius to his son. "Costly thy 
apparel as thy purse can buy, — costly but not gaudy, for the 
apparel oft proclaims the man." is worth the study of every 
woman. It is never econom\- Ut \n\y poor material, espe- 
cially for a woman of limited means. It costs as much in 
making, does not wear well, never looks elegant when fash- 
it)ned of poor, cheap material; while a trifling more e.xpeiul- 
iture of money and thought would give one the .satisfaction 
of being well dressed. 

The dress material purchased, the next question with 
every woman is, "How shall I have my gown made?" 
"Which of my friends shall I copy?" Copy no one. "To 
thine own self be true," i. e., to thine own individuality, 
seeking to enhance the charm of ever)' attractive feature 
ami to ilisguise every deformity of nature which is irre- 
mediable. I'rom the modiste of intelligent, artistic pcrcep- 

494 -^ Woman s Dnss. 

tions, every student of dress will receive many valuable sug- 
gestions regarding her type and its requirements. She will 
study her customer more than her folates in the Revue du 
Monde. Complexion, hair, style of hair-dressing, height, 
form, and general style, should all be taken into considera- 
tion in determining the style of attire. 

One may learn much regarding her indi\idual require- 
ments from a study of types allied to her own. These 
types may be found in old art galleries, on the modern 
thoroughfares, and occasionally in the fashion books. Any 
woman can learn from any other who has characteristics in 
common with herself. From one the beautiful carriage can 
be acquired, from another the art of melodious speech, from 
another sympathy of manner, from another the importance 
of attention to details of personal elegance; in short, all the 
attributes which belong to a charming woman. Character 
may be revealed by a woman's dress and by her way of 
wearing it. It is not beneath the dignity of any woman to 
study any art whereby she adds to her influence and 

What is the object of all advanced study, whether it be 
mathematics, music, painting, sculpture, or literature, if it is 
not to lead us, and others through us, to a sense of the infi- 
nite beauty, perfection, and harmony? What is more power- 
fully subtile than harmony of form, color, and utility? A 
well-dressed woman combines these qualities in rare propor- 
tions, and the result is the admiration and envy of her sex. 
Our aesthetic nature is our highest; it leads to a contempla- 
tion and love for the beautiful, the true, the good. One 
cannot ignore the claims a community justly makes upon 
each individual from this standpoint. Mothers can and do 
wield a mighty power toward making the lives of their chil- 
dren insensible or sensitive to these things, through their 
careful attention to all the details which self-respect de- 
mands in their outward appearance, their dress. A careless, 
slovenly teacher docs not inspire the little ones under her 
care with wholesome, clean ideas. It matters not how great 
their erudition, such teachers fail from first to last, who fail 

A ll'of/Mfi's Dress. 495 

to create in their pupils a sensitiveness to beauty in every 
form. Was it that the children wished her to expend more 
money upon her dress? No, that wouki mean nothing to 
them; the)- could not tell what it was about her that was 
wrong. Her dress was of suitable material, but a button 
was off, a lar^c spot was on the front of it. her hair was 
untiily, her collar soiled, her nails not clean, nor her teeth 
while and beautiful. Note the contrast: a bright, clean 
face, teeth that shone as she smiled, nails so neat that when 
she helped Mar\' with her work. Mary resolved to scrub her 

dingy little hands until they should look like Miss 's. 

The dress too was neat ami tid\', clean collars and cuffs, or 
a bit of lace. \ery ine.\pensi\e but ilaint)', e\en if it be 
black; eyes wide open to take in all the possible beauty that 
could stra\' into tlKin, wlutlur from the chiUlreii. the sky, 
or surroundin<;s. Which teacher will ha\e the best influ- 
encv upon those chiUlren? W'oukl \ou have \our child 
absorb the careless indifference ol the first? A teacher of 
some ver)- poor little children said."! wear n>)' worst anil attractive clothes to the Kindergarten." Looking at 
her, one believeil it. She couUl not without effort have 
lotJked worse. .She was as careless in her language as in 
her dress, and more common in her manner than the worst 
conditioned of her children. It was a task to remain in her 
atmosphere, aiul again and again 1 asked. " /r//r is she 
allowed to be in this position?" "Why must children 
still be kept in the same wretched mental conilition as their 
homes?" In their teacher, whose personalit)' should have 
been an inspiration, was nothing to brighten the dim little 
e\'es, nt)thing to lift the wear\' mind, nothing to cheer the 
sad little lives. The true woman, it she hail e\er existetl. 
was dead in that teacher. .She could not afford to dress 
well, that is, suitably ft>r those children. 

Two N'oung teachers once st»)od sitle by siile in a school- 
room. .IS their little «)nes filed in at the morning session. 
Hoth were possessed of bright, attractive faces, but one 
enhanceil her pers«»nal attractiveness b\- a bright, pictu- 
resque costume; the other hail ti»neil tlown her personal 

4g6 A U\)fn<t/i's Dnss. 

radiance by a dull, somber gown, unrelieved b}- ribbon or 
flower. A chubby little fellow toddling up the line with an 
immense bouquet in his hand, halted in front of the young 
women, looked each over criticalh', and then handing his 
flowers to the teacher in the bright attire, said to the other, 
for whom the flowers were e\'idcntly originally intended. 
"I don't love you to-day; }'ou're not pretty in that black 
dress." Yet there are scores of teachers, scores of mothers, 
who think with children it does not matter. Still upon the 
sensitive, susceptible mind of childhood no detail is lost. 

That is 2i false notion in training — that the occasional \\\\\ 
make the permanent impress upon character and action. It 
is the every-day life, the habitual good-will, the ordinary 
conversation, the every-day dress which will determine the 
wearing of the robe of high action, peace, and harmony. 
Never allow your profession to trammel you in \'our looks. 
You are women, therefore you will dress like women, not 
like music teachers, doctors, seamstresses, teachers, or 
household drudges, as many mothers do without necessity. 
No, you will not adopt any dress which will stamp you out- 
wardly as being anything but women. 

"Take this to heart: dress well, do well, be well." 

Carolyn M. N. Ai.dkn. 

ciin.nKi:\ at tin: world's fair. 

Till', l)\u<)rd everywhere, at present, is the "World's 
I'jiir." Kverybody is actively interested in the pro- 
spective {glorification festival which shall reveal the 
pulse of the world in its many and varied manifestations; 
and so |)erhai)s the present is the most opportune moment 
in which to sa)' something in relatit^n to the same. 

Ihe World's Fair shall yield up all the treasures of the 
world and la\' the utterances of man palpably before us. 
The Worlil's Fair is today conferring with the whole intel- 
ligence of the world, asking it to contribute its all for the 
universal benefit of humanity; and if we know how to 
reccjgnize it, we shall there find the solution for the whole 
social problem: man's relation to mankintl, which connects 
him inseparably with his brother. 

No {^reat thouj^dit was ever progenerated for the sole 
benefit of self; we are impelled to do something either 
because we cannot den\- an impulse which demands recog- 
nition, or because we acquiesce in that great univer.salit)' of 
njiiui which eternally claims its supremacy. And if we 
search the (juestion and bring it ln)me to our real selves, in 
our true self-consciousness we will discover that we mean 
to give as well as to receive; ami this same purpose is the 
force which is propelling the world toward the summit of 
its aspiration. 

No rivalry of spirit couUI have laid the foundation for 
such a dis|)la\" as will greet our senses next Maw but it was 
the firm demand of man asking his brother man to show 
him what he had done for him. 

Hut let us profit b\- the object lesst>M we .ire to reccixT. 
and remember that the dutN we owe ourselves is the same 
ue oueour neighbor, anil the commaml '* I..ove thy neiglilK»r 
as th\si'H. " is no more imperative than the one implied in 
the worils, "Suffer little chiKlren to c»»me unto me, and 


Childrai at tlw World's Fair. 

forbid them not, for of such is the kingdom of God." 
Our children to thrive need the most beneficent environ- 
ment, and in our own festival we must provide for them. 
The Children's Building was created with a \'iew to giving 
the young mind, in its state of receptiveness, that same 
opportunity which we gi\'e ourselves when we begin to 
realize what we want. 


Mrs. Geo. I.. Dunlop. 
Chairman Committee on Children's Building. 

The children of the nations will be gathered together 
under one roof at the Columbian P.xposition. The build- 
ing worthy such an assemblage is built by the love of the 
women of the world for the world's little ones. It is to be 
a "house beautiful," with broad, expansive spaces and lofty 
ceilings. It is to ha\e, above all else, better than a beau- 

Chiliirm at the World's Fair. 499 

tiful cxtcrii)r, better than lofty domes or pillared halls,— 
better than all that, it is to have the free atmosphere of 
the if leal home. A j^'eneral description of the Children's 
Huildin^ was ^i\en in a jirevious number of this maj^axine. 

As is well known, it has a better excuse for being, than 
merely to stand there as an elaborate monument to a senti- 
mental a|)|jreciation of childhood's beauty aiuf innocence. 
It has a mission beyond that of the picturesque. The 
mother hearts are not willin}^ to miss the ^reat oj)portunity 
to learn of the best masters of chikl culture the newer 
methods, more expedient wa>s ai>d means of rearing chil- 
dren, that the)' ma\' wa.\ stronj^ and beautiful and true. 

Kvery phase of modern educational training will be 
traced out here in object lessons that cannot be misunder- 
stood. There will be the best cradle in which to rock the 
nurslings of a future generation; there will be the most 
beautiful, because most appropriate, garments in which to 
clothe the buddini,' genius of a new age, anil there will be 
illustratetl the noblest influences which a passing race may 
shed abroad over the unfolding of the one about to suc- 
ceed it. 

Not oid\- will there be exhibiteil the right things with 
which to surround children, but also the right thoughts. 

The people who believe that man is made by circum- 
stances will have an opjjortunity to see how circumstances 
anil eiu ironment ma\- be first controlled by man. The 
heautilul building is to be complete in e\ery appointnu-nt. 
not elaborate anil gaudy, but appropriate ti> its purpose. 
The architect .selected by the. ladies' committee in charge. 
Mr. Alexamlre ."^iandier, is well fitted tt» design this buiUling. 
lie was chosiu because he had planned the children's build- 
ing at the last Paris Exposition; he wa-* also connected 
with the firm of llerter Brothers for many years, where he 
pro\ed his ability as a designer of man\* beautiful homes. 

The. outside of the house, however beautifully propor- 
tioned or artistieall) finished, by no means makes it the 
home. It is onl\ when it has been inhabiteil, ami when 
the individuals dwelling there have traced the handwriting 

VOL. S HO r lu 

500 Children at tlic 1 1 'arid s Fair. 

of their tastes, their lo\es and lives upon its walls, that it 
becomes a home. The Children's Building is to be beauti- 
fied and adorned in the manner most becoming its \'arious 
purposes, one of which, and by no means the least, is to 
illustrate how interior surroundings may be made har- 

When we think of the myriad miles of bare schoolroom 
walls that belt our country, which are being gazed at daily 
by thousands of impressionable children, which might be 
covered with story and color suggesting the beautiful, we 
are glad of the possibility of improvement through the sug- 
gestions which this building will offer to the educators of 
our children. 

If a few of the fame-hungr)- artists who wait with an 
eternal patience to secure the pri\ilege of a few inches of 
coveted salo/i wall in Paris could but utilize these vast oppor- 
tunities, they might reach immortality by a shorter route. 

The decorations of the Children's Building will suggest 
many possibilities in this line. Mr. George L. Schreiber, 
who has charge of the same, has given much study to deco- 
ration, and makes it his life's problem to apply the same to 
the needs of the growing development of the country. He 
has been successful in his vocation, having received a medal 
in the School of Fine Arts of Paris, and at present -his work 
is promising great success. 

It is commendable that the artist should respond with his 
art as liberally as he has, and noAV it is of importance that 
the community should respond by its aj:)preciation of the 
effort made in its behalf — where it gains all for its willing- 
ness to take. 

These decorations ha\c been arranged to ser\e a double 
use, in not only decorating the rooms of the children's pavil- 
ion, but with the purpose of being used after the World's 
Fair is over. They are designed in panels, and as parts are 
complete. There are ten sjiccial panels ten feet si.\ inches 
by four feet, and four nu-dallion panels foiu" feet by four 
feet, beside numerous iHlicrs representing the signs of the 
/.odiac, and one large ceiling decoration fcjr the librar)-. 

Children at tlic Worlifs I- air. 501 

The subjects for the special panels are taken from child 
life, illustrating occupations ami pastimes of children, and 
certain fairy talcs, also from suj;j^esti(jns in "Die Mutter und 

There are three subscription list*>: 

In) The f^encral fund list. 

(I)) The children's list. 

(c) The special panel list. 

The special panel list includes those who subscribe to 
special i)ancls, which revert to them after the exhibition is 
over. The general fund ami children's lists include sub- 
scriptions to all unspecified ilecorations, and go to defray the 
expenses of all such work. 

Thr list of subscriptii^ns will be published next month. 


^HE Kindergarten world is by no means limited. 
It is no longer merely a neighborhood affair. It 
has passed the stage of pioneer struggle, and is 
being extended wherev^er there are progressive 
people with aggressive policies. A six weeks' 
1^ tour from center to center of this ganglia of the 
work has revealed mines of interesting facts and 
dispelled the mists of fiction which "hearsay" 
invariably accumulates. Beginning in the known, 
traveling from thence to the unknown, investi- 
gating the near that we might better estimate 
the far, we visited first a few of the home Kindergartens and 
workers, the former numbering a full hundred. As a spe- 
cial preparation to answer the many questions asked about 
Colonel Parker's work, we spent a morning in that institution. 
There was the usual atmosphere of informality and good 
will. The cardinal aim in this normal school is the study 
of pedagog}' from life. The student teachers, whatever else 
they may be taught, are brought into contact with the little 
children in the Kindergarten, and expected to begin their 
interest in educational experiments here. Consequently a 
homelike feeling pervades the institution. 

The directress -of the Kindergarten, Miss Annie Allen, is 
not confined to her special realm, but is brought before the 
normal classes to expound the doctrine they daily see 
practiced. The children of her Kindergarten were in the 
midst of the cheerful subject of warmth and heat in our 
homes. They were observing fireplaces, their construction, 
use, and ornamentation, and had found many wonderful 
bits of tile and wtjodwork. In their games the\- contrasted 
the blowing and snowing of Winter witii the genial warmth 
and cheer of indoors and the inner faniih' life. 

//// Rounds itfHotii^ the Ktudirfrarturrs. 503 

At lir.'iiul Rapids, Midi., wc fouiul a j^rowin^ intensity 
in the public interest in the Kindergarten cause. The train- 
ing school, under the direction of Mrs. I,. \V. Treat, was a 
veritable electric battery, sentling out tlie most keenly active 
workers all over the city, each full of the wonder and beauty 
of her work. Tlure was no room for lukewarmness here. 
The Kindergartners visiting the city were made the guests of 
the class in the most cordial manner, and amid a glow of zeal 
and enthusiasm. We found thirteen Kindergartens uniler 
the Kindergarten Association of the city, which has not yet 
celebrated its second birthda)'. The Association has been 
offered the gift of an endoweil Kindergarten, to be located 
in the I'olish ilistrict. Three public schools have fully 
equijjped Kindergartens, and more arc to follow as soon as 
the grt)und is deemetl reaih'. There are two mission schools 
in the most hnvh* i)arts of the cit>', which are demonstrating 
the j)urif>ing efficacy of the work. In connection with these 
regular dei)artments of an association work there is an ex- 
tensive parents' study class, divided into a two >ears' course 
of work. Hut better than all this is the regular normal class 
of public school teachers, fort\' of whom are in the midst of 
a second )'ear of training. 

Muskegon, Mich., has long since been recognized as one 
of the pioneers in the successful establishment of public 
school Kintlergartens. There are nine of thci»e in full oper- 
ation at present, under the supervision of Miss Stella Wood. 
The cottages to accommodate the Kindergartens are an at- 
tractive feature in the scht)ol yanls, ami stanil beside the 
greater buildings as child to parent. 

The histor\- of the Kiiulergarten work in this country 
records many mistakes on the part of over-zealous workers, 
but little by little nobler efforts are following the effects of 
these experiences. It would seem that Detroit. Mich., has 
taken up the work in a most ilesirable manner. Liuler the 
supervision of Miss M. K. Coffin, assi.stant superintendent of 
the Detroit schools, ami Miss II. .*^cott, principal of the nor- 
mal school, large stuily classes have been called, to which all 
the teachers in the public schools, regardless of grade, are 

504 The koianis among tJic Ki)idcrgartiicr<.. 

summoned. At tliese classes the general principles of the 
Kindergarten s}'stem, as well as the practical application of 
the same, are discussed and thoroughly investigated, and as 
much as possible of the result is at once incorporated in the 
primary and other work. Mrs. L. \V. Treat, of Grand 
Rapids, is the director of this work, and at her last meeting 
with the teachers, February 3, was tendered a reception, 
which rexcalcd a most cordial appreciation of her work with 
them and their interest in progressi\'e methods. Escorted 
b\' Superintendent Robinson we \'isited sc\'eral of the schools, 
and found light, bright, homelike rooms e\-erywhere. The 
methods as a whole showed an intelligent application of the 
new in education. 

At Toledo, O., wc met Miss Mary Law and her sisters, 
who have for many }'ears conducted a private Kindergarten 
and training class, and enlarging b\' faithful work the pub- 
lic interest in the cause. At Columbus, O., we were wel- 
comed by a thriving Kindergarten association, which carries 
seven well-equipped Kindergartens and a large training 
school. Miss Alice Tyler and Miss f^lizabeth Osgood, for-r 
merly of St. Louis, superintend the work, and each directs 
a Kindergarten. The Columbus association has taken for 
its immediate work the pushing of a bill before the legisla- 
ture allowing by local option the opening of Kindergartens 
and changing the school age to four years. The ladies, with 
their i:)ersuasive influence, won the legal ear of the state 
assembly to such an extent that an important bill before the 
house was postponed that Mrs. L. W. Treat might present 
the foremost arguments in favor of the Kindergarten bill. 
Great enthusiasm followed the discussion, and the Colum- 
bus representative prophesied a favorable result. One of 
the i^rivileges of such a tour is to find so man\' schools where 
the home freedom and informalit}' reigns supreme. Miss 
Phelps' pri\'ate school in Columbus is one of these school 
homes. The entire famih- of a hundreil or more girls was 
invited to meet the visitors and listen to a descri[)tion of 
the Children's Building at the World's Fair. 

Certainh' of all the C(M'dial, hospitable people who know 

rih Ron litis nnioiig tlu Kiiuiiri^iirtinrs. 505 

h(»\v ip c.\|)rcs.s their jjcnuinc fcclinj^s in word and deed. 
none may equal the Kinderj^artners. When we realize the 
network of active [potent influence which these educators 
are weaving all o\er this fair country, we may well say a 
new ira is upon us. Amamk Hofkk. 

To be ( oiittnuiii. 

W ISDOM AND K\()\\I.KI)(;i:. 

Friend, wouldst know wh\-. as a rule. 
Hookish learning marks the fool? 

'Tis because, thoui^h once befriended, 
Learniui^'s pact with wisdom's eiuletl. 

No philosoph\- e'er throve 
In a nii^htcap !)>■ the stt)ve. 

Who the world would understand. 
In the worUl must bear a haml. 

If to wisdom you're not wed, 
Like the camel you re bested. 

Which has treasures rich, to bear 
Throui^h the desert everywhere. 

Hut the use must ever lack 
Of the jjoods upon its back. 

I'roni the (nnnan of HotU^nsUiit. 


F'kom an educational editorial in the Cliristlan Union is 
gleaned the fact that that journal severely criticizes the Kin- 
dergarten management of the World's Fair. We think the 
article shows either a very unreliable source of information 
on which to base its editorial note, or absolute ignorance 
concerning the circumstances. We prefer to think the for- 
mer, on account of the great ability and broad-rninded con- 
sideration that chc Christian Union has always given the sub- 
ject of the Kindergarten. From the organization of the 
Kindergarten of the Workingman's School of New York 
city, through all of its resulting Kindergarten work in Brook- 
lyn, Jersey City, Hoboken, and elsewhere, the Cliristian Union 
has be